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Conspiracy theories about Adolf Hitler's death

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Hitler depicted by the US Secret Service in 1944 to show how he might disguise himself to evade capture

Conspiracy theories about the death of Adolf Hitler, dictator of Germany from 1933 to 1945, contradict the accepted fact that he committed suicide in the Führerbunker on 30 April 1945. Stemming from a campaign of Soviet disinformation, most of these theories hold that Hitler and his wife, Eva Braun, survived and escaped from Berlin, with some asserting that he went to South America. In the post-war years, the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) investigated some of the reports, without lending them credence. The 2009 revelation that a skull in the Soviet archives long (dubiously) claimed to be Hitler's actually belonged to a woman has helped fuel conspiracy theories.

While the claims have received some exposure in popular culture, they are regarded by historians and scientific experts as disproven fringe theories. Eyewitnesses and Hitler's dental remains demonstrate that he died in his Berlin bunker in 1945.

Origins

The narrative that Hitler did not commit suicide, but instead escaped Berlin, was first presented to the general public by Marshal Georgy Zhukov at a press conference on 9 June 1945, on orders from Soviet leader Joseph Stalin.[1] That month, 68% of Americans polled thought Hitler was still alive.[2] When asked at the Potsdam Conference in July 1945 how Hitler had died, Stalin said he was either living "in Spain or Argentina."[3] In July 1945, British newspapers repeated comments from a Soviet officer that a charred body discovered by the Soviets was "a very poor double." American newspapers also repeated dubious quotes, such as that of the Russian garrison commandant of Berlin, who claimed that Hitler had "gone into hiding somewhere in Europe."[4] This disinformation, propagated by Stalin's government,[5][6] has been a springboard for various conspiracy theories, despite the official conclusion by Western powers and the consensus of historians that Hitler killed himself on 30 April 1945.[7][8][9] It even caused a minor resurgence in Nazism during the Allied occupation of Germany.[4]

The Führerbunker complex, where Hitler spent his last days in Berlin, before demolition in 1947

In October 1945, France-Soir quoted Otto Abetz, Nazi ambassador to Vichy France during World War II, as saying that Hitler was not dead.[10][11] The first detailed investigation by Western powers began that November after Dick White, then head of counter-intelligence in the British sector of Berlin, had their agent Hugh Trevor-Roper investigate the matter to counter the Soviet claims. His findings that Hitler and Braun had died by suicide in Berlin were written in a report in 1946, and published in a book the next year.[12] Regarding the case, Trevor-Roper reflected, "the desire to invent legends and fairy tales ... is (greater) than the love of truth".[13] In April 1947, 45% of Americans polled thought Hitler was still alive.[2]

In 1946, an American miner and Baptist preacher named William Henry Johnson began sending out a series of letters under the pen name "Furrier No. 1", claiming to be the living Hitler and to have escaped with Braun to Kentucky. He alleged that tunnels were being dug to Washington, D.C., and that he would engage armies, nuclear bombs and invisible spaceships to take over the universe. Johnson was able to raise up to $15,000 (over $140,000 in 2020 currency), promising lofty incentives to his supporters, before being arrested on charges of mail fraud in mid-1956.[14]

In the introduction to the 1947 American book Who Killed Hitler?, US intelligence officer William F. Heimlich asserts that a one-day investigation of the bunker grounds produced no evidence of Hitler's death. The book itself asserts that Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler introduced a double to the bunker in hopes of keeping Hitler alive. Himmler then purportedly conspired with Hitler's physician to kill the dictator—or his double—via poison, allowing Hitler (and possibly his secretary Martin Bormann) to escape. The book suggests that Hitler's adjutant Otto Günsche delivered a coup de grace-style gunshot at the time of the recorded suicide.[15][16]

