Constitution Party (United States)
This article relies too much on references to primary sources. (December 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
|Founded||1991U.S. Taxpayers' Party) (as |
1999 (as Constitution Party)
|Headquarters||408 West Chestnut Street, Lancaster, Pennsylvania 17603|
|Membership (July 2017)||97,893|
|Political position||Right wing|
|Colors||Red, white and blue (national colors) |
|Seats in the Senate|
0 / 100
|Seats in the House|
0 / 435
0 / 50
|State Upper House Seats|
0 / 1,972
|State Lower House Seats|
0 / 5,411
|Other elected offices||25 |
|This article is part of a series on|
the United States
The Constitution Party, previously known as the U.S. Taxpayers' Party, is a national political party in the United States. The idea that the principles and intents of the U.S. Constitution remain relevant in human relations was the origin of the 1991 founding. Founding members included 2016 presidential candidate Darrell Castle and former acting Office of Economic Opportunity Director Howard Phillips. The party platform is based on originalist interpretations of the Constitution and shaped by principles it finds set forth in the Declaration of Independence, Bill of Rights, Constitution and the Bible.
There are "7 Guiding Principles" for Constitution Party candidates and platforms. Throughout these principles and accompanying platform items are direct quotes from early U.S. founders and political figures, the U.S. Constitution, the Federalist Papers, and the U.S. Declaration of Independence, among others. The party applies these quotes as evidence of their views of the Constitution and how the U.S. is founded on Christian principles while maintaining their support of the No Religious Test Clause.
As of March 2018[update], the Constitution Party has 25 members elected to city council seats and other municipal offices across the United States. In terms of registered members, the party ranks fifth among national parties in the United States.
- 1 History
- 2 Affiliated organizations
- 3 Platform
- 4 Notable members and allies
- 5 Electoral results
- 6 Ballot access
- 7 See also
- 8 Notes
- 9 References
- 10 External links
The party was founded as the U.S. Taxpayers' Party by Howard Phillips in 1991. Phillips was also the party's candidate in the 1992, 1996 and 2000 presidential elections. The party's name was changed to the Constitution Party in 1999, but some state affiliate parties are known under different names. The party absorbed the American Independent Party, which was founded for George Wallace's 1968 presidential campaign. The Constitution Party claims to be the "philosophical home" of the Tea Party. The Constitution Party candidate, former congressman Tom Tancredo, came in second place with 617,030 votes in the 2010 Colorado gubernatorial election with 36.4% of the vote, ahead of Republican Dan Maes with 11.1%. In 2006, Rick Jore, of the then recently disaffiliated Constitution Party of Montana, was elected to the Montana House of Representatives with 56.2% of the vote, defeating Democrat Jeanne Windham.
The following table displays select Constitution Party state affiliate parties, chapters and organizations. All affiliates state in their platforms support for strict adherence to the Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution. Many also specifically add their home state constitutions to the mix.
|State||Affiliate name||Headquarters city||State chairman||Year state party founded||Comments|
|Alabama||Constitution Party of Alabama (CPAL)||Montgomery||Joshua Cassity||November 2008|
|Alaska||Constitution Party of Alaska||Soldotna||J.R. Myers||2010||The Alaskan Independence Party ended its affiliation in January 2013.|
|Arizona||Constitution Party of Arizona||Tucson||Kent Miller||2007|
|Arkansas||Constitution Party of Arkansas (CPAR)||Hatfield||Michael Barrett (acting)|
|California||Constitution Party of California||San Leandro||Don Grundmann||1967||From 1992 until 2008, the American Independent Party was the California Constitution Party affiliate.|
|Colorado||American Constitution Party||Arvada||Doug Aden||2000||The American Constitution Party's more than 10% vote-share in the 2010 gubernatorial election elevated the party from "minor" to "major" status. Any party that earns 10% or more of the votes cast for governor is a defined under statute as a "major party".|
|Connecticut||Constitution Party of Connecticut||Plantsville||Rick Moreau||1976||Predates the founding of Constitution Party (founded in the mid-1970s). It was known as the Concerned Citizens Party until it disbanded in April 2013.|
|Delaware||Constitution Party of Delaware (CPDE)||Clayton||Pell Sherman|
|Florida||Constitution Party of Florida||The Villages||Bill Wayland|
|Georgia||Constitution Party of Georgia||Woodstock||Ricardo C. Davis|
|Hawaii||Constitution Party of Hawaii||Honolulu||Dave Wethington|
|Idaho||Constitution Party of Idaho||Coeur d'Alene||F.W. Whitley||1999||It is one of two minor political parties (along with the Libertarian Party of Idaho) which has ballot access in Idaho.
In 2016, the party ran a presidential ticket consisting of Scott Copeland and J.R. Meyers, the first- and second-place winners of the state's presidential primary on the ballot in the state of Idaho in lieu of the national Castle/Bradley ticket.
|Illinois||Illinois Constitution Party (CPIL)||Metropolis||Randy Stufflebeam||The party's first elected official was Phil Collins, who was a Township Trustee in Libertyville Township in Lake County, Illinois from May 2013 until January 2016.|
|Indiana||Constitution Party of Indiana (CPIN)||Evansville||Steven Walker|
|Iowa||Constitution Party of Iowa||Eldon||Marvin Creech|
|Kansas||Constitution Party of Kansas||Wichita||Barry Sullivan|
|Kentucky||Constitution Party of Kentucky||Lexington||Mike Ward|
|Louisiana||Constitution Party of Louisiana||Eunice||Ronald Tucker||2012||The Constitution Party of Louisiana was re-established as a political party in Louisiana on March 26, 2012. The party officials at that time were State Chairman: Peter Vidrine, State Co-Chairman: Scott Vige, State Vice-Chairman: Randy Fontenot.
