Conformal coating

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Conformal coating material is a thin polymeric film which conforms to the contours of a printed circuit board to protect the board's components. Typically applied at 25-250 μm[1](micrometers) thickness, it is applied to electronic circuitry to protect against moisture, dust, chemicals, and temperature extremes.

Coatings can be applied in a number of ways, including brushing, spraying, dispensing and dip coating. Furthermore, a number of materials can be used as a conformal coating, such as acrylics, silicones, urethanes and parlyene. Each has their own characteristics, making them preferred for certain environments and manufacturing scenarios. Most circuit board assembly firms coat assemblies with a layer of transparent conformal coating, which is lighter and easier to inspect than potting.[2]

Contents

Reasons for use[edit]

Conformal coatings are used to protect electronic components from the environmental factors they are exposed to. Examples of these factors include moisture, dust, salt, chemicals, temperature changes and mechanical abrasion. Successful conformal coating will prevent the board from corroding.[1] More recently, conformal coatings are being used to reduce the formation of whiskers,[3] and can also prevent current bleed between closely positioned components.

Conformal coatings are breathable, allowing trapped moisture in electronic boards to escape while maintaining protection from contamination. These coatings are not sealants, and prolonged exposure to vapors will cause transmission and degradation to occur. There are typically four classes of conformal coatings: Acrylic, Urethane, Silicone, and Varnish. While each has its own specific physical and chemical properties each are able to perform the following functions:

  • Insulation: Allowing closer conductor spacing
  • Eliminate the need for complex enclosures
  • Minimal effect on component weight
  • Completely protect the assembly against chemical and corrosive attack
  • Eliminate performance degradation due to environmental hazards
  • Minimize environmental stress on a PCB assembly [4]

Applications[edit]

Precision analog circuitry may suffer degraded accuracy if insulating surfaces become contaminated with ionic substances such as fingerprint residues, which can become weakly conductive in the presence of moisture. (The classic symptom of micro-contamination on an analog circuit board is sudden changes in performance at high humidity, for example when a technician breathes on it). A suitably chosen material coating can reduce the effects of mechanical stress and vibrations on the circuit and its ability to perform in extreme temperatures.

For example, in a chip-on-board assembly process, a silicon die is mounted on the board with an adhesive or a soldering process, then electrically connected by wire bonding, typically with .001-inch-diameter gold or aluminum wire. The chip and the wire are delicate, so they are encapsulated in a version of conformal coating called "glob top." This prevents accidental contact from damaging the wires or the chip. Another use of conformal coating[5] is to increase the voltage rating of a dense circuit assembly. An insulating coating can withstand a much stronger electric field than air, particularly at high altitude.

With the exception of parylene, most organic coatings are readily penetrated by water molecules. A coating preserves the performance of electronics primarily by preventing ionizable contaminants such as salts from reaching circuit nodes, and combining there with water to form a microscopically thin electrolyte film. For this reason, coating is far more effective if all surface contamination is removed first, using a highly repeatable industrial process such as vapor degreasing or semi-aqueous washing. Extreme cleanliness also improves adhesion. Pinholes defeat the purpose of the coating, because a contaminant film would make contact with circuit nodes and form undesired conductive paths.

Coating methods[edit]

The coating material can be applied by various methods, including brushing, spraying, dipping or selectively coating by robots. Different methods of curing and drying are available depending on the conformal coating material. Nearly all modern conformal coatings contain a fluorescent dye to aid in coating coverage inspection.[6]

Brush coating[edit]

This works by flow coating the material onto the board and is suitable for low volume application, finishing and repair. The finish tends to be cosmetically inferior and can be subject to many defects such as bubbles.[7] The coating also tends to be thicker unless skilled operators apply the coating.[8]

Spray application coating[edit]

Conformal Coating Spray booth

This coating can be completed with a spray aerosol or dedicated spray booth with spray gun and is suitable for low and medium volume processing.[9] The quality of the surface finish can be superior to all other methods when a skilled operator completes the process, provided that the circuit board is clean and the coating has no adhesion problems. The coating application may be limited due to 3D effects. Masking requirements are more of a shield nature rather than a barrier, since there is less penetration. The lack of penetration can be a problem where the coating is desired to penetrate beneath devices.

