Constitutional Tribunal (Poland)

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Constitutional Tribunal
Trybunał Konstytucyjny
Polish Governmental and Diplomatic Plaque.svg
EstablishedMarch 26, 1982; 39 years ago (1982-03-26) (constitutional amendment establishing the Constitutional Tribunal)
1986, beginning of the activity
LocationWarsaw
Composition methodPrime ministerial nomination with Sejm RP confirmation
President and Vice President appointed by President of the Republic
Authorized byConstitution of the Republic of Poland
Judge term length9 years, only one term
Number of positions15
Websitewww.trybunal.gov.pl Edit this at Wikidata
President
CurrentlyJulia Przyłębska
Since21 December 2016
Vice President
Currentlydr hab. Mariusz Muszyński
Since5 July 2017
The seat of the Tribunal, Warsaw
The seat of the Tribunal, Warsaw (2006)

The Constitutional Tribunal (Polish: Trybunał Konstytucyjny) is the constitutional court of the Republic of Poland, a judicial body established to resolve disputes on the constitutionality of the activities of state institutions; its main task is to supervise the compliance of statutory law with the Constitution of the Republic of Poland.

Its creation was a request of the Solidarity movement following its 1981 National Congress that took place a few weeks before the introduction of martial law.[1] The Tribunal was established on 26 March 1982 and judges took office on 1 January 1986.

The tribunal's powers increased in 1989 with the transition to the capitalist Third Polish Republic and in 1997 with establishment of a new Constitution.[2] The Constitution mandates that its 15 members are elected by the Sejm, the lower house, for 9 years. It was the subject of an appointment crisis in 2015.

It should not be confused with the Supreme Court of Poland.

Powers[edit]

The Constitutional Tribunal adjudicates on the compliance with the Constitution of legislation and international agreements (also their ratification), on disputes over the powers of central constitutional bodies, and on compliance with the Constitution of the aims and activities of political parties. It also rules on constitutional complaints.[citation needed]

Composition[edit]

The Constitutional Tribunal is made up of 15 judges chosen by the Sejm RP (the lower house of parliament) for single nine-year terms. The Constitutional Tribunal constitutes one of the formal guarantees of a state grounded on the rule of law.[citation needed]

Three judges, appointed by the President of the Tribunal, serve as members of the National Electoral Commission (Act of 5 January 2011 Electoral Code).[citation needed]

History[edit]

1982–1989: People's Republic of Poland[edit]

The Constitutional Tribunal was established by the amendment of the Constitution of the People's Republic of Poland on 26 March 1982.[1] Due to the brevity of the introduced article 33a, it was decided that a law must be brought forth that would outline the proceedings of the Constitutional Tribunal.[3] This became an intricate process with 15 drafts developed, and the final act was ratified by the Sejm on 29 April 1985 which allowed for the formal commencement of the Tribunal's judicial proceedings on 1 January 1986.[3] But the courts competence and judicial capacity were limited at this time, as all rulings on the constitutionality of bills could be dismissed by a 2/3 majority vote in the Sejm.[2] This in effect would place the rulings in an indefinite moratorium as these votes rarely occurred.[2]

On 24 January 1986 the first motion, reference U 1/86, was brought before the Constitutional Tribunal on behalf of the Presidium of the Provincial National Council in Wrocław.[3] The claimants sought to contend two paragraphs of the Ordinance of the Council of Ministers in regard to the sale of state property and the procedures and costs related to it as unconstitutional.[3] In opposition to the government's stance, the court ruled in a 3-member panel on 28 May 1986 that the introduced paragraphs were unconstitutional.[3] The Council of Ministers called for a reevaluation of the case, but on 5 November 1986 the Constitutional Tribunal upheld its ruling.[3]

1989–2014: Third Polish Republic[edit]

In 1989 the Constitutional Tribunal's powers expanded as it secured the right to universally decide on the binding interpretation of laws.[2] Many changes came with the enactment of the 1997 Constitution; the number of judges increased from 12 to 15, terms of office were elongated by 1 year for a total of 9 years, and the Tribunal lost its competence to decide the interpretation of legal statutes (in the form of abstract provisions).[2]

2015–present: Polish Constitutional Court crisis[edit]