In March 1948, newspapers around the world reported the account of former German lieutenant Arthur F. Mackensen, who claimed that on 5 May 1945 (during the Soviet bombardment of Berlin), he, Hitler, Braun and Bormann had escaped the Führerbunker in tanks. The group allegedly flew from Tempelhof Airport to Tønder, Denmark, where Hitler gave a speech and took a flight with Braun to the coast.[17] In a May 1948 issue of the Italian magazine Tempo, author Emil Ludwig wrote that a double could have been cremated in Hitler's place, allowing him to flee by submarine to Argentina.[18] Presiding judge at the Einsatzgruppen trial at Nuremberg Michael Musmanno wrote in his 1950 book that such theories were "about as rational as to say that Hitler was carried away by angels," citing a lack of evidence, the confirmation of Hitler's dental remains, and the fact that Ludwig had expressly ignored the presence of witnesses in the bunker.[19] In his refutation of Mackensen's account, Musmanno cites a subsequent story of Mackensen's, in which the lieutenant allegedly flew on 9 May to Málaga, Spain, when he was attacked by 30 Lightning fighters over Marseilles (despite the war having ended in Europe), purportedly killing all 33 passengers except himself.[17]

From 1951 to 1972, the National Police Gazette, an American tabloid-style magazine, ran a series of stories asserting Hitler's survival.[20] Unproven allegations include that Hitler conceived children with Braun around the late 1930s, that he was actually in prime physical health at the end of World War II, and that he fled to Antarctica or South America. Writing for the Gazette, William F. Heimlich claimed that the blood found on Hitler's sofa did not match his blood type.[21]

Following decades of other contradictory reports, in 1968 Soviet journalist Lev Bezymenski released his book The Death of Adolf Hitler. It includes a purported Soviet autopsy report which concludes that Hitler died by cyanide poisoning, despite no dissection of internal organs being recorded to confirm this and eyewitness accounts to the contrary.[22][23][24] Bezymenski claims that the autopsy reports were not released earlier "in case someone might try to slip into the role of 'the Führer saved by a miracle.'" He further asserts that any gunshot would have been fired as a coup de grâce, most likely by Günsche.[23] He later admitted that he was acting as "a typical party propagandist" and intended "to lead the reader to the conclusion that [a gunshot] was a pipe dream or half an invention and that Hitler actually poisoned himself."[22] The book's claims have been widely derided by Western historians.[25][26][27][28][29]

In 2020, historian Richard J. Evans wrote:

For some on the far right it seems inconceivable that [Hitler] would have died such a cowardly and ignominious death. ... In some cases, the proponents of Hitler's survival have strong links to the neo-Nazi scene, or betray Anti-Semitic beliefs, or are involved with white supremacy organisations in the US that regard Hitler as an inspiration for their activities. ... Some fringe groups purveying various forms of 'alternative' knowledge, such as occultists or UFO enthusiasts, seem to think that associating their beliefs with Hitler will gain them attention. So in some versions of the survival myth, Hitler's escape was achieved by occult means, or involved his travelling to a secret Nazi flying saucer base beneath the Antarctic ice.[30]

Evidence

At the end of 1945, Stalin ordered a second commission to investigate Hitler's death,[31] in part to investigate rumours of Hitler's survival.[32] On 30 May 1946, part of a skull was found, ostensibly in the crater where Hitler's remains had been exhumed.[33][34] It consists of part of the occipital bone and part of both parietal bones.[35] The nearly complete left parietal bone has a bullet hole, apparently an exit wound.[33][35][a] In 2009, on an episode of History's MysteryQuest, University of Connecticut archaeologist and bone specialist Nick Bellantoni examined the skull fragment,[38] which Soviet officials had believed to be Hitler's.[39] According to Bellantoni, "The bone seemed very thin" for a male,[40][b][c] and "the sutures where the skull plates come together seemed to correspond to someone under 40".[38] A small piece detached from the skull was DNA-tested, as was blood from Hitler's sofa. The skull was determined to be that of a woman—providing fodder for conspiracy theorists—while the blood was confirmed to belong to a male.[38][39][40][42][d]