Spray application can be one of the most cost-effective ways of applying conformal coating, as it can be done on the bench top for small rework and repair jobs. This method can be done in spray booths for medium scale production.[8]

One of the key attributes of atomised spraying is giving excellent tip coverage to components. When conformal coatings are applied to a PCB they have a tendency to slump. The first layer of a coating can give a thin edge on the corner of components. This can be improved with a second coat by double dipping or brushing, but this is a repeat process and may not be acceptable. To eliminate this problem atomised spraying can be used.

Conformal coating dipping[edit]

Conformal Coating Dip System

This coating is a highly repeatable process. If the printed circuit board (PCB) is designed correctly, it can be the highest volume technique.[9] The coating penetrates everywhere, including beneath devices, hence masking must be perfect to prevent leakage. Therefore, many PCBs are unsuitable for dipping due to design.

The issue of thin tip coverage where the material slumps around sharp edges can be a problem, especially in a condensing atmosphere. This tip coverage effect can be eliminated by either double dipping the PCB or using several thin layers of atomised spraying to achieve good coverage without exceeding coating thickness recommendations. A combination of the two techniques may also be used.

Selective coating by machine[edit]

This method is the best choice for high volume applications. It is a fast and accurate way of applying the coating to the exact areas of the board where it is required.[10]

It works by using a needle and atomised spray applicator, non-atomised spray or ultrasonic valve technologies that can move above the circuit board and dispense / spray the coating material in select areas. Flow rates and material viscosity are programmed into the computer system controlling the applicator so that the desired coating thickness is maintained.[11] This method is effective for large volumes, provided that the PCBs are designed for the method. There are limitations in the select coat process[12] like the other processes, such as capillary effects around low profile connectors which suck up the coating accidentally. A skilled operator is required.

The process quality of dip or dam-and-fill coating and non-atomised spray technology can be improved by applying then releasing a vacuum while the assembly is submerged in the liquid resin. This forces the liquid resin into all crevices, eliminating uncoated surfaces in interior cavities.

The differences in application methods can be seen in a comparison presentation.[13] Choice of method is dependent on the complexity of the substrate to be coated, the required coating performance, and the throughput requirements.

Curing and drying[edit]

Solvent and water-based conformal coatings[edit]

For standard solvent-based acrylics, air drying (film forming) is the normal process except where speed is essential. Then heat curing can be used, using batch or inline ovens with conveyors and using typical cure profiles.[14][15]

Water-based conformal coatings can be treated in the same manner, but with more care in the heat application due to longer drying times.

UV conformal coatings[edit]

UV Inline Conveyor for curing conformal coatings

UV curing of conformal coatings is becoming important for high volume users in fields such as automotive and consumer electronics.[16]

This increase in the popularity of UV curable conformal coatings is due to its rapid cure speed, ease of processing, environmental friendliness and thermal cycling resistance.[17]

UV conformal coatings can be cured with arc and microwave lamps.

Thickness and measurement[edit]

Coating material (after curing) should have a thickness of 30–130 μm (0.0012–0.0051 in) when using acrylic resin, epoxy resin, or urethane resin. For silicone resin, the coating thickness recommended by the IPC standards is 50–210 μm (0.0020–0.0083 in).

There are several methods for measuring coating thickness, and they fall into two categories: wet film and dry film.

Wet film conformal coating measurement[edit]

Wet film gauge for Conformal Coating Thickness Measurement

The wet film method ensures quality control while the coating is still wet.

Applying too much coating can be expensive. Also, wet film measurements are useful for conformal coatings where the dry film thickness can only be measured destructively or where over-application of conformal coating is a problem.

The wet film gauges are applied to the wet conformal coating; the teeth indicate the coating thickness. The dry film thickness can then be calculated from the measurement.

Dry film conformal coating thickness measurement[edit]

Dry film Conformal Coating Thickness Measurement

An alternative to wet film measurement is by using using eddy currents. The system works by placing the test head on the surface of the conformal coating. The measurement is almost instantaneous and provides an immediate repeatable result for thickness measurement.

Test coupons are the ideal method for measuring coating thickness, and can be archived as a physical record. Apply the coating to test coupons at the same time as the circuit boards provides a permanent record of coating thickness.