Demonstration organized by the KOD, 18 December 2016

In June 2015, the Sejm of the VII tenure enacted a new provision on the Constitutional Tribunal in which it sought to transfer the power of election of all Constitutional Tribunal judges whose term ended in 2015 to the Sejm.[4] Subsequently, 5 judges were elected by the Sejm on 8 October 2015 and an additional 5 on 2 December 2015 by the Sejm of the VIII tenure which resulted in what was known as the 2015 Polish Constitutional Court crisis.[4] Between November 2015 and December 2016, 6 so-called remedial bills which were devised by the Law and Justice (PiS) party were enacted and in December 2016 the President of the Constitutional Tribunal replaced 3 judges appointed by the VII tenure with 3 judges from the VIII tenure.[4]

The Grand Courtroom, in which the Court adjudicates in its full composition
Presidents and Vice-Presidents of the Constitutional Tribunal from 2006 to 2016. Marek Mazurkiewicz, Andrzej Mączyński, Janusz Niemcewicz, Jerzy Stępień, Bohdan Zdziennicki i Andrzej Rzepliński (2010)

Since the reform and takeover of the Constitutional Tribunal by politicians from the ruling party, the independence and sovereignty of the institution has been criticized and often called a "puppet court" by many Polish judges' associations and foreign judicial organisations and also by their counterparts in the Constitutional Tribunals of other countries.[5][6][7][8] In February 2020, former Constitutional Tribunal judges, including former presidents of the tribunal Andrzej Rzepliński, Marek Safjan [pl], Jerzy Stępień [pl], Bohdan Zdziennicki [pl] and Andrzej Zoll, stated,

We, the undersigned retired judges of the Constitutional Tribunal, regret to state that the actions of the legislature and the executive since 2015, and the Constitutional Tribunal leadership since 2017, have led to a dramatic decline in the significance and the prestige of this constitutional body, as well as to the inability to perform its constitutional tasks and duties. Unfortunately, the widespread belief that the Constitutional Tribunal has virtually been abolished is correct.

— former Constitutional Tribunal judges, Ruleoflaw.pl[9]

In 2016 Julia Przyłębska, an ally of Law and Justice was appointed as President of the Constitutional Tribunal. Her appointment is open to the challenge that it is unconstitutional because she was appointed directly by the President of the Republic rather than being elected by judges on the Tribunal, as required by Poland's Constitution[citation needed]. Her controversial appointment brought the total of women on the fifteen person Tribunal to two (together with Krystyna Pawłowicz).

Landmark decisions[edit]

Case K 1/20[edit]

The Tribunal received a referral by 119 MP on whether or not abortions of pregnancies unrelated to rape or not threatening the mother's life, which they call "eugenic", are constitutional. The signatories argued that the provision violates Constitutional protections of human dignity (Article 30), the right to life (Article 39) or the prohibition against discrimination (Article 32).

On 22 October 2020, a 11–2 ruling[10] declared that abortion in Poland due to foetal abnormality was violating the Constitutional protection of human dignity. This effectively made abortions on that basis unobtainable for women in Poland. The provision had been used for 1074 of the 1110 legal abortions in 2019. The ruling triggered the October 2020 Polish protests, which forced the government to delay the ruling's publication in the Dziennik Ustaw until 27 January 2021.[11]

Case K 3/21[edit]

In July 2021, Prime minister Mateusz Morawiecki asked the Tribunal for a constitutional review of three provisions of Treaty on European Union. Following a series of hearings of prominent officeholders, the Tribunal ruled on 7 October 2021[12] in a 10–2 decision that:

  1. Article 1 of the Treaty on European Union (establishing an "ever closer union"), insofar as it is interpreted by the European Court of Justice in a "new step" (nowy etap) which
    • enlarges the EU institutions' competence beyond the limits that Poland accepted via its treaties,
    • opposes the primacy of the Constitution of Poland in both validity and application,
    • opposes the sovereignty of the Polish state,
    is unconstitutional;
  2. Article 19 of the Treaty on European Union (that establishes the ECJ), insofar as it gives ordinary courts the right to disregard the Constitution, and to adjudicate on the basis of provisions repealed by the Sejm or deemed unconstitutional by the TK, is unconstitutional;
  3. Article 19 and Article 2 of the Treaty on European Union (values) are unconstitutional insofar as they empower ordinary courts to question the constitutionality of judicial appointments by the President.

