Constitution of Sudan
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politics and government of
The temporary de facto Constitution of Sudan is the Draft Constitutional Declaration, which was signed by representatives of the Transitional Military Council and the Forces of Freedom and Change alliance on 4 August 2019. This replaced the Interim National Constitution of the Republic of Sudan, 2005 (INC) adopted on 6 July 2005, which had been suspended on 11 April 2019 by Lt. Gen Ahmed Awad Ibn Auf in the 2019 Sudanese coup d'état.
Late twentieth century
The first permanent Constitution of Sudan was drafted in 1973. It incorporated the Addis Ababa Agreement (1972) ending the first Sudanese civil war. On 1 July 1998, a new constitution entered into force after being approved in a constitutional referendum.
Early twenty-first century
2005 Interim National Constitution
The Interim National Constitution of the Republic of Sudan, 2005 (INC) was adopted on 6 July 2005. The constitution was officially suspended following a military coup which overthrew the country's President of 30 years Omar al-Bashir.
August 2019 Draft Constitutional Declaration
On 5 July 2019, the Forces of Freedom and Change (FFC) alliance, representing a wide range of citizens' groups, political opposition parties and armed opposition groups who had protested for many months since December 2018 via massive and sustained civil disobedience, agreed on a deal with the Transitional Military Council (TMC) for a 39-month plan of recreating political institutions to return to a democratic system.
On 3 August 2019, the Political Agreement from July was complemented by a more extensive constitutional document, with 70 legal articles organised in 16 chapters, called the Draft Constitutional Declaration. The document was signed on 4 August 2019 by Ahmed Rabie of the FFC and Mohamed Hamdan Dagalo ("Hemetti") of the TMC.
- Constitution Of The Republic Of Sudan (Entered into force 1 July 1998) at ICRC website
- Interim National Constitution of the Republic of Sudan, 2005 at Refworld.org
- unofficial English translation of 4 August 2019 Draft Constitutional Declaration by IDEA
- FFC; TMC (2019-08-04). "(الدستوري Declaration (العربية))" [(Constitutional Declaration)] (PDF). raisethevoices.org (in Arabic). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2019-08-05. Retrieved 2019-08-05.
- FFC; TMC; IDEA; Reeves, Eric (2019-08-10). "Sudan: Draft Constitutional Charter for the 2019 Transitional Period". sudanreeves.org. Archived from the original on 2019-08-10. Retrieved 2019-08-10.
- "Interim National Constitution of the Republic of Sudan, 2005" (PDF). Refworld.org. UNHCR. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2019-07-08. Retrieved 2014-06-01.
- Osman, Muhammed; Bearak, Max (11 April 2019). "Sudan's military overthrows president following months of popular protests". Washington Post. Retrieved 12 April 2019.
- "Constitution Of The Republic Of Sudan (Entered into force 1 July 1998)" (PDF). International Committee of the Red Cross. Retrieved 2014-06-01.
- Nohlen, D, Krennerich, M & Thibaut, B (1999) Elections in Africa: A data handbook, p595 ISBN 0-19-829645-2
- Nima Elbagir (11 April 2019). "Bashir was forced out in pre-dawn meeting". CNN. Retrieved 12 April 2019.
Before dawn on Thursday, the heads of Sudan's four main security apparatuses arrived at President Omar al-Bashir's residence to deliver the message that he must go. At 3:30 a.m., the leaders of the security agencies, which have so far been loyal to Bashir, told Sudan's longtime leader that "there was no alternative" but for him to step down...
- "'Our revolution won': Sudan's opposition lauds deal with military". Al Jazeera English. 5 July 2019. Archived from the original on 5 July 2019. Retrieved 5 July 2019.
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