Thicker coatings or better-applied coatings may be required when liquid water is present due to possible pinhole formation in the coating[7] or when the coating is too thin on sharp edges of components due to poor application. This is considered a defect and can be eliminated with appropriate steps and training. These techniques effectively "pot" or "conform" to components by completely covering them.[citation needed]

Conformal coating inspection[edit]

Conformal Coating Inspection Booth
Conformal Coating AOI

Traditionally, conformal coating inspection has been done manually. A typical situation is an inspector sitting in a booth, examining each PCB under a high intensity long wave UV lamp. The inspector checks for proper workmanship and that standards are met.

Recent developments in conformal coating automated optical inspection (AOI) have begun to address these manual processes and issues. Automated Inspection Systems can be camera- or scanner-based, hence the technology can be matched to the project.

Conformal coating selection[edit]

The selection of conformal coating material needs to be done carefully, and in relation to the application method.[18][19] Incorrect selection can affect long term reliability of the circuit board, and can cause processing and cost problems.

The most common[citation needed] standards for conformal coating are IPC A-610[20] and IPC-CC-830.[21] These standards list indications of good and bad coverage and describe various failure mechanisms such as dewetting[22] and orange peel.[23]

Another type of coating called parylene is applied with a vacuum deposition process at ambient temperature. Film coatings from 0.100 to 76 μm can be applied in a single operation. The advantage of parylene coatings is that they cover hidden surfaces and other areas where spray and needle application are not possible. Coating thickness is uniform, even on irregular surfaces. Desired contact points such as battery contacts or connectors must be covered with an air-tight mask to prevent the parylene from coating the contacts. Applying parylene is a batch process which does not lend itself to high volume processing. The cost per PCB can be high due to high capital investment and the cost per batch.

Coating chemistries[edit]

There are many chemistries of conformal coatings available. It is important to choose a coating chemistry meeting the application needs. Below are five common attributes for each coating chemistry.[24][25]

Acrylic[edit]

  • Ease of rework
  • Simple drying process
  • Good moisture resistance
  • High fluorescence level
  • Ease of viscosity adjustment

Epoxy[edit]

  • Useful to about 150C [302F]
  • Harder durometer, abrasion resistance
  • CTE closer to epoxy PCB substrate
  • Higher Tg (Glass transition)
  • Good dielectric properties

Polyurethane[edit]

  • Good dielectric properties
  • Good moisture resistance
  • Solvent resistance
  • Less reversion potential
  • Abrasion resistance

Silicones[edit]

  • Stable over wide temperature range (in general, -40C to 200C)[-40F to 392F]
  • Flexible, provides dampening and impact protection
  • Good moisture resistance
  • High dielectric strength
  • Low surface energy for better wetting

Fluorinated or non Fluorinated - Poly-Para-Xylylene (Parylene)[edit]

  • Excellent uniformity regardless of part geometry
  • Chemical inertness
  • Minimal added mass and low outgassing
  • Low environmental impact process
  • Low dielectric constant

Amorphous Fluoropolymer[edit]

  • Low dielectric constant
  • High glass transition temperature
  • Low surface energy
  • Low water absorption
  • Solvent resistance

The basics of conformal coating processing are found in a presentation available at:[26]


Conformal Coating Identification[edit]

There are several methods to identifying the type of conformal coating that has been applied[27]. These methods are detailed below.

Identification Using a Label[edit]

One way to identify the coating is to inspect the board and see if an IPC or JEDEC label was placed on the board. Look for the corresponding coating designation as AR, ER, SR, UR, or XY to see which coating was used. If there’s no label, you can perform some material testing to continue your ID process.

Identification with Material Testing[edit]

You can determine the best removal method without a full-on ID.   Each conformal coating has unique properties which can be testing to help you ID it.

Testing Hardness[edit]

  • Penetration test in a non-critical area to determine relative hardness. The harder the coating, the more suitable it is for pure abrasive techniques. The softer and gummier the coatings are will be more suitable to the brushing removal procedures.

Testing Transparency[edit]

  • Transparent coatings are usually more suitable for removal than the opaque type. Removal methods used with opaque coatings must be far more controllable and less sensitive to damaging the covered components and printed board surfaces and are usually slower.