Neither former Soviet nor Russian officials have claimed the skull was the main piece of evidence, instead citing jawbone fragments and two dental bridges found in May 1945. The items were shown to two associates of Hitler's personal dentist, Hugo Blaschke: his assistant Käthe Heusermann and longtime dental technician Fritz Echtmann. They confirmed that the dental remains were Hitler's and Braun's, as did Blaschke in later statements.[43][44][45] According to Ada Petrova and Peter Watson, Hugh Thomas disputed these dental remains in his 1995 book, but also speculated that Hitler probably died in the bunker after being strangled by his valet Heinz Linge. They noted that "even Dr Thomas admits that there is no evidence to support" this theory.[46] Ian Kershaw wrote that "The 'theories' of Hugh Thomas ... that Hitler was strangled by Linge, and that the female body burned was not that of Eva Braun, who escaped from the bunker, belong in fairyland."[6] In 2017, French forensic pathologist Philippe Charlier confirmed that teeth on one of the jawbone fragments were in "perfect agreement" with an X-ray taken of Hitler in 1944.[47] This investigation of the teeth by the French team, the results of which were reported in the European Journal of Internal Medicine in May 2018, found that the dental remains were definitively Hitler's teeth. According to Charlier, "There is no possible doubt. Our study proves that Hitler died in 1945 [in Berlin]."[48]

FBI documents declassified by the 1998 Nazi War Crimes Disclosure Act,[49] which began to be released online by the early 2010s,[50] contain a number of alleged sightings of Hitler in Europe, South America, and the United States, some of which assert that he changed his appearance via plastic surgery or by shaving off his toothbrush moustache.[51][52] Although some notable individuals speculated that Hitler could have survived, including General of the Army Dwight D. Eisenhower and Lieutenant John F. Kennedy in mid-1945,[53][54][e] the documents state that the alleged sightings of Hitler could not be verified.[55] Richard J. Evans notes that the FBI was obliged to document such claims no matter how "erroneous or deranged" they were,[56] while American historian Donald McKale states that their files did not produce any credible indication of Hitler's survival.[57]

In spite of the disinformation from Stalin's government[5][6] and eyewitness discrepancies, the consensus of historians is that Hitler killed himself on 30 April 1945,[7][8][58][59][60] with some explaining the limited forensic evidence as due to the burning of the body to near ashes.[53][61][f]

Alleged escape to Argentina

Photograph from a microfilmed CIA document showing a supposed ex-SS trooper and a man he alleged to be Hitler c. 1954[63]

Some works claim that Hitler and Braun did not commit suicide, but actually escaped to Argentina.

Phillip Citroen's claims

A declassified CIA document dated 3 October 1955 reported claims made by a self-proclaimed former German SS trooper named Phillip Citroen that Hitler was still alive, and that he "left Colombia for Argentina around January 1955." Enclosed with the document was an alleged photograph of Citroen and a person he claimed to be Hitler; on the back of the photo was written "Adolf Schüttelmayor" and the year 1954. The report also states that neither the contact who reported his conversations with Citroen, nor the CIA station was "in a position to give an intelligent evaluation of the information".[64] The station chief's superiors told him that "enormous efforts could be expended on this matter with remote possibilities of establishing anything concrete", and the investigation was dropped.[48]

The Inalco House near the current settlement of Villa La Angostura. According to the fringe theory, Hitler would have lived some years here after 1945.

Grey Wolf

The 2011 book Grey Wolf: The Escape of Adolf Hitler by British authors Simon Dunstan and Gerrard Williams, and the 2014 docudrama film by Williams based on it, suggest that a number of U-boats took certain Nazis and Nazi loot to Argentina, where the Nazis were supported by future president Juan Perón, who, with his wife Evita, had been receiving money from the Nazis for some time.[65] As reported claims received by the FBI stated, Hitler allegedly arrived in Argentina, first staying at Hacienda San Ramón (east of San Carlos de Bariloche),[55] then moved to a Bavarian-style mansion at Inalco, a remote and barely accessible spot at the northwest end of Nahuel Huapi Lake, close to the Chilean border. Eva Braun supposedly left Hitler around 1954 and moved to Neuquén with their daughter, Ursula ('Uschi'), while Hitler allegedly died in February 1962.[65] The book passingly asserts that Bormann gave the U.S. Office of Strategic Services stolen art and military secrets in exchange for Hitler's life.[65]: xxx [66]

