In 1848 he graduated as a doctor of medicine in Vienna, and became in 1854 a professor of botany and natural history at the medical and surgical military academy in that city. In 1871 he was chosen professor of botany at Graz, a position which he maintained until the close of his life.
"Physiotypia plantarum austriacarum" (with Alois Pokorny), 1856 –.
Physiographie der Medicinal Pflanzen (1862).
Die Farnkruter der Jetztwelt zur Untersuchung and Bestimmung der in den Formationen der Erdrinde eingeschiossenen Uberreste von vorweltlichen Arten dieser Ordnung nach dem Flächen-Skelet bearbeitet (1865).
"A Monograph of the British Eocene Flora" (with John Starkie Gardner), vol. 1. Filices, 1879-82. -- vol. 2. Gymnospermæ, by J. Gardner. 1883-86.
"Contributions to the Tertiary flora of Australia" (translated by Arvid Neilson, 1888).
"Contributions to the knowledge of the fossil flora of New Zealand" (translated by C. Juhl, 1890).