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Conservative liberalism is a more positive and less radical variant of classical liberalism. Conservative liberal parties combine liberal policies with more traditional stances on social and ethical issues.
Robert Kraynak of The New Criterion offers this view of conservative liberalism: "Instead of following progressive liberalism, conservative liberals draw upon pre-modern sources, such as classical philosophy (with its ideas of virtue, the common good, and natural rights), Christianity (with its ideas of natural law, the social nature of man, and original sin), and ancient institutions (such as common law, corporate bodies, and social hierarchies). This gives their liberalism a conservative foundation. It means following Plato, Aristotle, St. Augustine, St. Thomas Aquinas, and Edmund Burke rather than Locke or Kant; it usually includes a deep sympathy for the politics of the Greek polis, the Roman Republic, and Christian monarchies. But, as realists, conservative liberals acknowledge that classical and medieval politics cannot be restored in the modern world. And, as moralists, they see that the modern experiment in liberty and self-government has the positive effect of enhancing human dignity as well as providing an opening (even in the midst of mass culture) for transcendent longings for eternity. At its practical best, conservative liberalism promotes ordered liberty under God and establishes constitutional safeguards against tyranny."
The roots of conservative liberalism are to be found at the beginning of the history of liberalism. Until the two world wars, in most European countries the political class was formed by conservative liberals, from Germany to Italy. The events such as World War I occurring after 1917 brought the more radical version of classical liberalism to a more conservative (i.e. more moderate) type of liberalism. Conservative liberal parties have tended to develop in those European countries where there was no strong secular conservative party and where the separation of church and state was less of an issue. In those countries, where the conservative parties were Christian-democratic, this conservative brand of liberalism developed.
In the European context conservative liberalism should not be confused with liberal conservatism, which is a variant of conservatism combining conservatives views with liberal policies in regards to the economy, social, and ethical issues.
Conservative-liberal parties worldwide
Current conservative-liberal parties
- Belgium: Libertarian, Direct, Democratic, People's Party
- Croatia: Croatian Social Liberal Party
- Denmark: Venstre—Liberal Party of Denmark
- Faroe Islands: Union Party,  People's Party
- Greenland: Feeling of Community
- Moldova: Liberal Party, Liberal Reformist Party
- Netherlands: People's Party for Freedom and Democracy
- Poland: Congress of the New Right
- Romania: National Liberal Party
- Thailand: Democrat Party
Parties with conservative-liberal factions
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- Argentina: Republican Proposal
- Australia: Liberal Party, Liberal National Party of Queensland, Country Liberal Party
- Belarus: United Civic Party
- Belgium: Open Flemish Liberals and Democrats, Reformist Movement
- Brazil: Progressive Party
- Canada: British Columbia Liberal Party, Saskatchewan Party, Coalition Avenir Québec
- Chile: National Renewal
- Czech Republic: Civic Democratic Party, Public Affairs, TOP 09
- Finland: National Coalition Party, Centre Party
- France: Union for a Popular Movement, namely The Reformers and The Free Right
- Germany: Free Democratic Party
- Ghana: New Patriotic Party
- Greece: New Democracy
- Honduras: Liberal Party of Honduras
- Iceland: Progressive Party
- Ireland: Fianna Fáil
- Italy: Forza Italia, Future and Freedom, Italian Liberal Party, Civic Choice
- Latvia: Unity
- Lithuania: Liberal and Centre Union, Liberal Movement
- Luxembourg: Democratic Party
- Maldives: Maldivian Democratic Party
- Mongolia: Democratic Party
- Netherlands: Party for Freedom, Proud of the Netherlands
- New Zealand: National Party
- Northern Cyprus: National Unity Party
- Norway: Conservative Party, Progress Party
- Philippines: Liberal Party
- Poland: Civic Platform
- Portugal: Social Democratic Party
- Romania: Democratic Liberal Party
- Serbia: United Regions of Serbia
- Slovakia: Most–Híd, Slovak Democratic and Christian Union – Democratic Party
- Slovenia: Slovenian Democratic Party
- Spain: People's Party, Democratic Convergence of Catalonia, Basque National Party
- Switzerland: FDP.The Liberals
- United Kingdom: Conservative Party
- United States: Republican Party, Democratic Party
- Uruguay: Colorado Party
Historical conservative-liberal parties or parties with conservative-liberal factions
- Argentina: Recreate for Growth
- Austria: Federation of Independents, Freedom Party
- Belarus: Belarusian Peasant Party
- Belgium: Liberal Appeal
- Brazil: National Democratic Union
- Canada: Progressive Conservative Party, Action démocratique du Québec
- Chile: Liberal Party (1849–1966), National Party
- Czech Republic: Civic Democratic Alliance, Freedom Union – Democratic Union
- France: Democratic Republican Alliance, Union for the New Republic/Union of Democrats for the Republic/Rally for the Republic, National Centre of Independents and Peasants, Independent Republicans/Republican Party/Liberal Democracy, Union for French Democracy Republican Party
- Germany: German People's Party
- Greece: Party of New Liberals
- Ireland: Progressive Democrats
- Italy: Italian Liberal Party, Forza Italia, Liberal Party, Italian Liberal Right, The People of Freedom
- Latvia: Latvian Way, Latvia's First Party/Latvian Way
- Lithuania: National Resurrection Party
- Netherlands: Liberal State Party, Party of Freedom
- Northern Cyprus: Freedom and Reform Party
- Poland: Liberal Democratic Congress, Freedom Union, League of the Right of the Republic
- Romania: Liberal Democratic Party
- Russia: Union of Rightist Forces
- Serbia: G17 Plus
- Slovakia: Democratic Party
- Spain: Union of the Democratic Centre, Liberal Party
- Switzerland: Free Democratic Party, Liberal Party
- United Kingdom: Liberal Party
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