The party's first elected officials are Ronnie Broughton who was re-elected unopposed for his fourth term on the Webster Parish School Board on November 4, 2014, and Randy Fontenot who was elected as the Chief of Police of Eunice, Louisiana on December 17, 2014.
|Maryland||Marylanders for Constitutional Governance||Rockville||Michael Bertocchi||~ 1996||In 2008, the party was recognized by the Maryland State Board of Elections as a party. Candidates had ballot access in every presidential election from 1996 to 2008.|
|Massachusetts||Constitution Party of Massachusetts||Framingham||Scott Liftman|
|Michigan||U.S. Taxpayers Party of Michigan||Grand Rapids||William Mohr||1992||Kept the "Taxpayers' Party" name in order to retain ballot status in the state. The party is one of six ballot-qualified parties in Michigan. The ballot line on which the party ran in its first election (1992) was the Tisch Independent Citizens' Party.
In 2010, several officers, including board members and the Communications Officer, left the party over a gubernatorial candidate scandal. The party's candidate for governor did not deny visiting a nudist resort. Reports were that she took part in an attempt to set the world record for "Skinny Dip Across North America".
|Minnesota||The Constitution Party of Minnesota||Burnsville||Bruce Johnson||The national party's paleoconservative affiliate in Minnesota|
|Mississippi||Constitution Party of Mississippi||Brandon||Leslie Riley|
|Missouri||Constitution Party of Missouri||Piedmont||Doug Enyart|
|Montana||Constitution Party of Montana||Bozeman||Travis Orback ||Founded as an arm of the American Heritage Party; changed its name in 2000. Affiliated with national Constitution Party 1995–July 2006; and May 14, 2011–present. Rick Jore was the first party member to be elected to the state legislature in 2006, and was later appointed chairman of the House Education Committee .|
|Nebraska||Nebraska Party||Lincoln||Karl Gaiser||Had changed its name to "The Nebraska Independent Party", and then back to "Nebraska Party". The party had candidates for statewide offices placed on ballots from 2002, 2004, 2006, and 2008.|
|Nevada||Independent American Party of Nevada||Elko||Joel Hansen||1967|
|New Jersey||Constitution Party of New Jersey||Palmyra||Larry Berlinski||July 1995|
|New Mexico||Constitution Party of New Mexico||Los Lunas||Robert M. Bowen|
|New York||Constitution Party of New York||Buffalo||Gary Gunsher||May 2017||Constitution Party New York Website|
|North Carolina||Constitution Party of North Carolina||Charlotte||Al Pisano|
|Ohio||Constitution Party of Ohio||Eaton||Gale Joy|
|Oklahoma||Constitution Party of Oklahoma||Chandler||Thom Holmes|
|Pennsylvania||Constitution Party of Pennsylvania||Osceola||Bob Goodrich|
|South Carolina||Constitution Party of South Carolina||Greenville||Ted Adams||Achieved ballot access for its presidential candidate in every presidential election from 1992 to 2016.|
|South Dakota||Constitution Party of South Dakota||Brandon||Mike Gunn|
|Tennessee||Constitution Party of Tennessee||Gainesboro||Randy Barlow||1992|
|Texas||Constitution Party of Texas||Scott Copeland||1996||Started under the auspices of the U.S. Taxpayers' Party – the precursor to the Constitution Party – under which it achieved its only ballot line, in 1996|
|Utah||Constitution Party of Utah||Layton||Bryce Hamilton||One of only three political parties guaranteed ballot access in Utah for the 2008 elections.|
|Virginia||Constitution Party of Virginia||Newport News, Virginia||John Bloom||April 2017|
|Washington||Constitution Party of Washington||Spokane Valley||Robert W. Peck||~ 1996||This branch was founded as the Washington U.S. Taxpayers' Party, but it changed its name to the American Heritage Party in 1998 and to its current name in 2000.|
|West Virginia||Constitution Party of West Virginia||New Haven||James McCormick||2000||The party was organized on June 12, 2004, at its first formal meeting in Morgantown. West Virginia election law requires that a candidate for governor win at least 1% of the entire gubernatorial vote to secure his or her nominating party's future ballot access. Until such time, the affiliation of voters is not formally recognized as a political party.|
|Wisconsin||Constitution Party of Wisconsin||Andrew Zuelke||1991||Founded as a unit of the U.S. Taxpayers Party.|
|Wyoming||Constitution Party of Wyoming||Wheatland||Jennifer Young||2010|
Changes in affiliation
In January 2013, Oregon re-affiliated with the national party. The Constitution Party of Montana re-affiliated with the national party in 2011. According to the party website, since November 2012, the Alaskan Independence Party has not been an affiliate.
The Nebraska Party
The stated mission of the Nebraska Party is "to restore economic prosperity to all Nebraskans, to restore the Christian Principles of our Forefathers, and to get the Government back in the hands of the people. The Nebraska Party is founded on the principles of the Democrat-Republican Party, which was established in the early 1800s by Thomas Jefferson. The Democrat-Republican Party, now the Nebraska Party, represents the people, the working people (labor), family farmers, small business and, of course, our senior citizens".
The Constitution Party branches in North Carolina and several other states adhere to what they proclaim as the "Seven Essential Core Values". These core values are defined as "the Sanctity of Life, Religious Freedom, Traditional Family, Private Property Rights, Pro-Second Amendment, National Sovereignty, and Anti-Socialism". The party claims to be the state's only truly 100% Pro-Life political party.