This theory of Hitler's flight to Argentina has been dismissed by historians, including Guy Walters. He has described Dunstan and Williams' theory as "rubbish", adding: "There's no substance to it at all. It appeals to the deluded fantasies of conspiracy theorists and has no place whatsoever in historical research."[67] Walters contended that "it is simply impossible to believe that so many people could keep such a grand scale deception so quiet," and says that no serious historian would give the story any credibility.[68] Historian Richard Evans has many misgivings about the book and subsequent film. For example, he notes that the story about Ursula or 'Uschi' is merely "second-hand hearsay evidence without identification or corroboration."[69] Evans also notes that Dunstan and Williams made extensive use of a book Hitler murió en la Argentina by Manuel Monasterio, which the author later admitted included made up 'strange ramblings', and speculation. Evans contends that Monasterio's book is not to be regarded as a reliable source.[70] In the end, Evans dismisses the survival stories of Hitler as "fantasies".[71] McKale notes that the book repeats many claims made over the preceding decades which are implied by remote association, stating that "[w]hen one has no factual or otherwise reliable proof, one resorts to associating... with something else or to using hearsay and other dubious evidence, including unnamed or unidentified sources."[71]

Hunting Hitler

On the History Channel series Hunting Hitler (2015–2018), investigators (including Gerrard Williams) cite declassified documents and interview witnesses which allegedly indicate that Hitler escaped from Germany and travelled to South America by U-boat.[72] He and other Nazis then allegedly plotted a "Fourth Reich". Such conspiracy theories of survival and escape have been widely dismissed.[73][74][75] Contradictorily, in 2017 the series was praised by the tabloid-style National Police Gazette, which historically was a supporter of the fringe theory, while calling on Russia to allow Hitler's jawbone remains to be DNA-tested.[20][g] After being featured on the series as an expert on World War II, author James Holland explained that "[I] was very careful never to mention on film that I thought either Hitler or Bormann escaped. Because they didn't."[77]

In popular culture

  • In the adventure novel On the World's Roof (1949) by Douglas Valder Duff, a group of escaped Nazi officers with their Leader (purportedly Hitler himself) plan to bombard capital cities around the world with nuclear weapons from their stronghold in Tibet.
  • In the 1965 Japanese comedy film The Crazy Adventure, Hitler escapes Berlin and travels via U-boat to his secret base in Japan where he remains until the Crazy Cats discover the location decades later. Hitler is played by Turkish actor Andrew Hughes.
  • In a 1968 film, They Saved Hitler's Brain and took it to South America.
  • In the 1981 novella The Portage to San Cristobal of A.H. by George Steiner, Hitler survives the end of the war and escapes to the Amazon jungle, where he is found and tried by Nazi-hunters 30 years later. Hitler's defence is that since Israel owes its existence to the Holocaust, he is really the benefactor of the Jews.
  • In the novel The Berkut (1987), Hitler escapes from Berlin with the intention of reaching South America, but is secretly captured by elite Soviet commandos under Stalin's orders. He is imprisoned in Moscow and later executed.
  • In a 1995 The Simpsons episode, "Bart vs. Australia", Bart Simpson makes a call to Buenos Aires, which is received by an elderly Adolf Hitler.
  • In the 1999 video game Persona 2: Innocent Sin, a rumor is spread that Hitler was saved by elite soldiers and fled with those soldiers to Antarctica, resulting in this "Last Battalion" taking over Sumaru City. Unlike most depictions of Hitler's survival beyond 1945, this is not actually true within the story's context; the story concerns rumors becoming reality, and the "Hitler" the party fights turns out to be Nyarlathotep in disguise.
  • In the CGI anime film Lupin III: The First (2019), Interpol spreads a fake rumor stating that Hitler is alive and living in Brazil, in order to lure his fanatical Ahnenerbe followers out of hiding.
  • In the 2020 Amazon Prime TV-series Hunters, it is discovered in 1977 that Adolf Hitler and Eva Braun are living in Argentina.

