Pholiotina rugosa

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Pholiotina rugosa
Pholiotina rugosa 62373.jpg
Pholiotina rugosa
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Fungi
Division: Basidiomycota
Class: Agaricomycetes
Order: Agaricales
Family: Bolbitiaceae
Genus: Pholiotina
Species: P. rugosa
Binomial name
Pholiotina rugosa
(Peck) Singer (1946)
  • Pholiota rugosa Peck (1898)
  • pholiotina filaris var. rugosa (Peck) Singer (1950)
  • Conocybe rugosa (Peck) Watling (1981)
  • Agaricus togularius var. filarisFr. (1884)
  • Agaricus togularis var. filaris Fr. (1884)
  • Pholiotina filaris (Fr.) Peck (1908)
  • Pholiota togularis var. filaris (Fr.) J.E.Lange (1921)
  • Pholiota filaris (Fr.) Singer (1936)
  • Conocybe filaris (Fr.) Kühner (1935)
  • Galera vestita var. pusilla Quél. (1886)
  • Conocybe pusilla (Quél.) Romagn. (1937)
Pholiotina rugosa
View the Mycomorphbox template that generates the following list
Mycological characteristics
gills on hymenium

cap is conical

or flat
hymenium is adnexed
stipe has a ring

spore print is brown

to reddish-brown
ecology is saprotrophic
edibility: deadly

Pholiotina rugosa is a common lawn mushroom which is widely distributed and especially common in the Pacific Northwest. It also grows on woodchips, rich soil and compost.[4][5] It has been found in Europe, Asia and North America.[4][5] It contains the same mycotoxins as the death cap. It is more commonly known as Conocybe filaris as this is the name it is likely to appear under in field guides. However, Conocybe filaris is a junior synonym of Pholiotina rugosa.[5] Pholiotina rugosa has also been placed in the genus Conocybe, but its morphology and a 2013 molecular phylogenetics study place it in the genus Pholiotina.[6] Pholiotina fimicola, which grows on dung and rich soil in North America is a possible synonym.[4] Pholiotina arrhenii has also been considered a possible synonym, but a molecular phylogenetics study found it to be a distinct species.[5][6]


Pholiotina rugosa has a cap which is conical, expanding to flat, usually with an umbo. It is less than 3 cm across, has a smooth brown top, and the margin is often striate. The gills are rusty brown, close, and adnexed. The stalk is 2 mm thick and 1 to 6 cm long, smooth, and brown, with a prominent and movable ring. The spore print is rusty brown.


They have been shown to contain amatoxins, which are highly toxic to the liver and are responsible for many deaths by poisoning from mushrooms in the genera Amanita and Lepiota. They are sometimes mistaken for Psilocybe, especially Psilocybe cyanescens and Psilocybe subaeruginosa species due to their similar looking pileus (cap).

See also[edit]

List of deadly fungi


  1. ^ "Pholiotina filaris (Fr.) Singer (1936)". MycoBank. International Mycological Association. Retrieved 2015-10-18. 
  2. ^ "Pholiotina rugosa (Peck) Singer (1946)". MycoBank. International Mycological Association. Retrieved 2015-10-18. 
  3. ^ "Conocybe pusilla (Quél.) Romagn. (1937)". MycoBank. International Mycological Association. Retrieved 2015-10-18. 
  4. ^ a b c d Hausknecht A, Krisai-Greilhuber I, Voglmayr H (2004). "Type studies in North American species of Bolbitiaceae belonging to the genera Conocybe and Pholiotina". Österreichische Zeitschrift für Pilzkunde. 13: 153–235. 
  5. ^ a b c d e Hausknecht, Anton; Kalamees, Kuulo; Knudsen, Henning; Mukhin, Viktor (2009). "The genera Conocybe and Pholiotina (Agaricomycotina, Bolbitiaceae) in temperate Asia" (PDF). Folia Cryptogamica Estonica. 1345: 23–47. 
  6. ^ a b Tóth, Annamária; Hausknecht, Anton; Krisai-Greilhuber, Irmgard; Papp, Tamás; Vágvölgyi, Csaba Vágvölgyi; Nagy, László G. (2013). "Iteratively Refined Guide Trees Help Improving Alignment and Phylogenetic Inference in the Mushroom Family Bolbitiaceae". PLOS ONE. 8 (2). doi:10.1371/0056143. 

External links[edit]