The origins of the state party can be traced to October 2000, when founding member Brenda Donnellan and activists from Wood County served as plaintiffs in Phillips v Hechler, civ 6:00-894. This litigation resulted in a November 3, 2000, ruling against then Secretary of State Ken Hechler, forcing him to allow Constitution Party presidential nominee, Howard Phillips, to run as a declared write-in (WI) candidate without paying a filing fee.
The 1964 Constitution Party presidential nominee, Joseph B. Lightburn, was a neighbor of Donnellan's in Jane Lew, where he owned a local general store. Lightburn served as National Committeeman for the Constitution Party of West Virginia, but the original party had long been defunct. There was no connection between the two.
Because the Constitution Party is not a major party in the state, its voters are permitted to vote in the primary but must take the initiative to ask for either a Republican or Democratic party ballot in lieu of the standard non-partisan ballot.
Voter registration issues
Because in many states the party has not yet attained ballot qualification status, voters in those states registering with it must check an "Other Party" or "Other" box on the voter registration form and write the word "Constitution" on the line. Voter registration status can be checked on at the Secretary of State's website.
In early 2006, Christopher H. Hansen, the gubernatorial candidate of Independent American Party of Nevada (the former Constitution Party state affiliate in Nevada), and candidates in Colorado and Idaho, publicly expressed support for allowing abortions in the cases of rape, incest, and for those performed to save the life of the mother, a contrary view to the official Nevada platform. At the party's April 2008 national convention in Tampa, Florida, the assembly voted not to disaffiliate Nevada, citing that affiliate's official position on the issue and the national party's policy against dictating the internal affairs (such as electing leaders) of any affiliate. They also made it more difficult to introduce a disaffiliation resolution. The Oregon and Montana affiliates voluntarily disaffiliated from the party later that year. The Constitution Party of Nevada was created on October 15, 2013, in response to the controversies.
The 2016 preamble of the Constitution Party platform "gratefully acknowledges the blessing of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ as Creator, Preserver and Ruler of the Universe and of these United States," and supports the constitutional provision in Article VI, Section 3 that "no religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or public trust under the United States" and calls on all those who love liberty and value their inherent rights to join with them in the pursuit of their goals.
The Constitution Party's website states that it "is the philosophical home of the TEA Party, where candidates who are committed to the same constitutional principles as most TEA Party groups can run for office without opposition from within their own party" and encourages "Constitution Party leadership and candidates to work with local TEA Party and other like-minded groups to re-establish the American Constitutional Republic in their communities and states." The 2016–2020 platform contains no reference to the Tea Party.
The Constitution Party, in the 2016 platform, supported retaining the Electoral College and was opposed to establishing a popular vote system to elect the president and vice president of the United States.
The Constitution Party in 2012 supported reducing the role of the United States federal government through cutting bureaucratic regulation, reducing spending, and replacing the income tax with a tariff-based revenue system supplemented by excise taxes. The party also takes the position that the "imposition [...] of Federal income, payroll, and estate taxes [...] is an unconstitutional Federal assumption of direct taxing authority".
Social Security phase-out
Trade and foreign policies
The Constitution Party in 2012 favored a non-interventionist foreign policy. It advocates reduction and eventual elimination of the role the United States plays in multinational and international organizations such as the United Nations and favors withdrawal of the United States from most treaties, such as NATO, North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the World Trade Organization. The party takes mercantilist positions in supporting protectionist policies on international trade.
The party also believes in exercising a tariff system to counteract the United States' increasingly negative balance of trade. The tariff system would levy additional import costs, the amount of which would vary proportionally with how much lower the exporting country's production costs are compared to that of U.S. companies.
The party in 2012 opposed illegal immigration and seeks stricter controls on legal immigration. It demands that the federal government implement an immigration policy disqualifying potential immigrants on grounds of ill health, criminality, low morals, or financial dependence, believing that they would impose an improper burden on the United States. The party has stated a long-term goal of a moratorium on future immigration, with exceptions only for extreme cases of necessity.
The party opposes welfare subsidies and other taxpayer-supported benefits to illegal immigrants. It rejects the practice of bestowing U.S. citizenship on children born to illegal immigrant parents while in this country (jus soli), and rejects any extension of amnesty to illegal immigrants. The Constitution Party calls for the use of the United States military to enforce the strict immigration policy.
Our support of a State's option to impose the death penalty is limited to those who have been convicted of capital crimes. This is consistent with protecting innocent life because the death penalty would only be applied to those who have proven to be a threat to innocent life.
The party opposes same-sex marriage, and believes state and local governments have the right to criminalize "offensive sexual behavior." The party also opposes pornography, believing it to be "a destructive element of society resulting in significant and real emotional, physical, spiritual and financial costs to individuals, families and communities," and distinguishable from the US citizen's "cherished First Amendment right to free speech." While expressing its belief in the individual responsibility of citizens and corporations, the party maintains that government plays a "vital role" in establishing and maintaining the highest level of decency in America's community standards. The party opposes all government sponsorship, involvement in, or promotion of gambling. Citing Article 1 Section 8 and Amendment 10, the party opposes federal anti-drug laws, while conceding that the federal government may have a role in limiting the import of drugs.
The party supports the right to bear arms in accordance with the Second Amendment. The party believes that any attempt to make laws barring the second amendment is unconstitutional. It has taken a stand against the Patriot Act.
The Constitution Party believes that charitable giving is most effective when conducted by private parties. Because the authority to administer charity has not been granted to the government in the Constitution, the party maintains that the government has no business being involved in such endeavors. The party opposes federal restrictions on, or subsidization of, medical treatments.
