|Part of a series on|
Conservative liberalism is a variant of liberalism, combining liberal values and policies with conservative stances, or, more simply, representing the right wing of the liberal movement. It is a more positive and less radical variant of classical liberalism. Conservative liberal parties combine liberal policies with more traditional stances on social and ethical issues.
"Instead of following progressive liberalism [i.e. social liberalism] – Robert Kraynak, a professor at Colgate University, writes –, conservative liberals draw upon pre-modern sources, such as classical philosophy (with its ideas of virtue, the common good, and natural rights), Christianity (with its ideas of natural law, the social nature of man, and original sin), and ancient institutions (such as common law, corporate bodies, and social hierarchies). This gives their liberalism a conservative foundation. It means following Plato, Aristotle, St. Augustine, St. Thomas Aquinas, and Edmund Burke rather than Locke or Kant; it usually includes a deep sympathy for the politics of the Greek polis, the Roman Republic, and Christian monarchies. But, as realists, conservative liberals acknowledge that classical and medieval politics cannot be restored in the modern world. And, as moralists, they see that the modern experiment in liberty and self-government has the positive effect of enhancing human dignity as well as providing an opening (even in the midst of mass culture) for transcendent longings for eternity. At its practical best, conservative liberalism promotes ordered liberty under God and establishes constitutional safeguards against tyranny. It shows that a regime of liberty based on traditional morality and classical-Christian culture is an achievement we can be proud of, rather than merely defensive about, as trustees of Western civilization. "
In the European context, conservative liberalism should not be confused with liberal conservatism, which is a variant of conservatism combining conservatives views with liberal policies in regards to the economy, social, and ethical issues. The roots of conservative liberalism are to be found at the beginning of the history of liberalism. Until the two world wars, in most European countries the political class was formed by conservative liberals, from Germany to Italy. The events such as World War I occurring after 1917 brought the more radical version of classical liberalism to a more conservative (i.e. more moderate) type of liberalism. Conservative liberal parties have tended to develop in those European countries where there was no strong secular conservative party and where the separation of church and state was less of an issue. In those countries, where the conservative parties were Christian-democratic, this conservative brand of liberalism developed.
In the United States, according to Peter Lawler, a professor at Berry College, neoconservatives might be classified as conservative liberals: "[...] in America today, responsible liberals—who are usually called neoconservatives—see that liberalism depends on human beings who are somewhat child-cen- tered, patriotic, and religious. These responsible liberals praise these non-individualistic human propensities in an effort to shore up liberalism. One of their slogans is 'conservative sociology with liberal politics.' The neoconservatives recognize that the politics of free and rational individuals depends upon a pre-political social world that is far from free and rational as a whole." In the American context, conservative liberalism, as well as liberal conservatism, should not be confused with libertarian conservatism, influenced by right-libertarianism.
Conservative-liberal parties worldwide
Current conservative-liberal parties
- Belgium: Libertarian, Direct, Democratic, People's Party
- Croatia: Croatian Social Liberal Party
- Denmark: Venstre—Liberal Party of Denmark
- Faroe Islands: Union Party, People's Party
- Greenland: Feeling of Community
- Moldova: Liberal Party, Liberal Reformist Party
- Netherlands: People's Party for Freedom and Democracy
- Romania: National Liberal Party
- Thailand: Democratic Party
Parties with conservative-liberal factions
||This section possibly contains original research. (February 2014)|
- Australia: Liberal Party of Australia
- Belarus: United Civic Party of Belarus
- Belgium: Open Flemish Liberals and Democrats, Reformist Movement, New Flemish Alliance.