References

Informational notes

  1. ^ The skull fragment remained uncatalogued until 1975,[36] and was rediscovered in the Russian State Archives in 1993.[37]
  2. ^ French forensic pathologist Philippe Charlier later stated, "When doing [an examination] of the skull, you have a 55 per cent chance of getting the sex right."[41]
  3. ^ According to a scientific article co-authored by Philippe Charlier, the sex is difficult to determine due to two factors: severe heating from burning, which could have reduced the skull's thickness, and the absence of the nuchal crest.[35]
  4. ^ This prompted the vice president of the Russian state archive to say, "No one claimed that was Hitler's skull."[40]
  5. ^ Trevor-Roper writes that he explained to Eisenhower, who had begun to doubt Hitler's death after meeting with Soviet Marshal Zhukov, that Hitler's death was confirmed by eyewitness accounts—with the bodily remains being unobtainable simply because they were nearly completely burned to ash.[53]
  6. ^ According to German forensic biologist Mark Benecke, body water would hinder the success of an open-air cremation.[62]
  7. ^ Historian Antony Beevor and Philippe Charlier have stated their support for such a DNA test, while affirming that the dental remains certainly belong to Hitler.[76][35]

Citations

  1. ^ Joachimsthaler 1999, pp. 22, 23.
  2. ^ a b Le Faucher, Christelle (21 May 2018). "Is Hitler Dead or Alive?". The National WWII Museum. Archived from the original on 30 March 2019. Retrieved 20 March 2022.
  3. ^ Beschloss 2002.
  4. ^ a b Philpot, Robert (2 May 2019). "'Hitler lived': Scholar explores the conspiracies that just won't die". The Times of Israel. Archived from the original on 27 April 2020. Retrieved 28 April 2020.
  5. ^ a b Eberle & Uhl 2005, p. 288.
  6. ^ a b c Kershaw 2001, p. 1038.
  7. ^ a b Joachimsthaler 1999, pp. 160–182.
  8. ^ a b Kershaw 2008, p. 955.
  9. ^ Stern, Marlow (16 November 2015). "Hitler's Final Days Revealed: Eyewitnesses Recount the Nazi's Death in Unearthed Footage". The Daily Beast. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 3 February 2016.
  10. ^ "Adolf Hitler Part 01 of 04". FBI Records: The Vault. Federal Bureau of Investigation. p. 21. Archived from the original on 11 May 2019. Retrieved 4 March 2021.
  11. ^ Wahlquist, Calla (5 August 2015). "Peter Abetz points to positive legacy of his high-ranking Nazi great-uncle". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 4 February 2022. Retrieved 4 February 2022.
  12. ^ MI5 staff (2011). "Hitler's last days". Her Majesty's Security Service website. Archived from the original on 4 July 2015. Retrieved 24 March 2016.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  13. ^ Joachimsthaler 1999, p. 28.
  14. ^ Hitt, Tarpley (22 May 2020). "The Kentucky Miner Who Scammed Americans by Posing as Hitler With 'Invisible Spaceships'". The Daily Beast. Archived from the original on 1 April 2022. Retrieved 1 April 2022.
  15. ^ Moore, Herbert; Barrett, James W., eds. (1947). Who Killed Hitler?. W. F. Heimlich (foreword). New York: The Booktab Press. pp. iii, 10, 78, 59–60, 121–122, 134, 136–138.
  16. ^ Joachimsthaler 1999, pp. 25–26.
  17. ^ a b Musmanno 1950, pp. 242–43.
  18. ^ Musmanno 1950, pp. 238–39.
  19. ^ Musmanno 1950, pp. 231–32, 234, 236, 238–39.
