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Conocybe tenera.jpg
Conocybe tenera
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Fungi
Division: Basidiomycota
Class: Agaricomycetes
Order: Agaricales
Family: Bolbitiaceae
Genus: Conocybe
Type species
Conocybe tenera
(Schaeff.) Fayod (1889)
  • Raddetes P.Karst. (1887)
  • Pholiotella Speg. (1889)
  • Pholiotina Fayod (1889)
  • Pseudoconocybe Hongo (1967)

Conocybe is a genus of mushrooms with Conocybe tenera as the type species and at least 243 other species. There are at least 50 different species in North America.

Most have a long, thin fragile stipe and are delicate, growing in grasslands on dead moss, dead grass, sand dunes, decayed wood, and dung. Conocybe species generally prefer fertile soils in lawns and pastures and are found worldwide. Conocybes are sometimes called dunce caps or cone heads due to their conical or bell-shaped caps. Species of Conocybe that have a well-developed partial veil are placed in the subgenus Pholiotina. [2] Similar to Galerina, a Conocybe species can be distinguished microscopically by its cellular cap cuticle, which is filamentous (thread-like) in Galerina. It is easy to confuse Conocybe species for Galerina unless the microscopic nature of the cap cuticle is examined. Conocybes have cap cuticles resembling cobblestones. Conocybes can also be mistaken for species of Bolbitius.

Four species of Conocybe that are known to contain the hallucinogenic compounds psilocin and psilocybin are C. kuehneriana, C. siligineoides, C. cyanopus, and C. smithii.[3] Conocybe siligineoide was used for shamanic purposes by the Mazatecs of Oaxaca.[4]

Conocybe filaris is a common lawn mushroom that contains the same deadly toxins as the death cap.

Conocybe comes from the Greek cono meaning cone and cybe meaning head.

Selected species[edit]


  1. ^ "Synonymy: Conocybe Fayod". Species Fungorum. CAB International. Retrieved 2014-07-04. 
  2. ^ Rolf Singer
  3. ^ Guzmán G, Allen JW, Gartz J. (1998). "A worldwide geographical distribution of the neurotropic fungi, an analysis and discussion" (PDF). Annali del Museo civico di Rovereto 14: 198–280. 
  4. ^ Heim R, Wasson RG. (1958). Les champignons hallucinogènes du Mexique: études ethnologiques, taxinomiques, biologiques, physiologiques et chimiques (in French). Paris, France: Muséum national d'histoire naturelle. 
  5. ^ Watling R, Işiloğlu M, Sermenli HB. (2010). "Observations on the Bolbitiaceae 31. Conocybe volviradicata sp. nov.". Mycotaxon 114: 145–9. doi:10.5248/114.145. 

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