- Brazil: Progressive Party
- Canada: British Columbia Liberal Party, Saskatchewan Party
- Czech Republic: Civic Democratic Party, Public Affairs, TOP 09
- Finland: National Coalition Party, Centre Party
- France: The Republicans
- Germany: Free Democratic Party
- Greece: New Democracy
- Israel: Likud
- Italy: Civic Choice
- Lithuania: Liberal Movement
- Luxembourg: Democratic Party
- Northern Cyprus: National Unity Party
- Norway: Progress Party
- Philippines: Liberal Party
- Poland: Civic Platform
- Portugal: Social Democratic Party
- Romania: Alliance of Liberals and Democrats
- Slovenia: Slovenian Democratic Party
- Spain: People's Party, Democratic Convergence of Catalonia, Basque Nationalist Party
- Switzerland: FDP.The Liberals
Historical conservative-liberal parties or parties with conservative-liberal factions
- Austria: Federation of Independents, Freedom Party of Austria
- Belarus: Belarusian Peasant Party
- Brazil: National Democratic Union
- Czech Republic: Civic Democratic Alliance
- France: Union for the New Republic/Union of Democrats for the Republic/Rally for the Republic, Independent Republicans/Republican Party/Liberal Democracy, Union for French Democracy Republican Party, Union for a Popular Movement
- Germany: German People's Party
- Ireland: Progressive Democrats
- Israel: General Zionists, Liberal Party
- Italy: Italian Liberal Party, Italian Liberal Right
- Latvia: Latvian Way, Latvia's First Party/Latvian Way
- Lithuania: National Resurrection Party, Liberal and Centre Union
- Netherlands: Liberal State Party, Party of Freedom
- Northern Cyprus: Freedom and Reform Party
- Norway: Frisinnede Venstre
- Poland: League of the Right of the Republic
- Romania: Democratic Liberal Party, Liberal Reformist Party
- Slovakia: Democratic Party
- Switzerland: Free Democratic Party, Liberal Party
- United Kingdom: National Liberal Party
- M. Gallagher, M. Laver and P. Mair, Representative Government in Europe, p. 221.
- R.T. Allen, Beyond Liberalism, p. 2.
- Robert Kraynak, Living with liberalism, The New Criterion, 2005
- R.T. Allen, Beyond Liberalism, p. 13.
- Libéralisme conservateur - WikiPolitique
- Peter Lawler, Liberal Conservatism, Not Conservative Liberalism, The Intercollegiate Review, Fall 2003/Spring 2004
- Emil J. Kirchner (1988). Liberal Parties in Western Europe. Cambridge University Press. p. 280. ISBN 978-0-521-32394-9.
- Tom Lansford (2014). Political Handbook of the World 2014. SAGE Publications. p. 392. ISBN 978-1-4833-3327-4.
- European Forum for Democracy and Solidarity
- Andeweg, R. and G. Irwin Politics and Governance in the Netherlands, Basingstoke (Palgrave) p.49
- NSD, European Election Database, Netherlands
- Rudy W Andeweg; Lieven De Winter; Patrick Dumont (2011). Government Formation. Taylor & Francis. p. 147. ISBN 978-1-134-23972-6. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
- Jochen Clasen; Daniel Clegg (2011). Regulating the Risk of Unemployment: National Adaptations to Post-Industrial Labour Markets in Europe. Oxford University Press. p. 76. ISBN 978-0-19-959229-6. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
- Hans Slomp (2011). Europe, A Political Profile: An American Companion to European Politics: An American Companion to European Politics. ABC-CLIO. p. 459. ISBN 978-0-313-39182-8. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
- David Hanley (1998). CHRISTIAN DEMOCRACY IN EUROPE. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 67. ISBN 978-1-85567-382-3. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
- Ricky Van Oers; Eva Ersbøll; Dora Kostakopoulou; Theodora Kostakopoulou (2010). A Re-Definition of Belonging?: Language and Integration Tests in Europe. BRILL. p. 60. ISBN 978-90-04-17506-8. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
- Siripan Nogsuan Sawasdee (2012), "Thailand", Political Parties and Democracy: Contemporary Western Europe and Asia (Palgrave Macmillan): 157
- Peter Starke; Alexandra Kaasch; Franca Van Hooren (2013). The Welfare State as Crisis Manager: Explaining the Diversity of Policy Responses to Economic Crisis. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 191-192. ISBN 978-1-137-31484-0.
- Hans Slomp (2011). Europe, A Political Profile: An American Companion to European Politics: An American Companion to European Politics. ABC-CLIO. p. 465. ISBN 978-0-313-39182-8. Retrieved 23 August 2013.
- Barbara Happe (2003). "Brazil". In Dirk Berg-Schlosser; Norbert Kersting. Poverty and Democracy: Self-Help and Political Participation in Third World Cities. Zed Books. p. 24. ISBN 978-1-84277-205-8.
- Rudolf Andorka (1999). A Society Transformed: Hungary in Time-space Perspective. Central European University Press. p. 163. ISBN 978-963-9116-49-8.