Testing Solubility[edit]

  • Most coatings are soluble; however, the solvent required to dissolve a specific coating may also attack the board and/or components. Unless directed by other maintenance actions, the solubility test and solvent use should be limited to isopropyl alcohol. Test coat the surface in a noncritical area by brushing on a small quantity and observing the solubility action.
  • CAUTION Printed board assemblies should not be immersed in harsh solvents

Testing Thermal Removal[edit]

  • Use a thermal parting device with controlled heating and without a cutting edge to determine whether the coating can be thermally removed. Start with a low temperature, approximately 100°C, and increase the temperature until the coating is removed. If the coating flows or gums up, the temperature is too hot or the coating is not suitable for thermal removal.

Testing Strip-ability[edit]

  • Carefully slit the coating with a sharp blade in a non-critical area and try to peel back from the surface to determine if this method is feasible. Due to the adhesion required of coating materials, stripping techniques without chemical aids are usually very limited.

Testing Thickness[edit]

  • Coating thickness is determined by visual inspection. Thin coatings show sharp outlines of the components and almost no fillet at intersection points of part leads to the circuit board. Thick coatings reduce these sharp outlines and show fillets where part leads intersect with the board. Coatings thinner than 0.064 cm [0.025 in] are considered thin. Coatings thicker than 0.064 cm [0.025 in] are classed as thick.

Additionally, the following tests can be used to identify coating type by following the numbered steps in the table below.[28]

Test Yes No
1 Does the coating feel soft, rubbery, or spongy? 2 3
2 Does the coating have a noticeable reaction to heat? Polyurethane 4
3 Is there a reaction to alcohol? Acrylic 5
4 Is the coating thick and does it have a dull surface? 6 Paraxylyene
5 Does the reaction form white powder? Epoxy Polyurethane

Material considerations[edit]

Selecting the correct coating material is one of the process engineer's most critical decisions. This criteria includes:[29]

  • What is being protected against? (e.g., moisture, chemicals)
  • What temperature range will the electrical device encounter?
  • What are the physical, electrical, and chemical requirements for the coating material itself?
  • Electrical, chemical, and mechanical compatibility with the parts and substances to be coated (for instance, does it need to match the coefficient of expansion of chip components?)

Answers will determine the suitability of a particular material, be it acrylic, polyurethane, silicone, epoxy, etc. Process, production and commercial issues will then enter the equation:

  • How easily can the material be reworked once applied?[30]
  • How fast does the material dry (cure)?[31]
  • How fast can the material be applied and dried (throughput time)?[31]
  • What type of process and equipment is necessary to achieve the required coating quality (uniformity and repeatability)?[32]
  • Price of the material.[citation needed]
  • Quality of the material supplied (two acrylic material manufacturers will not produce equal quality of material).[citation needed]

Conformal Coating Removal[edit]

Conformal coating removal is commonly used in the testing and development of circuitry when coating needs to be applied then removed to alter the circuitry or when a failure occurs with the coating itself. There are several reasons [33] why the initial coating process can fail leading to the need to remove the coating for re-application or diagnostic purposes.

Recommended Removal Methods for Specific Types of Conformal Coating[edit]

Once a conformal coating type has been identified, a removal method can be selected however it is important to note that some removal methods are more effective than others depending on the conformal coating being removed.[34]

Acrylic[edit]

For Acrylic coatings, use the following methods which are ordered by what’s most commonly used.

  • Chemical Solvent Method
  • Thermal Removal Method
  • Scrapping and Grinding Method
  • Micro-Blasting Method

Urethane[edit]

For Urethane removal, use these.

  • Thermal Method
  • Grinding and Scraping Method
  • Solvent Method
  • Micro-Blasting Method

Parylene[edit]

For Parylene, use the following methods.

  • Micro-Blasting Method
  • Thermal Method
  • Grinding and Scraping Method

Epoxy[edit]

For Epoxy Resins, use the following.

  • Thermal Removal Method
  • Grinding and Scraping Method
  • Micro-Blasting Method

Silicone[edit]

For Thin Silicone coatings, use these methods.[edit]
  • Chemical Solvent Method
  • Thermal Method
  • Grinding and Scraping Method
  • Micro-Blasting Method
For think Silicone coatings, use the following.[edit]
  • Peeling Method
  • Grinding and Scraping Method
  • Micro-Blasting Method

Chemical Solvent Method for Conformal Coating Removal[edit]

  • Highly effective for removal of acrylic, urethane, and silicone printed circuit board coatings.
  • A detailed process and guide for removal can be found in section 2.3.2 of the Circuit Technology Center’s (CTC) guide for coating removal
  • Typically, you can prep the removal area using Kapton tape and apply the solvent using a foam swab as seen below.