The party supports English as the official language for all governmental business, opposes bilingual ballots, and insists that those who wish to take part in the electoral process and governance of the U.S. be required to read and comprehend basic English as a precondition of citizenship. The party also opposes the federal Voting Rights Act.
The party believes that "it is our responsibility to be prudent, productive, and efficient stewards of God’s natural resources". With respect to global warming, it says that "globalists are using the global warming threat to gain more control via worldwide sustainable development". According to the party, eminent domain is unlawful because "under no circumstances may the federal government take private property, by means of rules and regulations which preclude or substantially reduce the productive use of the property, even with just compensation".
In regards to energy, the party calls attention to "the continuing need of the United States for a sufficient supply of energy for national security and for the immediate adoption of a policy of free market solutions to achieve energy independence for the United States," and calls for the abolition of the Department of Energy.
The party supports the repeal of the Sixteenth Amendment, which allows Congress to tax income, and the Seventeenth Amendment, which requires the direct (popular) election of Senators. The party holds that each state's membership in the Union is voluntary, a stance known as the compact theory.
Notable members and allies
Pat Buchanan threatened in 1996 to run as the U.S. Taxpayers' Party candidate if Bob Dole chose a pro-choice running mate. Dole chose pro-life Jack Kemp and received Buchanan's endorsement. Buchanan's 2000 Reform Party running mate Ezola B. Foster switched her membership to the Constitution Party in 2002. Buchanan stated on the edition of September 7, 2004 of Hardball with Chris Matthews, "There is a chance I would vote for [Michael] Peroutka." However, he later wrote an endorsement of President George W. Bush in the pages of The American Conservative.
U.S. Senator Bob Smith announced his switch from Republican to the U.S. Taxpayers Party in 1999 to seek its 2000 presidential nomination. Smith later charged that anti-New World Order ideologues within the party resisted his candidacy due to his Roman Catholicism. He left the party after one month and continued his campaign as a non-partisan independent but ceased the campaign soon thereafter and returned to the Republican Party to assume a Senate committee chairmanship. In 2008, he began writing editorials on the Constitution Party's web page, fueling speculation that he would seek its presidential nomination again, despite endorsing Rep. Duncan Hunter for the Republican nomination. He requested that his name be withheld from consideration in a March 2008 letter to Constitution Party supporters.
The party has attracted notables in the anti-abortion movement such as Gregory Thompson, Lon Mabon, Paul deParrie, and Missionaries to the Preborn leader Pastor Matthew Trewhella. However, many such notables were involved in the below-mentioned disaffiliation efforts over abortion, and it remains unclear what effect the movement has upon the reorganized rump affiliates.
A 2008 candidate for the Republican nomination, Representative Ron Paul (R-Texas), endorsed several third party candidates shortly after he bowed out of the race. He later endorsed 2008 Constitution Party presidential candidate Chuck Baldwin. The unaffiliated Constitution Party of Montana replaced Baldwin with Paul for president and Michael Peroutka for vice president. Paul requested that Montana remove his name from the ballot, but the Secretary of State of Montana denied his request, stating that the request was sent too late.
In 2010, former Republican Congressman Tom Tancredo ran for governor of Colorado as a Constitutionalist. He received 36.8% of the vote, finishing in second place. Despite losing the election, Tancredo managed to secure major party status for the Constitution Party in Colorado by surpassing the 10% of the gubernatorial election vote needed to qualify as a major party.
Ronnie Broughton, a past president and current member of the Webster Parish School Board in Minden, Louisiana, is the chairman of his state's Constitution Party and one of the few party members holding public office in Louisiana.
Roy Moore, the former chief justice of the Alabama Supreme Court who was notably suspended twice in 2003 and 2016 for refusing to comply with court orders regarding the display of the Ten Commandments and the issuing of same-sex marriage licenses, had been courted by the Constitution Party to run as their candidate in the 2004, 2008, and 2012 presidential elections.
Former Republican Representative Virgil Goode (VA-5) was nominated at the convention in Nashville, Tennessee on April 22, 2012. Goode received 203 votes; 202 were required for a majority. Darrell Castle of Tennessee, national vice chairman of the Constitution Party, came in second with 120 votes. Other candidates who received votes were Robby Wells from North Carolina, former football coach at Savannah State University; Dr. Laurie Roth of Washington state, a radio talk-show host; and Susan Ducey of Kansas, a Registered Nurse.
On April 16, 2016, Darrell Castle secured the presidential nomination for the Constitution Party at a convention attended by delegates from 28 states. He has vowed, if elected, to get the United States out of the United Nations and NATO. "Our borders are worth defending. If we can secure the borders of Korea and Germany, then we can secure the borders of the United States," said Castle. In his nomination acceptance speech, Castle made no reference to the unspecified health reasons that had earlier led him to withdraw his name from consideration. Since accepting the nomination, Castle has given several interviews to media, but his campaign website lists no public campaign appearances.
