Conjunctiva

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Conjunctiva
Gray883.png
The upper half of a sagittal section through the front of the eyeball. (Label for 'Conjunctiva' visible at center-left)
Gray869.png
Horizontal section of the eyeball. (Conjunctiva labeled at upper left)
Details
Part ofEye
Arterylacrimal artery, anterior ciliary arteries
Nervesupratrochlear nerve
Identifiers
Latintunica conjunctiva
MeSHD003228
TA98A15.2.07.047
TA26836
FMA59011
Anatomical terminology
Image of a human eye showing the blood vessels of the bulbar conjunctiva
Hyperaemia of the superficial bulbar conjunctiva blood vessels

The conjunctiva is a tissue that lines the inside of the eyelids and covers the sclera (the white of the eye). It is composed of unkeratinized, stratified squamous epithelium with goblet cells, and stratified columnar epithelium. The conjunctiva is highly vascularised, with many microvessels easily accessible for imaging studies.

Structure[edit]

The conjunctiva is typically divided into three parts:

Part Area
Palpebral or tarsal conjunctiva Lines the eyelids
Bulbar or ocular conjunctiva Covers the eyeball, over the anterior sclera: This region of the conjunctiva is tightly bound to the underlying sclera by Tenon's capsule and moves with the eyeball movements. The average thickness of the bulbar conjuntival membrane is 33 microns.[1]
Fornix conjunctiva Forms the junction between the bulbar and palpebral conjunctivas: It is loose and flexible, allowing the free movement of the lids and eyeball.[2]

Blood supply[edit]

Blood to the bulbar conjunctiva is primarily derived from the ophthalmic artery. The blood supply to the palpebral conjunctiva (the eyelid) is derived from the external carotid artery. However, the circulations of the bulbar conjunctiva and palpebral conjunctiva are linked, so both bulbar conjunctival and palpebral conjunctival vessels are supplied by both the ophthalmic artery and the external carotid artery, to varying extents.[3]

Nerve supply[edit]

Sensory innervation of the conjunctiva is divided into four parts:[4]

Area Nerve
Superior
Inferior Infraorbital nerve
Lateral Lacrimal nerve (with contribution from zygomaticofacial nerve)
Circumcorneal Long ciliary nerves

Microanatomy[edit]

The conjunctiva consists of unkeratinized, both stratified squamous and stratified columnar epithelium, with interspersed goblet cells.[5] The epithelial layer contains blood vessels, fibrous tissue, and lymphatic channels.[5] Accessory lacrimal glands in the conjunctiva constantly produce the aqueous portion of tears.[5] Additional cells present in the conjunctival epithelium include melanocytes, T and B cell lymphocytes.[5]

Function[edit]

The conjunctiva helps lubricate the eye by producing mucus and tears, although a smaller volume of tears than the lacrimal gland.[6] It also contributes to immune surveillance and helps to prevent the entrance of microbes into the eye.

Clinical significance[edit]

Disorders of the conjunctiva and cornea are common sources of eye complaints, in particular because the surface of the eye is exposed to various external influences and is especially susceptible to trauma, infections, chemical irritation, allergic reactions, and dryness.

Bulbar conjunctival microvasculature[edit]

Vessel morphology[edit]

The bulbar conjunctival microvasculature contains arterioles, meta-arterioles, venules, capillaries, and communicating vessels. Vessel morphology varies greatly between subjects and even between regions of the individual eyes. In some subjects, arterioles and venules can be seen to run parallel with each other. Paired arterioles are generally smaller than corresponding venules.[21] The average bulbar conjunctival vessel has been reported to be 15.1 microns, which reflects the high number of small capillaries, which are typically <10 microns in diameter.[22]

Blood oxygen dynamics[edit]

The bulbar conjunctival microvasculature is in close proximity to ambient air, thus oxygen diffusion from ambient air strongly influences their blood oxygen saturation. Because of oxygen diffusion, hypoxic bulbar conjunctival vessels will rapidly reoxygenate (in under 10 seconds) when exposed to ambient air (i.e. when the eyelid is open). Closing the eyelid stops this oxygen diffusion by placing a barrier between the bulbar conjunctival microvessels and ambient air.[23]

Blood vessel imaging methods[edit]

The bulbar conjunctival microvessels are typically imaged with a high-magnification slit lamp with green filters.[24][25][26] With such high-magnification imaging systems, it is possible to see groups of individual red blood cells flowing in vivo.[24] Fundus cameras may also be used for low-magnification wide field-of-view imaging of the bulbar conjunctival microvasculature. Modified fundus cameras have been used to measure conjunctival blood flow [27] and to measure blood oxygen saturation.[23] Fluorescein angiography has been used to study the blood flow of the bulbar conjunctiva and to differentiate the bulbar conjunctival and episcleral microcirculation.[28][29][30]