 Removal Procedure[edit]

  1. Apply High-Temperature Tape to outline the area where the coating needs to be removed. Dip the end of a foam swab in stripping solution and apply a small amount to the coating to be removed.

Note[edit]

Since various substances may be used as coatings, the time required for a given coating to dissolve or soften will vary. Reapply solvent several times as most solvents evaporate rapidly.

  1. Rub the treated surface carefully with a brush or wood stick to dislodge the coating. A wedge-shaped applicator tip, knife, or heated blade may be effective in removing some coatings, particularly polyurethanes.
  2. Neutralize or clean the stripped area and dry.

Peeling Method for Conformal Coating Removal[edit]

  • Normally used for RTV silicone or thick rubber coatings
  • Use of a dull knife or blade is used to peel the coating from the circuit board.

Removal Procedure[edit]

  1. Slit and peel off the coating material with a dull knife or heated dull blade.
  2. Repeat as needed until the required material is removed.

Thermal Method for Conformal Coating Removal[edit]

  • Thermal removal involves the use of a low-temperature heat to gently burn and melt the coating.
  • You’ll need to make sure to use a controlled low-temperature tool so as not to damage the PCB so the use of a soldering iron is not recommended.
  • Be wary as the fumes created by the burnout can be very harmful. Uses proper ventilation or work under a Fume Hood for safety.

Removal Procedure[edit]

  1. Select an appropriate thermal parting tip to suit the workpiece configuration. Set the nominal tip temperature, using the manufacturer’s recommended procedure.
  2. Apply the thermal parting tip to the coating, using a light pressure. The coating material will either soften or granulate. Polyurethanes will soften and epoxies will granulate. The tip temperature should be regulated to a point where it will effectively “break down” the coating without scorching or charring.
  3. Gradually reduce the coating thickness around the component body without contacting the board surface

Clip leads of component parts that are known to be faulty, thus permitting removal of the part body separately from leads and solder joints. Low-pressureair or a brush should be used to remove the loosened coating.

  1. Once sufficient coating has been removed, leaving only a small bonded joint between the part body and printed board, heat the component body with the thermal parting tool or hot air jet to weaken the bond beneath the component.
  2. Lift the component body free of the printed board using small pliers.

Note[edit]

Twist the component prior to removal to shear any remaining epoxy bond to the printed board surface.

  1. Once the component body has been removed from the board surface, the remaining coating material can be removed by additional thermal parting. The remaining leads and solder joints are then removed by appropriate solder extraction means.

Grinding and Scraping Method for Conformal Coating Removal[edit]

  • Be careful as the use of abrasion cause excessive electrostatic discharge.
  • The coating can be scraped away with a #16 blade knife
  • Thin, hard coatings can be ground away using a rubber abrasive with a rotary-style tool or micro motor.
  • Soft coatings can be ground away using a rotary brush.

Removal Procedure[edit]

  1. Clean the area.
  2. Insert an abrasive tip into the handheld drill. Abrade away the damaged or unwanted coating. Move the tool from side to side to prevent damage to the circuit board surface.
  3. Remove all loose material and clean the area

Micro-Blasting Method for Conformal Coating Removal[edit]

In the event the acrylic can’t be removed using the previous three methods, a Micro-Blaster can be used to carefully get rid of the conformal coating.

  • Coating removal using a micro blaster involves a fine abrasive powder being projected onto the coating to flake-off the material.
  • Make sure to use a micro blaster with ESD capabilities.
  • Procedure by CTR guide section 2.3.6

Removal Procedure[edit]

  1. Clean the area.
  2. Select the appropriate abrasive blasting powder and nozzle size. Set the air pressure at the desired setting per equipment manufacturer’s instructions.
  3. Apply masking tape or other masking material to protect the circuit board surface as needed. Masking materials can consist of tapes, curable liquid masks or reusable stencils.
  4. If the circuit board has static sensitive components, insert the entire circuit board into a shielded bag. Only the area needing rework should be exposed. Ground the circuit board to dissipate static charges
  5. Insert the circuit board into the blasting chamber and blast away the damaged or unwanted coating\solder mask. Slowly move the nozzle along the area where the coating is to be removed.
  6. Blow off the blasting dust and clean the area.