|Year||Presidential nominee||Home state||Previous positions||Vice presidential nominee||Home state||Previous positions||Votes||Notes|
|Virginia||Chairman of The Conservative Caucus
Candidate for Massachusetts's 6th congressional district
Candidate for United States Senator from Massachusetts
Albion W. Knight
|Florida||Presiding Bishop of the United Episcopal Church of North America
|Virginia||(see above for previous positions)
Nominee for President of the United States
|Herbert Titus||Oregon||Lawyer, writer||184,656 (0.2%)
|Virginia||(see above for previous positions)
Nominee for President of the United States
|Curtis Frazier||Missouri||Nominee for United States Senator from Missouri
Founder of the Institute on the Constitution
|Florida||Pastor, radio host||143,630 (0.1%)
|Florida||Nominee for Vice President of the United States
|Virginia||Member of the Virginia Senate
Member of the United States House of Representatives from Virginia's 5th district
|Jim Clymer||Pennsylvania||Candidate for Auditor General of Pennsylvania
Nominee for Lieutenant Governor of Pennsylvania
Chair of the Constitution Party
Nominee for Attorney General of Pennsylvania
Candidate for Lancaster County Board of Commissioners
Nominee for United States Senator from Pennsylvania
|Tennessee||Nominee for Vice President of the United States
|Scott Bradley||Utah||Nominee for United States Senator from Utah
House of Representatives
|Election year||No. of overall votes||% of overall vote||No. of representatives||+/-|
0 / 435
0 / 435
0 / 435
0 / 435
0 / 435
0 / 435
0 / 435
0 / 435
0 / 435
|Election year||No. of total votes||% of vote||No. of seats won||Notes|
The following is a table of ballot status for the Constitution Party presidential nominee in 2016.
The Constitution Party's website criticizes the dominance of two parties in the US electoral system, saying:
Without all political ideologies having a place in the free marketplace of ideas, on an equal footing with the top two in power, life is like an ice cream shop that only serves two flavors – customers grow weary and no longer buy. America flourishes when its citizens have real choices with which they identify philosophically. America's representative system of constitutional governance is doomed to fail if voters continue to be offered only vanilla and chocolate when what they really want is mint chocolate chip or a hot fudge sundae.
- Constitution Party National Convention
- Electoral history of the Constitution Party
- List of political parties in the United States
- Winger, Richard (July 27, 2017). "New Registration for the United States". ballot-access.org. Archived from the original on July 27, 2017. Retrieved August 2, 2017.
- Cox, Vicki (2007). The History of Third Parties. Infobase Publishing. p. 79.
- Kleefeld, Eric (July 26, 2010). "Tancredo's New Home In The Constitution Party: A Religious, Paleoconservative Group Without Much Electoral Success". Talking Points Memo. Archived from the original on April 2, 2015. Retrieved April 17, 2015.
- "Constitutionally Contentious". The American Spectator. Archived from the original on December 8, 2015. Retrieved January 29, 2016.
- "Meet the Constitution Party's Candidate". Reason.com. Archived from the original on April 22, 2016. Retrieved January 29, 2016.
- "Tancredo's New Home In The Constitution Party: A Religious, Paleoconservative Group Without Much Electoral Success". TPM. Archived from the original on January 5, 2016. Retrieved January 29, 2016.
- Rudin, Ken. "Election 2010 Scorecard". National Public Radio. Archived from the original on September 21, 2013. Retrieved July 13, 2013.
- Joyce, Kathryn (2010). Quiverfull: Inside the Christian Patriarchy Movement. Beacon Press. pp. 7, 28. ISBN 978-0807010730.
- Cohen, Nancy L. (2012). Delirium: The Politics of Sex in America. Counterpoint. p. 321. ISBN 1582438013.
- Lovell, Jarret S. (2009). Crimes of Dissent: Civil Disobedience, Criminal Justice, and the Politics of Conscience. New York University Press. p. 50. ISBN 978-0814752272.
- Smith, Ben (May 4, 2010). "Goode joins Constitution Party". Politico. Archived from the original on November 6, 2012. Retrieved March 2, 2015.
- Elected Office Holders Archived October 31, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. Constitution Party website. Retrieved March 19, 2018.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on January 15, 2017. Retrieved January 5, 2017.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "Seven Principles". January 29, 2017. Archived from the original on January 15, 2017. Retrieved January 1, 2017.
- "Platform Preamble". September 21, 2013. Archived from the original on February 21, 2014. Retrieved February 5, 2014.
- "Religious Freedom". January 29, 2017. Archived from the original on January 2, 2017. Retrieved January 1, 2017.
- Winger, Richard (November 21, 2016). "New Voter Registration Nation Totals". ballot-access.org Archived November 22, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved November 21, 2016.
- Sara Diamond, "The U.S. Taxpayers Party"; The Guardian; UK; October 9, 1991; reprinted in Facing the Wrath; Common Courage Press; 1996.
- Isn't the Constitution Party the same at the Tea Party? Archived March 22, 2014, at the Wayback Machine The Constitution Party, Retrieved March 22, 2014
- Affiliation Statement Archived June 14, 2014, at the Wayback Machine; Constitution Party of Alabama website; CPAL; retrieved March 2014.
- "A Brief History of the Alaska Constitution Party". Jrmyersforpresident.com. Archived from the original on June 23, 2016. Retrieved June 25, 2016.
- ""Constitution Party of Arizona"". Archived from the original on May 23, 2013. Retrieved June 4, 2013.
- "Constitution Party of Arkansas – The Party of "Integrity, Liberty, & Prosperity!"". constitutionpartyar.com. Archived from the original on January 30, 2019. Retrieved August 5, 2017.
- ACP Archived March 17, 2014, at the Wayback Machine; "Secretary of State, Elections Division;" Colorado Government site; retrieved March 2014.
- Paulson, Steven K.; "ACP Not Relishing Role As Colorado Major Party" Archived March 17, 2014, at the Wayback Machine; May 8, 2011; CBS Broadcasting, Inc. online; retrieved March 2014.
- "Constitution Party of Georgia". Constitution Party of Georgia. Archived from the original on February 2, 2016. Retrieved January 29, 2016.
- Constitution Party of Idaho Archived March 17, 2015, at the Wayback Machine official website.
- Contact Archived March 17, 2015, at the Wayback Machine; accessed March 11, 2015.