  20. ^ a b "Police Gazette's First New 'Hitler Is Alive' Article Since 1972". National Police Gazette. 21 July 2017. Archived from the original on 6 November 2022. Retrieved 15 May 2022.
  21. ^ Westlake, Steven A. (2016). Hitler Is Alive!. New York: Mysterious Press. pp. 6, 75–76, 79, 83–84, 136, 139, 142, 182–83, 224, 420. ISBN 978-1-5040-2215-6.
  22. ^ a b "Hitlers letzte Reise". Der Spiegel (in German). 19 July 1992. Archived from the original on 14 July 2022. Retrieved 6 March 2021.
  23. ^ a b Bezymenski, Lev (1968). The Death of Adolf Hitler (1st ed.). New York: Harcourt, Brace & World. pp. 49, 66, 73–75.
  24. ^ Petrova & Watson 1995, p. 81.
  25. ^ Eberle & Uhl 2005, pp. 287–288, 341.
  26. ^ Trevor-Roper, Hugh (26 September 1968). "Hitler's Last Minute". The New York Review of Books. 11 (5). Archived from the original on 21 October 2021. Retrieved 14 July 2022.
  27. ^ Joachimsthaler 1999, pp. 174, 252–253.
  28. ^ Daly-Groves 2019, p. 157.
  29. ^ de Boer 2022, pp. 198–199.
  30. ^ Evans, Richard J. (2 December 2020). "What the Hitler conspiracies mean". New Statesman. Archived from the original on 2 June 2021. Retrieved 28 September 2022.
  31. ^ Petrova & Watson 1995, pp. 81–82, 84–85.
  32. ^ Osborn, Andrew (28 September 2009). "Adolf Hitler suicide story questioned after tests reveal skull is a woman's". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 3 December 2012. (registration required)
  33. ^ a b Eberle & Uhl 2005, pp. 287, 288.
  34. ^ Musmanno 1950, pp. 233–234.
  35. ^ a b c d Charlier et al. 2018.
  36. ^ Brisard & Parshina 2018, pp. 29, 30, 32.
  37. ^ Isachenkov 1993.
  38. ^ a b c Goñi, Uki (27 September 2009). "Tests on skull fragment cast doubt on Adolf Hitler suicide story". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 29 October 2021. Retrieved 29 October 2021.
  39. ^ a b "Russians insist skull fragment is Hitler's". CNN. 11 December 2009. Archived from the original on 29 October 2021. Retrieved 29 October 2021.
  40. ^ a b c "DNA Test Sparks Controversy Over Hitler's Remains". ABC News. 9 December 2009. Archived from the original on 11 May 2010. Retrieved 20 December 2020.
  41. ^ Lusher, Adam (20 May 2018). "Adolf Hitler really is dead: scientific study debunks conspiracy theories that he escaped to South America". The Independent. Archived from the original on 12 September 2018. Retrieved 11 September 2018.
  42. ^ Brisard & Parshina 2018, pp. 18–22.
  43. ^ Kershaw 2008, p. 958.
  44. ^ Eberle & Uhl 2005, p. 282.
  45. ^ Joachimsthaler 1999, pp. 229–230.
  46. ^ Petrova & Watson 1995, pp. 93–101.
  47. ^ Brisard & Parshina 2018, pp. 224, 273–274.
  48. ^ a b Selk, Avi (20 May 2018). "Scientists say Hitler died in WWII. Tell that to 'Adolf Schüttelmayor' and the Nazi moon base". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 19 August 2020. Retrieved 4 May 2022.
  49. ^ "Nazi War Crimes Disclosure Act". National Archives and Records Administration. 15 August 2016. Archived from the original on 6 June 2011. Retrieved 4 May 2022.
  50. ^ "FBI – Adolf Hitler". FBI.gov. 10 April 2011. Archived from the original on 10 April 2011. Retrieved 4 May 2022.
  51. ^ Wright, Andy (17 August 2016). "Why are Photos Showing Hitler in Disguise Found in a U.S. Government Archive?". Atlas Obscura. Archived from the original on 27 April 2022. Retrieved 4 May 2022.