References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "What is Conformal Coating?". www.electrolube.com. Retrieved 11 June 2015.
  2. ^ Dillon, Jonathan, Design Practices for Low-Power External Oscillators (PDF), retrieved 2019-03-04
  3. ^ Lyudmyla Panashchenko. "Whisker Resistant Metal Coatings" (PDF). NEPP NASA. Retrieved 23 October 2013.
  4. ^ "Choosing the Right Conformal Coating". Miller-Stephenson Chemical Co.
  5. ^ "SMT007 Magazine - SMT-May2018". iconnect007.uberflip.com. Retrieved 2018-09-05.
  6. ^ "How do I apply Conformal Coating?". www.electrolube.com.
  7. ^ a b "Common failure mechanisms in conformal coating: Pin holes,Bubbles and Foam" (PDF). Conformalcoating.co.uk. Retrieved 2010-08-27.
  8. ^ a b "Conformal Coating Application". www.electrolube.com. Retrieved 2015-06-11.
  9. ^ a b "Setting up a Conformal Coating Spray Facility" (PDF). Conformalcoating.co.uk. Retrieved 2010-08-27.
  10. ^ "Conformal Coating Applications". www.electrolube.com. Retrieved 2015-06-11.
  11. ^ "Conformal Coating Thickness Measurement Systems". Conformalcoating.co.uk. Retrieved 2010-08-27.
  12. ^ "Technical Bulletin September" (PDF). Conformalcoating.co.uk. Retrieved 2010-08-27.
  13. ^ "Conformal Coating Application Techniques". Slideshare.net. Retrieved 2010-07-26.
  14. ^ "Conformal Coating Curing Methods". www.electrolube.com.
  15. ^ "Thermal profile cure process of a typical solvent based conformal coating" (PDF). Conformalcoating.co.uk. Retrieved 2010-08-27.
  16. ^ "Conformal Coating Curing Methods". www.electrolube.com.
  17. ^ "Bulletin April" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-07-26.
  18. ^ "Selection and Best Practice". www.electrolube.com. Electrolube. Retrieved 11 June 2015.
  19. ^ "Technical Bulletin May" (PDF). Conformalcoating.co.uk. Retrieved 2010-08-27.
  20. ^ "Acceptability of Electronic Assemblies" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-08-27.
  21. ^ "Qualification and Performance of Electrical Insulating Compound for Printed Wiring Assemblies" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-07-26.
  22. ^ "Common failure mechanisms in conformal coating: De-wetting" (PDF). Conformalcoating.co.uk. Retrieved 2010-08-27.
  23. ^ "Bulletin Jan 09 Conformal Coating failure mechanisms Orange Peel" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-07-26.
  24. ^ "Conformal Coating Comparison Guide". ElectronicCoating.com. Retrieved 2010-08-18.
  25. ^ "Conformal Coating Types". www.electrolube.com. Retrieved 2015-06-11.
  26. ^ "Basic Concepts Of Conformal Coating". Slideshare.net. Retrieved 2010-07-26.
  27. ^ "Conformal Removal, Identification of Conformal Coating" (PDF).
  28. ^ "2.3.1 Coating Removal, Identification of Coating". www.circuitrework.com. Retrieved 2019-06-11.
  29. ^ "{title}" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-01-05. Retrieved 2013-03-28.
  30. ^ "Technical Bulletin June" (PDF). Conformalcoating.co.uk. Retrieved 2010-08-27.
  31. ^ a b "Conformal_coating_drying_and_curing_FAQs". Conformalcoating.co.uk. Retrieved 2010-07-26.
  32. ^ "Technical Bulletin November" (PDF). Conformalcoating.co.uk. Retrieved 2010-08-27.
  33. ^ Horn, Sean. "6 Conformal Coating Defects (And How to Best Avoid Them)". blog.paryleneconformalcoating.com. Retrieved 2019-06-11.
  34. ^ Frey, Nathan (2018-08-15). "The Ultimate Guide for Conformal Coating Removal". Vaniman. Retrieved 2019-06-11.

External links[edit]