- IDSOS other election-related information; sources Archived February 11, 2012, at the Wayback Machine; accessed March 5, 2014.
- MYERS–California Primary Results Archived October 5, 2016, at the Wayback Machine; Retrieved July 2, 2016.
- Constitution Party of Illinois Archived February 23, 2014, at the Wayback Machine website
- About us – Party leadership Constitution Party of Illinois. Retrieved July 23, 2014 Archived February 4, 2015, at the Wayback Machine
- "Constitution Party of Illinois Now Has Its First Elected Official" Archived February 23, 2014, at the Wayback Machine; "Independent Political Report;" April 12, 2013; retrieved February 9, 2014
- Placek, Christopher (April 5, 2017). "Harper College board winner moves out of town, withdraws". Daily Herald. Archived from the original on December 1, 2017. Retrieved November 17, 2017.
- Constitution Party of Indiana Archived August 25, 2017, at the Wayback Machine Retrieved July 23, 2014
- Constitution Party of Iowa Archived March 21, 2014, at the Wayback Machine official website.
- CPoK Archived December 3, 2013, at the Wayback Machine official website
- "Marylanders for Constitutional Governance". Archived from the original on February 4, 2016. Retrieved January 29, 2016.
- Peroutka, Michael Anthony (January 12, 2011). "Michael Peroutka Addresses Maryland Constitution Party Meeting In Westminster, Carrol County". The American View. Archived from the original on February 22, 2014. Retrieved March 16, 2014.
- CP of MA Archived February 21, 2014, at the Wayback Machine website.
- U.S. Taxpayers Party of Michigan Officials Archived October 6, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
- U.S. Taxpayers Party Opposes All Four Michigan Statewide Ballot Proposals on November 5 Archived July 15, 2010, at the Wayback Machine; All Business online; retrieved March 2014.
- Constitution Party of Minnesota Archived March 30, 2014, at the Wayback Machine official website
- Lovell, Jarret S. (2009). Crimes of Dissent: Civil Disobedience, Criminal Justice, and the Politics of Conscience. New York University Press. p. 50. ISBN 978-0814752272.
- Mississippi Constitution Party Archived April 12, 2014, at the Wayback Machine website
- "Constitution Party of Missouri". Cpmo.us. July 24, 2014. Archived from the original on June 27, 2016. Retrieved June 25, 2016.
- Montana Constitution Party Re-Affiliates with National Constitution Party Archived March 13, 2016, at the Wayback Machine; Ballot Access Org
- "Constitution Party of Montana Official Website". Archived from the original on May 25, 2014. Retrieved September 17, 2016.
- The Constitution Party of Montana: The Radical Right Wing Collides with Mainstream Politics Archived March 5, 2016, at the Wayback Machine; PDF auto download; MHRN.
- Montana Constitution Party Bolts Archived August 21, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
- Nebraska Party Archived March 10, 2014, at the Wayback Machine; Constitution Party of Nebraska; retrieved March 2014.
- The Nebraska Independent Party Archived August 24, 2006, at the Wayback Machine ; retrieved September 14, 2006.
- "IAP of NV". Archived from the original on July 3, 2014. Retrieved July 20, 2014.
- "About The Constitution Party". Scconstitutionparty.com. Archived from the original on May 23, 2016. Retrieved June 25, 2016.
- *Constitution Party of Tennessee website Archived August 29, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
- "The Constitution Party of Texas". Archived from the original on September 22, 2018. Retrieved January 29, 2016.
- Powers, Dan (November 3, 2012). "State of Utah House of Representatives, the race for House District 22 remains firmly centered in Magna". The Oquirrh Times Online Newspaper. Archived from the original on February 23, 2014. Retrieved March 16, 2014.
- "Ballot Access News – November 1, 2007". Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. Retrieved January 29, 2016.
- "The Constitution Party of Virginia". Archived from the original on September 18, 2017. Retrieved Re-established April 2017. Check date values in:
- Note: With few exceptions, the state party affiliates and the national party changed their names in 2000 to the "Constitution Party."
- "Constitution Party of West Virginia". Archived from the original on January 30, 2016. Retrieved January 29, 2016.
- United States District Court, Southern District of West Virginia, CIVIL ACTION NO. 6:00-0894 Archived November 10, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
- "Party History". Archived from the original on February 3, 2016. Retrieved January 29, 2016.
- "WV Code 8". Archived from the original on January 30, 2016. Retrieved January 29, 2016.
- Wisconsin Constitution Party: Our History Archived January 18, 2012, at the Wayback Machine; Wisconsin Constitution Party online; retrieved March 2014.
- "wyomingconstitutionparty.com". Archived from the original on February 4, 2016. Retrieved January 29, 2016.
- "Montana Constitution Party Re-Affiliates with National Constitution Party". Ballot Access News. Archived from the original on October 12, 2017. Retrieved October 12, 2017.
- "Our Terrible Swift Sword Archived November 27, 2013, at the Wayback Machine; February–March 2003; "Constitution Party Hopes to Take Politics to the Extreme in 2004;" Southern Poverty Law Center web; retrieved September 20, 2013
- Official website Archived September 30, 2011, at the Wayback Machine ; Constitution Party of North Carolina – State Executive Committee
- "Ballot Access News – November 16, 2000". Archived from the original on April 25, 2002. Retrieved January 29, 2016.
- "Lightburn, Joseph B. Papers, Regarding Conservative Politics, 1957-1970". Findingaids.lib.wvu.edu. Archived from the original on August 8, 2016. Retrieved June 25, 2016.