Consequently, all branches of power in Poland argue that Poland's membership in the European Union does not entail that institutions external to the state have the supreme legal authority.

This was widely interpreted as a challenge of the primacy of European Union law, which emerged in Costa v. ENEL (1964), with some talking of a judicial "Polexit".[13] European primacy, however, had never been fully enshrined by previous Polish rulings, only insofar as it doesn't infringe on Poland's sovereignty (see K 18/04).

This landmark decision marks the culmination of the escalade over judicial nominations and reforms between Brussels and Warsaw that began in late 2015, when Law and Justice came to power, starting with the 2015 Polish Constitutional Court crisis.[13] Many politicians in Brussels called upon the European Commission to freeze payments to Poland. The Commission President said she was deeply concerned, and ordered to act swiftly.[13] The recently-implemented Rule of Law Conditionality Regulation could be used.

Presidents and vice presidents[edit]

No. Start and end date Full name [a] Sejm Term as a Justice Term length
Presidents
1. 1 December 1985 – 1 December 1989 prof. Alfons Klafkowski   IX (PRL) 1 December 1985 – 1 December 1989 4 years, 0 days
2. 1 December 1989 – 19 November 1993[15] prof. Mieczysław Tyczka   X (PRL) 1 December 1989 – 17 June 1994 4 years, 198 days (resigned)
3. 19 November 1993[16] – 1 December 1997 prof. Andrzej Zoll   X (PRL) 1 December 1989 – 1 December 1997 8 years, 0 days
1 December 1997 – 6 January 1998 vacant
4. 6 January 1998[17] – 5 November 2006 prof. Marek Safjan   III 5 November 1997 – 5 November 2006 9 years, 0 days
5. 6 November 2006[18] – 25 June 2008 Jerzy Stępień   III 25 June 1999 – 25 June 2008 9 years, 0 days
6. 26 June 2008[19] – 2 December 2010 dr Bohdan Zdziennicki   IV 2 December 2001 – 2 December 2010 9 years, 0 days
7. 3 December 2010 – 19 December 2016 prof. Andrzej Rzepliński   VI 19 December 2007 – 19 December 2016 9 years, 0 days
20 December 2016 Julia Przyłębska[b]   VIII 9 December 2015 5 years, 318 days
8. 21 December 2016
No. Start and end date Full name [a] Sejm Term as a Justice Term length
Vice Presidents
1. 1 December 1985 – 1 December 1993 prof. Leonard Łukaszuk   IX (PRL) 1 December 1985 – 1 December 1993 8 years, 0 days
2. 1 December 1993 – 1 December 2001 prof. Janusz Trzciński   II 1 December 1993 – 1 December 2001 8 years, 0 days
3. 2 December 2001 – 1 December 2006 prof. Andrzej Mączyński   III 1 December 1997 – 1 December 2006 9 years, 0 days
4. 2 December 2006 – 2 March 2010 Janusz Niemcewicz[20]   III 2 March 2001 – 2 March 2010 9 years, 0 days
5. 3 March 2010 – 2 December 2010 dr hab. Marek Mazurkiewicz   IV 2 December 2001 – 2 December 2010 9 years, 0 days
6. 3 December 2010 – 26 June 2017 prof. Stanisław Biernat   VI 26 June 2008 – 26 June 2017 9 years, 0 days
27 June – 4 July 2017 vacated
7. 5 July 2017 dr hab. Mariusz Muszyński[b]   VIII 2 December 2015 5 years, 325 days
  Nominated by PiS or its coalition partners
  Nominated by PO or its coalition partners
  Nominated by Democratic Left Alliance, Solidarity, or its coalition partners

Current justices[edit]