Vasodilation[edit]

The bulbar conjunctival microvasculature is known to dilate in response to several stimuli and external conditions, including allergens (e.g. pollen),[31] temperature,[32] time-of-day,[32] contact-lens wear,[12] and acute mild hypoxia.[23] Bulbar conjunctival vasodilation has also been shown to correlate changes in emotional state.[33]

Type 2 diabetes is associated with an increase in average bulbar conjunctival vessel diameter and capillary loss.[10][11] Sickle-cell anemia is associated with altered average vessel diameter.[13]

See also[edit]

Additional images[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Efron N, Al-Dossari M, Pritchard N (May 2009). "In vivo confocal microscopy of the bulbar conjunctiva". Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology. 37 (4): 335–44. doi:10.1111/j.1442-9071.2009.02065.x. PMID 19594558. S2CID 35398240.
  2. ^ Eye, human Encyclopædia Britannica
  3. ^ a b Pavlou AT, Wolff HG (July 1959). "The bulbar conjunctival vessels in occlusion of the internal carotid artery". A.M.A. Archives of Internal Medicine. 104 (1): 53–60. doi:10.1001/archinte.1959.00270070055007. PMID 13660526.
  4. ^ "Table 1: Summary of sensory nerve supply". Archived from the original on February 14, 2013. Retrieved July 31, 2016.
  5. ^ a b c d Goldman L (2012). Goldman's Cecil Medicine (24th ed.). Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders. p. 2426. ISBN 978-1437727883.
  6. ^ London Place Eye Center (2003). Conjunctivitis Archived 2004-08-08 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved July 25, 2004.
  7. ^ Khansari MM, Wanek J, Tan M, Joslin CE, Kresovich JK, Camardo N, et al. (April 2017). "Assessment of Conjunctival Microvascular Hemodynamics in Stages of Diabetic Microvasculopathy". Scientific Reports. 7: 45916. Bibcode:2017NatSR...745916K. doi:10.1038/srep45916. PMC 5384077. PMID 28387229.
  8. ^ Khansari MM, O'Neill W, Penn R, Chau F, Blair NP, Shahidi M (July 2016). "Automated fine structure image analysis method for discrimination of diabetic retinopathy stage using conjunctival microvasculature images". Biomedical Optics Express. 7 (7): 2597–606. doi:10.1364/BOE.7.002597. PMC 4948616. PMID 27446692.
  9. ^ Isenberg SJ, McRee WE, Jedrzynski MS (October 1986). "Conjunctival hypoxia in diabetes mellitus". Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science. 27 (10): 1512–5. PMID 3759367.
  10. ^ a b Fenton BM, Zweifach BW, Worthen DM (September 1979). "Quantitative morphometry of conjunctival microcirculation in diabetes mellitus". Microvascular Research. 18 (2): 153–66. doi:10.1016/0026-2862(79)90025-6. PMID 491983.
  11. ^ a b Ditzel J (1967-01-12). "The in vivo reactions of the small blood vessels to diabetes mellitus". Acta Medica Scandinavica. Supplementum. 476 (S476): 123–34. doi:10.1111/j.0954-6820.1967.tb12691.x. PMID 5236035.
  12. ^ a b Cheung AT, Ramanujam S, Greer DA, Kumagai LF, Aoki TT (2001-10-01). "Microvascular abnormalities in the bulbar conjunctiva of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus". Endocrine Practice. 7 (5): 358–63. doi:10.4158/EP.7.5.358. PMID 11585371.
  13. ^ a b Fink AI (1968-01-01). "Vascular changes in the bulbar conjunctiva associated with sickle-cell disease: some observations on fine structure". Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society. 66: 788–826. PMC 1310317. PMID 5720854.
  14. ^ Isenberg SJ, McRee WE, Jedrzynski MS, Gange SN, Gange SL (January 1987). "Effects of sickle cell anemia on conjunctival oxygen tension and temperature". Archives of Internal Medicine. 147 (1): 67–9. doi:10.1001/archinte.147.1.67. PMID 3800533.
  15. ^ Wanek J, Gaynes B, Lim JI, Molokie R, Shahidi M (August 2013). "Human bulbar conjunctival hemodynamics in hemoglobin SS and SC disease". American Journal of Hematology. 88 (8): 661–4. doi:10.1002/ajh.23475. PMC 4040222. PMID 23657867.
  16. ^ Harper RN, Moore MA, Marr MC, Watts LE, Hutchins PM (November 1978). "Arteriolar rarefaction in the conjunctiva of human essential hypertensives". Microvascular Research. 16 (3): 369–72. doi:10.1016/0026-2862(78)90070-5. PMID 748720.