- Independent voters may request ballot Archived November 12, 2013, at the Wayback Machine; April 25, 2010; The Times West Virginian online; retrieved .[dead link]
- "West Virginia voter registration form – WVSOS" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on July 14, 2016. Retrieved June 25, 2016.
- "West Virginia Secretary of State – Elections – Am I Registered To Vote". Archived from the original on September 20, 2015. Retrieved January 29, 2016.
- "Constitution Party Platform, 2016-2020" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on September 15, 2016.
- "Platform and Resolutions | The Constitution Party". www.constitutionparty.com. Archived from the original on May 1, 2016. Retrieved April 29, 2016.
- "Party Platform (Taxes)". Constitutionparty.org. Archived from the original on February 19, 2014. Retrieved February 4, 2014.
- Social Security Phase-out Plan Archived February 23, 2014, at the Wayback Machine; Constitution Party organization online; retrieved .
- "Party Platform (Tariffs and Trade)". Constitutionparty.org. Archived from the original on February 19, 2014. Retrieved February 4, 2014.
- "Party Platform (Immigration)". Constitutionparty.org. Archived from the original on February 18, 2014. Retrieved February 4, 2014.
- "Party Platform (Sanctity of Life)". Constitutionparty.org. Archived from the original on September 29, 2016. Retrieved September 19, 2016.
- "Party Platform (Crime)". Constitutionparty.org. Archived from the original on February 18, 2014. Retrieved February 4, 2014.
- "Party Platform (Family)". Constitutionparty.org. Archived from the original on February 21, 2014. Retrieved February 4, 2014.
- "Party Platform (Pornography, Obscenity, and Sexually Oriented Businesses)". Constitutionparty.org. Archived from the original on February 21, 2014. Retrieved February 4, 2014.
- "Party Platform (Gambling)". Constitutionparty.org. Archived from the original on February 18, 2014. Retrieved February 4, 2014.
- "Party Platform (Drug Abuse)". Constitutionparty.org. Archived from the original on February 19, 2014. Retrieved February 4, 2014.
- "Party Platform (Welfare)". Constitutionparty.org. Archived from the original on February 21, 2014. Retrieved February 4, 2014.
- "Party Platform (Health Care and Government)". Constitutionparty.org. Archived from the original on February 21, 2014. Retrieved February 4, 2014.
- "'Patriot' Groups". Southern Poverty Law Center. Spring 2009. Archived from the original on January 20, 2012. Retrieved July 31, 2009.
Generally, Patriot groups define themselves as opposed to the 'New World Order' or advocate or adhere to extreme anti-government doctrines. ... Listing here does not imply that the groups themselves advocate or engage in violence or other criminal activities, or are racist.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
- Party Platform (Environment) Archived April 1, 2014, at the Wayback Machine Constitutionparty.org, Retrieved March 31, 2014
- Party Platform (Energy) Archived April 1, 2014, at the Wayback Machine Constitutionparty.org, Retrieved April 2, 2014
- "Party Platform (Congressional Reform)". Constitutionparty.org. Archived from the original on February 21, 2014. Retrieved February 4, 2014.
- "Party Platform (Statehood)". Constitutionparty.org. Archived from the original on February 21, 2014. Retrieved February 4, 2014.
- "'Hardball with Chris Matthews' for Sept. 7 2004". MSNBC. Archived from the original on June 3, 2010. Retrieved July 19, 2010.
- "Coming Home". Amconmag.com. November 8, 2004. Archived from the original on October 6, 2008. Retrieved July 19, 2010.
- Jim Gilchrist Archived October 11, 2007, at the Wayback Machine ; Jim Gilchrist blog; retrieved .
- "Keyes to Reveal Plans in Hazleton" Archived February 3, 2009, at the Wayback Machine ; Ragan, Tom; "Standard~Speaker," April 10, 2008
- "News Story Video". Vids.myspace.com. August 7, 2008. Archived from the original on February 24, 2010. Retrieved July 19, 2010.
- "Overview of CP office candidates". Politics1.com. Archived from the original on May 29, 2010. Retrieved July 19, 2010.
- "Guns at School". My.execpc.com. Archived from the original on November 13, 2010. Retrieved July 19, 2010.
- "Campaign For Liberty – A New Alliance – By Dr. Ron Paul". Campaignforliberty.com. Archived from the original on December 12, 2008. Retrieved July 19, 2010.
- "Ballot Access News » Blog Archive » Montana Verifies That Ron Paul Will Remain on Ballot". Ballot-access.org. Archived from the original on June 11, 2011. Retrieved July 19, 2010.
- "RealClearPolitics – Election 2010 – Colorado Governor – Maes vs. Hickenlooper vs. Tancredo". RealClearPolitics. Archived from the original on October 21, 2010. Retrieved October 22, 2010.
- "State Legislature results" Archived November 16, 2006, at the Wayback Machine, Missoulian, November 8, 2006. Retrieved November 8, 2006.
- Control of state Legislature unclear, Helena Independent Record Archived June 12, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
- "Constitution Party meets possible presidential nominee". The Alexandria Town Talk. Retrieved July 27, 2015.
- Derby, Kevin (August 15, 2011). "Will Roy Moore Be the GOP's Ralph Nader in 2012?". Sunshine State News. Archived from the original on February 17, 2019. Retrieved October 8, 2016.
- Derby, Kevin (November 21, 2016). "Roy Moore to Run for His Old Job – Not the White House". Sunshine State News. Archived from the original on November 28, 2011. Retrieved October 8, 2016.
- Collins, Paul (April 23, 2012). "Constitution Party nominates Goode". www.martinsvillebulletin.com. Archived from the original on September 3, 2012. Retrieved August 31, 2012.