  52. ^ Stilwell, Blake (21 January 2016). "These declassified FBI files raise questions about Hitler's death in the Führerbunker". Business Insider. Archived from the original on 4 May 2022. Retrieved 4 May 2022.
  53. ^ a b c Trevor-Roper, Hugh (2002) [1947]. The Last Days of Hitler. London: Pan Macmillan. pp. xlvi–xlvii. ISBN 978-0-330-49060-3.
  54. ^ McIntyre, Niamh (25 March 2017). "JFK thought Hitler could have survived Second World War, his diary reveals". The Independent. Archived from the original on 14 August 2022. Retrieved 20 April 2022.
  55. ^ a b "FBI – Adolf Hitler Part 01 of 04 – File No 105-410". vault.fbi.gov. Archived from the original on 10 April 2011. Retrieved 3 September 2014.
  56. ^ Evans 2020, p. 187.
  57. ^ Evans 2020, pp. 188–189.
  58. ^ Fest 2004, pp. 162–164.
  59. ^ Evans 2020, pp. 169–170.
  60. ^ de Boer 2022, p. 202.
  61. ^ Joachimsthaler 1999, pp. 252–253.
  62. ^ Benecke, Mark (12 December 2022) [2003]. "The Hunt for Hitler's Teeth". Bizarre. Retrieved 4 March 2024 – via Dr. Mark Benecke.
  63. ^ Magness, Josh (31 October 2017). "Did Hitler escape Germany for Colombia, South America? Memos from JFK files show CIA considered it". Miami Herald. Archived from the original on 31 October 2017. Retrieved 18 July 2019.
  64. ^ "#HVCA-2592" (PDF). CIA.gov. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 February 2017. Retrieved 5 September 2018.
  65. ^ a b c Dunstan, Simon and Williams, Gerrard. (2011) Grey Wolf: The Escape of Adolf Hitler. New York: Sterling Publishing. ISBN 9781402781391
  66. ^ Daly-Groves, Luke (2016). The Death of Adolf Hitler: British Intelligence, Soviet Accusations and Rumours of Survival. p. 21. doi:10.13140/RG.2.1.4588.0408.
  67. ^ Thorpe, Vanessa (26 October 2013). "Hitler lived until 1962? That's my story, claims Argentinian writer". The Observer. Archived from the original on 26 June 2019. Retrieved 31 July 2020.
  68. ^ Walters, Guy (28 October 2013). "Did Hitler flee bunker with Eva to Argentina, have two daughters and live to 73? The bizarre theory that's landed two British authors in a bitter war". Daily Mail. London. Archived from the original on 28 October 2013. Retrieved 28 May 2014.
  69. ^ Evans 2020, p. 185.
  70. ^ Evans 2020, pp. 185–186.
  71. ^ a b Evans 2020, pp. 187–188.
  72. ^ Anderson, John (10 November 2015). "One Industry That Capitalizes On America's Hitler Fascination". Fortune. Archived from the original on 14 November 2015. Retrieved 11 September 2018.
  73. ^ Daly-Groves 2019, p. 24.
  74. ^ Lowry, Brian (5 November 2015). "TV Review: 'Hunting Hitler'". Variety. Archived from the original on 18 May 2022. Retrieved 12 May 2022.
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  76. ^ Beevor, Antony (11 October 2009). "Opinion | Hitler's Jaws of Death". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 7 July 2016. Retrieved 18 May 2022.
  77. ^ Holland, James [@James1940] (29 July 2020). "Crikey, I'm sorry if I gave that impression. I was certainly interested in learning more about how Nazis escaped,..." (Tweet). Retrieved 25 May 2022 – via Twitter.

Bibliography

Further reading

  • Evans, Richard J. (2020). The Hitler Conspiracies: The Third Reich and the Paranoid Imagination. London: Allen Lane. ISBN 978-0241413463.

External links