Consequential mood

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"Consequential" redirects here. For other uses, see Consequence (disambiguation).

The consequential mood (abbreviated CNSQ, less often CNS[1] or CQO[2]) is a verb form used in some Eskimo–Aleut languages to mark dependend adverbial clauses for reason ('because') or time ('when'). Due to the broader meaning of the term mood in the context of Eskimo grammar, the consequential can be considered outside of the proper scope of grammatical mood.

In Central Alaskan Yup'ik, the consequential expresses the meaning 'because':[3]

nutar-qapiar-aur-llini-a-ata soup-i-lu-ki kenir-lar-a-nka
new-very-continue-apparently-CNSQ-3PL soup-make-SUB-R/3PL cook-HAB-TR.IND-1SG/3PL
'Because they were very fresh, I would cook them, making soup.'

In Central Siberian Yupik the two forms of the consequential mood are used only for the meanings 'when' and 'while', whereas 'because' is expressed by a particle added to the indicative.[4][5] Similarly, the consequential expresses the meaning of 'when' in North Alaskan Iñupiaq.[6]

The consequential suffix -nga- is a descendant of the Proto-Eskimoan derivational suffix -nga-, whose meaning is 'having Ved', 'having been Ved'.[3]


  1. ^ Nagai 2006.
  2. ^ de Reuse 1988, p. 686.
  3. ^ a b Mithun 2012.
  4. ^ Jacobson 2006, p. 149.
  5. ^ Jacobson 1990, p. 276.
  6. ^ Nagai 2006, p. 92.