- "Constitution Party Presidential Debate" ' Archived April 30, 2012, at the Wayback Machine; Winger, Richard; Ballot Access News; March 26, 2012
- Mills, Glen. "The Constitution Party hosts national convention in Salt Lake City". GOOD4UTAH. Archived from the original on April 27, 2016. Retrieved April 24, 2016.
- Agencies. "US: Darrell Castle named Constitution Party candidate". www.mwcnews.net. Archived from the original on April 23, 2016. Retrieved April 24, 2016.
- "Constitution Party Nominee Acceptance Speech". C-SPAN.org. Archived from the original on April 21, 2016. Retrieved April 24, 2016.
- "Darrell Castle Withdraws from Constitution Party Presidential Nomination Race | Ballot Access News". ballot-access.org. Archived from the original on August 4, 2016. Retrieved April 24, 2016.
- "Castle for President 2016 Website". Archived from the original on May 14, 2016.
- Joseph Sobran was the original vice presidential nominee, but he withdrew from the ticket and was replaced by Frazier.
- In Montana, Baldwin and Castle did not appear on the ballot; instead, Ron Paul and Michael Peroutka appeared as the Constitution presidential and vice presidential nominees, respectively. Paul and Peroutka received an additional 10,638 votes.
- In Idaho, Castle and Bradley did not appear on the ballot under the Constitution Party; instead, Scott Copeland and J. R. Myers appeared as the Constitution presidential and vice presidential nominees, respectively. Copeland and Myers received an additional 2,356 votes. Castle and Bradley ran in the state as independents and received 4,411 votes.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on February 20, 2019. Retrieved February 20, 2019.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on February 20, 2019. Retrieved February 20, 2019.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "Ballot Access". The Constitution Party. Archived from the original on September 8, 2016. Retrieved September 13, 2016.
- "Ballot Access | The Constitution Party". www.constitutionparty.com. Archived from the original on May 11, 2016. Retrieved May 13, 2016.
- Blumenthal, Max (2010). Republican Gomorrah: Inside the Movement That Shattered the Party. Nation Books. p. 86. ISBN 978-1568584171.
- Boggs, Alison (June 10, 2011), "Hindu God Sculpture Draws Critics In CDA", The Spokesman-Review – via HighBeam Research (subscription required), retrieved February 10, 2014
- Brunt, Jonathan (October 13, 2012), "Solidly Gop District Seeing Spirited Race; Shea's Views Seem to Provide Opening for Biviano", The Spokesman-Review – via HighBeam Research (subscription required), retrieved February 10, 2014
- Camden, Jim (June 30, 2004), "Candidate bases bid on God; Constitution Party presidential nominee draws crowd of 500, wants spot on state ballot", The Spokesman-Review – via HighBeam Research (subscription required), retrieved February 10, 2014
- Camden, Jim (June 30, 2004), "Candidate is on a mission; Constitution Party nominee visits Spokane", The Spokesman-Review – via HighBeam Research (subscription required), retrieved February 10, 2014
- "Constitution Party Assails Socialism", Seattle Daily Times – via NewsBank (subscription required), p. 42, September 9, 1958
- "Constitution Party Nominates Candidates". The Times Examiner. May 26, 2010.
- "Constitution Party Sets Convention", Seattle Daily Times – via NewsBank (subscription required), p. 22, July 31, 1958
- de Leon, Virginia (June 24, 2004), "'Ten Commandments' judge to speak; Roy Moore to talk about 'America's call to honor God'", The Spokesman-Review – via HighBeam Research (subscription required), archived from the original on June 11, 2014, retrieved February 10, 2014
- W.Va. GOP says it won’t appeal ballot ruling; September 28, 2010; The Register-Herald; Summary: "By a margin of just eleven voter signatures, the party succeeds in securing ballot access for U.S. House of Representatives candidate Phil Hudok. The party then spends the rest of the summer petitioning to gain access for U.S. Senate candidate Jeff Becker to run in the special election for the late Robert C. Byrd's seat, despite looming challenges by the GOP to stop or delay the election".
- "Group Plans To Form New Political Party", Seattle Daily Times – via NewsBank (subscription required), p. 9, September 7, 1958
- Hayden, Jay G. (September 9, 1956), "Chances Slim 'Far-Rightist' Ticket Would Be Important", Seattle Daily Times – via NewsBank (subscription required), p. 109
- "Hearings on Gay Marriage Likely to Be Packed Monday", The Seattle Times – via HighBeam Research (subscription required), January 22, 2012, retrieved February 10, 2014
- Lester, David (October 12, 2004), "County Hopefuls Agree to Agree – and Disagree", Yakima Herald-Republic – via HighBeam Research (subscription required), retrieved February 10, 2014
- "Only 3 Parties' Write-In Votes To Be Counted", Seattle Daily Times – via NewsBank (subscription required), p. 9, October 23, 1956
- Parrish, Susan (April 11, 2013), "Spokane Group Behind Anti-Levy Fliers in B.G", The Columbian – via HighBeam Research (subscription required), retrieved February 10, 2014
- Pomeroy, Karla (January 26, 2004). "Marylander Campaigns to be Constitution Party's Presidential Candidate". Basin Baltimore Chronicle.
- "Steve Krukar (CST)". Washington Post. 2004.
- Ward, Leah (May 21, 2010), "Constitution Party prepares to gather in Moxee [Derived headline]", Yakima Herald-Republic – via HighBeam Research (subscription required), retrieved February 10, 2014
- "'Write-in' Is Voter Privilege, Says Candidate", Seattle Daily Times – via NewsBank (subscription required), p. 21, November 4, 1956