Congener (beverages)

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In the alcoholic beverages industry, congeners are substances, other than the desired type of alcohol, ethanol, produced during fermentation. These substances include small amounts of chemicals such as methanol and other alcohols (known as fusel alcohols), acetone, acetaldehyde, esters, tannins, and aldehydes (e.g. furfural). Congeners are responsible for most of the taste and aroma of distilled alcoholic beverages, and contribute to the taste of non-distilled drinks.[1] It has been suggested that these substances contribute to the symptoms of a hangover.[2][3] Brandy, rum and red wine have the highest amount of congeners, while vodka and beer have the least.

Congeners are the basis of alcohol congener analysis, a sub-discipline of forensic toxicology which determines what a person drank.

There is some evidence that high-congener drinks induce more severe hangovers,[4][5] but the effect is not well studied and is still secondary to the total amount of ethanol consumed.[6]

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References[edit]

  1. ^ Understanding Congeners in Wine, Wines & Vines. Accessed 20 April 2011.
  2. ^ Whisky hangover 'worse than vodka', a study suggests, BBC News. Accessed 19 December 2009.
  3. ^ Rohsenow D. J.; Howland J.; Arnedt J. T.; Almeida A. B.; Greece J.; Minsky S.; Kempler C. S.; Sales S. (1 March 2010). "Intoxication with bourbon versus vodka: effects on hangover, sleep, and next-day neurocognitive performance in young adults". Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research. 34 (3): 509–18. doi:10.1111/j.1530-0277.2009.01116.x. PMC 3674844. PMID 20028364.
  4. ^ Kisanuki, A; Tei, C; Minagoe, S; Natsugoe, K; Shibata, K; Yutsudo, T; Otsuji, Y; Abe, S; Arima, S; Tanaka, H (September 1989). "[Continuous wave Doppler echocardiographic evaluations of the severity of mitral regurgitation]". Journal of Cardiology. 19 (3): 831–8. PMID 2641776.
  5. ^ Rohsenow, DJ; Howland, J; Arnedt, JT; Almeida, AB; Greece, J; Minsky, S; Kempler, CS; Sales, S (1 March 2010). "Intoxication with bourbon versus vodka: effects on hangover, sleep, and next-day neurocognitive performance in young adults". Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research. 34 (3): 509–18. doi:10.1111/j.1530-0277.2009.01116.x. PMC 3674844. PMID 20028364.
  6. ^ Rohsenow, DJ; Howland, J (June 2010). "The role of beverage congeners in hangover and other residual effects of alcohol intoxication: a review". Current Drug Abuse Reviews. 3 (2): 76–9. doi:10.2174/1874473711003020076. PMID 20712591.

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