  17. ^ Lee RE (August 1955). "Anatomical and physiological aspects of the capillary bed in the bulbar conjunctiva of man in health and disease". Angiology. 6 (4): 369–82. doi:10.1177/000331975500600408. PMID 13275744. S2CID 11589129.
  18. ^ "Conjunctivochalasis - Medical Definition". Medilexicon.com. Archived from the original on 2016-03-03. Retrieved 2012-11-13.
  19. ^ Hughes WL (January 1942). "Conjunctivochalasis". American Journal of Ophthalmology. 25 (1): 48–51. doi:10.1016/S0002-9394(42)93297-5.
  20. ^ Varde MA, Biswas J (January 2009). "Ocular surface tumors". Oman Journal of Ophthalmology. 2 (1): 1–2. doi:10.4103/0974-620X.48414. PMC 3018098. PMID 21234216.
  21. ^ Meighan SS (September 1956). "Blood vessels of the bulbar conjunctiva in man". The British Journal of Ophthalmology. 40 (9): 513–26. doi:10.1136/bjo.40.9.513. PMC 1324675. PMID 13364178.
  22. ^ Shahidi M, Wanek J, Gaynes B, Wu T (March 2010). "Quantitative assessment of conjunctival microvascular circulation of the human eye". Microvascular Research. 79 (2): 109–13. doi:10.1016/j.mvr.2009.12.003. PMC 3253734. PMID 20053367.
  23. ^ a b c MacKenzie LE, Choudhary TR, McNaught AI, Harvey AR (August 2016). "In vivo oximetry of human bulbar conjunctival and episcleral microvasculature using snapshot multispectral imaging" (PDF). Experimental Eye Research. 149: 48–58. doi:10.1016/j.exer.2016.06.008. PMID 27317046.
  24. ^ a b van Zijderveld R, Ince C, Schlingemann RO (May 2014). "Orthogonal polarization spectral imaging of conjunctival microcirculation". Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology = Albrecht von Graefes Archiv Fur Klinische und Experimentelle Ophthalmologie. 252 (5): 773–9. doi:10.1007/s00417-014-2603-9. PMID 24627137. S2CID 1595902.
  25. ^ Khansari MM, O'Neill W, Penn R, Chau F, Blair NP, Shahidi M (July 2016). "Automated fine structure image analysis method for discrimination of diabetic retinopathy stage using conjunctival microvasculature images". Biomedical Optics Express. 7 (7): 2597–606. doi:10.1364/BOE.7.002597. PMC 4948616. PMID 27446692.
  26. ^ Khansari MM, Wanek J, Felder AE, Camardo N, Shahidi M (February 2016). "Automated Assessment of Hemodynamics in the Conjunctival Microvasculature Network". IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging. 35 (2): 605–11. doi:10.1109/TMI.2015.2486619. PMC 4821773. PMID 26452274.
  27. ^ Jiang H, Ye Y, DeBuc DC, Lam BL, Rundek T, Tao A, et al. (January 2013). "Human conjunctival microvasculature assessed with a retinal function imager (RFI)". Microvascular Research. 85: 134–7. doi:10.1016/j.mvr.2012.10.003. PMC 3534915. PMID 23084966.
  28. ^ Meyer PA (1988-01-01). "Patterns of blood flow in episcleral vessels studied by low-dose fluorescein videoangiography". Eye. 2 ( Pt 5) (5): 533–46. doi:10.1038/eye.1988.104. PMID 3256492.
  29. ^ Ormerod LD, Fariza E, Webb RH (1995-01-01). "Dynamics of external ocular blood flow studied by scanning angiographic microscopy". Eye. 9 ( Pt 5) (5): 605–14. doi:10.1038/eye.1995.148. PMID 8543081.
  30. ^ Meyer PA, Watson PG (January 1987). "Low dose fluorescein angiography of the conjunctiva and episclera". The British Journal of Ophthalmology. 71 (1): 2–10. doi:10.1136/bjo.71.1.2. PMC 1041073. PMID 3814565.
  31. ^ Horak F, Berger U, Menapace R, Schuster N (September 1996). "Quantification of conjunctival vascular reaction by digital imaging". The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 98 (3): 495–500. doi:10.1016/S0091-6749(96)70081-7. PMID 8828525.
  32. ^ a b Duench S, Simpson T, Jones LW, Flanagan JG, Fonn D (June 2007). "Assessment of variation in bulbar conjunctival redness, temperature, and blood flow". Optometry and Vision Science. 84 (6): 511–6. doi:10.1097/OPX.0b013e318073c304. PMID 17568321. S2CID 943038.
  33. ^ Provine RR, Nave-Blodgett J, Cabrera MO (2013-11-01). "The Emotional Eye: Red Sclera as a Uniquely Human Cue of Emotion". Ethology. 119 (11): 993–998. doi:10.1111/eth.12144. ISSN 1439-0310.

External links[edit]