- Krisztina Arató; Petr Kaniok (2009). Euroscepticism and European Integration. CPI/PSRC. p. 191. ISBN 978-953-7022-20-4.
- Dr Vít Hloušek; Dr Lubomír Kopecek (2013). Origin, Ideology and Transformation of Political Parties: East-Central and Western Europe Compared. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 177. ISBN 978-1-4094-9977-0.
- NSD, European Election Database, Czech Republic
- NSD, European Election Database, Finland
- Jörg Arnold (2006). Criminal Law as a Reaction to System Crime: Policy for Dealing with the Past in European Transitions. Totalitarian and Authoritarian Regimes in Europe: Legacies and Lessons from the Twentieth Century (Berghahn Books). p. 410. ISBN 1-57181-641-0.
- Walter Kickert; Tiina Randma-Liiv (2015). Europe Managing the Crisis: The Politics of Fiscal Consolidation. Routledge. p. 263. ISBN 978-1-317-52570-7.
- NSD - European Election Database, Norway
- Mart Laar. The Power of Freedom - Central and Eastern Europe after 1945. Unitas Foundation. p. 229. ISBN 978-9949-21-479-2.
- Joanna A. Gorska (2012). Dealing with a Juggernaut: Analyzing Poland's Policy toward Russia, 1989-2009. Lexington Books. p. 104. ISBN 978-0-7391-4534-0.
- Diamantino P. Machado (1991). The Structure of Portuguese Society: The Failure of Fascism. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 192. ISBN 978-0-275-93784-3.
- Anna Bosco (2013). Party Change in Southern Europe. Routledge. p. 15. ISBN 978-1-136-76777-7.
- Hans Slomp (2011). Europe, a Political Profile: An American Companion to European Politics. ABC-CLIO. p. 519. ISBN 978-0-313-39181-1.
- Stephen White; Elena A. Korosteleva; John Löwenhardt (2005). Postcommunist Belarus. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 37. ISBN 978-0-7425-3555-8.
- Tadeusz Buksiński (2009). Democracy in Western and Postcommunist Countries: Twenty Years After the Fall of Communism. Peter Lang. p. 240. ISBN 978-3-631-58543-6.
- Carol Diane St Louis (2011). Negotiating Change: Approaches to and the Distributional Implications of Social Welfare and Economic Reform. Stanford University. p. 105. STANFORD:RW793BX2256. Retrieved 19 August 2012.
- Hans Slomp (2011). Europe, a Political Profile: An American Companion to European Politics. ABC-CLIO. p. 385. ISBN 978-0-313-39181-1.
- Carol Diane St Louis (2011). Negotiating Change: Approaches to and the Distributional Implications of Social Welfare and Economic Reform. Stanford University. p. 77.
- Stanley G. Payne (1996). A History of Fascism, 1914–1945. University of Wisconsin Pres. p. 163. ISBN 978-0-299-14873-7.
- Helena Waddy (2010). Oberammergau in the Nazi Era: The Fate of a Catholic Village in Hitler's Germany. Oxford University Press. p. 54. ISBN 978-0-19-970779-9.
- Maurizio Cotta; Luca Verzichelli (2007). Political Institutions in Italy. Oxford University Press. p. 38. ISBN 978-0-19-928470-2.
- Hans Slomp (2011). Europe, a Political Profile: An American Companion to European Politics. ABC-CLIO. p. 532. ISBN 978-0-313-39181-1.
- Emiel Lamberts (1997). Christian Democracy in the European Union, 1945/1995: Proceedings of the Leuven Colloquium, 15-18 November 1995. Leuven University Press. p. 56. ISBN 978-90-6186-808-8.
- Salvatore Garau (2015). Fascism and Ideology: Italy, Britain, and Norway. Routledge. p. 144. ISBN 978-1-317-90947-7.
- Jennifer Lees-Marshment (2009). Political Marketing: Principles and Applications. Routledge. p. 103. ISBN 978-1-134-08411-1.
- Jacques Rupnik; Jan Zielonka (2003). The Road to the European Union. Manchester University Press. p. 52. ISBN 978-0-7190-6597-2.
- Hans Slomp (2011). Europe, a Political Profile: An American Companion to European Politics. ABC-CLIO. p. 489. ISBN 978-0-313-39181-1.