Constitution of Sudan

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The temporary de facto Constitution of Sudan is the Draft Constitutional Declaration,[1][2] which was signed by representatives of the Transitional Military Council and the Forces of Freedom and Change alliance on 4 August 2019.[3][4][5] This replaced the Interim National Constitution of the Republic of Sudan, 2005 (INC) adopted on 6 July 2005,[6] which had been suspended on 11 April 2019 by Lt. Gen Ahmed Awad Ibn Auf in the 2019 Sudanese coup d'état.[7]

Late twentieth century[edit]

The first permanent Constitution of Sudan was drafted in 1973.[citation needed] It incorporated the Addis Ababa Agreement (1972) ending the first Sudanese civil war.[citation needed] On 1 July 1998, a new constitution entered into force[8] after being approved in a constitutional referendum.[9]

Early twenty-first century[edit]

2005 Interim National Constitution[edit]

The Interim National Constitution of the Republic of Sudan, 2005 (INC) was adopted on 6 July 2005.[6] The constitution was officially suspended following a military coup which overthrew the country's President of 30 years Omar al-Bashir.[7][10]

August 2019 Draft Constitutional Declaration[edit]

On 5 July 2019, the Forces of Freedom and Change (FFC) alliance, representing a wide range of citizens' groups, political opposition parties and armed opposition groups who had protested for many months since December 2018 via massive and sustained civil disobedience, agreed on a deal with the Transitional Military Council (TMC) for a 39-month plan of recreating political institutions to return to a democratic system.[11]

On 3 August 2019, the Political Agreement from July was complemented by a more extensive constitutional document, with 70 legal articles organised in 16 chapters, called the Draft Constitutional Declaration.[4][5] The document was signed on 4 August 2019 by Ahmed Rabie of the FFC and Mohamed Hamdan Dagalo ("Hemetti") of the TMC.[3]

The Draft Constitutional Declaration defines the leadership, institutions and procedures for the 39-month transition period.[1][2]

External links[edit]


  1. ^ a b FFC; TMC (2019-08-04). "(الدستوري Declaration (العربية))" [(Constitutional Declaration)] (PDF). (in Arabic). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2019-08-05. Retrieved 2019-08-05.
  2. ^ a b FFC; TMC; IDEA; Reeves, Eric (2019-08-10). "Sudan: Draft Constitutional Charter for the 2019 Transitional Period". Archived from the original on 2019-08-10. Retrieved 2019-08-10.
  3. ^ a b
  4. ^ a b
  5. ^ a b
  6. ^ a b "Interim National Constitution of the Republic of Sudan, 2005" (PDF). UNHCR. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2019-07-08. Retrieved 2014-06-01.
  7. ^ a b Osman, Muhammed; Bearak, Max (11 April 2019). "Sudan's military overthrows president following months of popular protests". Washington Post. Retrieved 12 April 2019.
  8. ^ "Constitution Of The Republic Of Sudan (Entered into force 1 July 1998)" (PDF). International Committee of the Red Cross. Retrieved 2014-06-01.
  9. ^ Nohlen, D, Krennerich, M & Thibaut, B (1999) Elections in Africa: A data handbook, p595 ISBN 0-19-829645-2
  10. ^ Nima Elbagir (11 April 2019). "Bashir was forced out in pre-dawn meeting". CNN. Retrieved 12 April 2019. Before dawn on Thursday, the heads of Sudan's four main security apparatuses arrived at President Omar al-Bashir's residence to deliver the message that he must go. At 3:30 a.m., the leaders of the security agencies, which have so far been loyal to Bashir, told Sudan's longtime leader that "there was no alternative" but for him to step down...
  11. ^ "'Our revolution won': Sudan's opposition lauds deal with military". Al Jazeera English. 5 July 2019. Archived from the original on 5 July 2019. Retrieved 5 July 2019.