No. Full name [a] Sejm Votes Start date Term length Comment
62. dr hab. Mariusz Muszyński   VIII 236 2 December 2015[21] 5 years, 325 days Vice-President of The Tribunal since 5 July 2017
Election disputed[b]
63. Piotr Pszczółkowski[22]   233 3 December 2015 5 years, 324 days Election disputed[b]
64. Julia Przyłębska[23]   234 9 December 2015 5 years, 318 days President of the Tribunal since 21 December 2016
Election disputed[b]
65. dr hab. Zbigniew Jędrzejewski   227 28 April 2016[24] 5 years, 178 days
66. dr hab. Michał Warciński[25]   231 20 December 2016 4 years, 307 days
68. dr Andrzej Zielonacki[26]   227 28 June 2017[27] 4 years, 117 days
69. dr hab. Justyn Piskorski[28]   248 18 September 2017[29] 4 years, 35 days
70. dr hab. Jarosław Wyrembak[30]   228 30 January 2018[31] 3 years, 266 days
71. dr Wojciech Sych[32]   228 8 April 2019[33] 2 years, 198 days
72. dr hab. Krystyna Pawłowicz[34]   IX 230 5 December 2019[35] 1 year, 322 days
73. Stanisław Piotrowicz[36]   230 5 December 2019[35] 1 year, 322 days
74. prof. Jakub Stelina[37]   233 5 December 2019[35] 1 year, 322 days
75. dr hab. Rafał Wojciechowski[38]   239 7 January 2020[39] 1 year, 289 days
76. Bartłomiej Sochański[40]   234 9 April 2020[41] 1 year, 197 days
  Nominated by PiS or its coalition partners
  Nominated by PO or its coalition partners

2015 Polish Constitutional Court crisis[edit]

In the summer and autumn 2015, a change of power occurred with Civic Platform (PO) losing both the Sejm and the Presidency to Law and Justice (PiS). These two branches appoint and swear new judges, respectively.

In 2015, the term of five judges was set to expire, three of which between Sejm election day and the new legislature's session, and two the month after. PO tried to appoint them in advance (they were: Roman Hauser, Krzysztof Ślebzak, Andrzej Jakubecki, Bronisław Sitek and Andrzej Sokala) but their oath was denied by the new PiS President, Andrzej Duda. As a result, they never sat. The new PiS majority nominated three other judges on 2 December 2015 (Henryk Cioch, Lech Morawski, Mariusz Muszyński) and two others the next week (Piotr Pszczółkowski, Julia Przyłębska), who were immediately sworn in. Cioch and Morawski later died while in office, and were replaced by Justyn Piskorski and Jarosław Wyrembak.

Of the appointments made before the election, the Constitutional Tribunal itself invalidated the last two and accepted the first three. As a consequence, of the appointments made after the election, the Tribunal accepted the last two (Piotr Pszczółkowski and Julia Przyłębska) and invalidated the first three (Henryk Cioch, Lech Morawski and Mariusz Muszyński). However, the ruling was disputed by the new government, who then went on to change the statutes regulating the Court, in order to have its nominees sit. See 2015 Polish Constitutional Court crisis.

Multiple cases were sent to the European Court of Human Rights and the European Court of Justice, challenging the Tribunal's legal status. In Xero Flor v Poland, the ECHR ruled on 7 May 2021 that a Polish company did not have the right to a fair trial because Muszyński's election was unlawful.[42] The Constitutional Tribunal is expected to judge on 3 August 2021 whether it will comply to the ruling or not; this is interpreted as a decision on whether the European or Polish courts are sovereign.[43] In a 14 July 2021 ruling, the Tribunal rejected the constitutionality of any attempt by the ECHR to suspend the Polish tribunals, as such competence has never been transferred by any treaty.[44]

Length of tenure[edit]

This graphical timeline depicts the length of each current justice's tenure on the Court:

Former[edit]

Marek Safjan, first President elected after the fall of communism in Poland
No. Full name [a] Sejm Term as a Justice Term length
1. prof. Henryk de Fiumel   IX (PRL) 1 December 1985 – 17 June 1986 198 days (died in office)
2. prof. Kazimierz Buchała   1 December 1985 – 1 December 1989 4 years, 0 days
3. prof. Natalia Gajl   1 December 1985 – 1 December 1989 4 years, 0 days
4. dr Adam Józefowicz   1 December 1985 – 1 December 1989 4 years, 0 days
5. dr Andrzej Kabat   1 December 1985 – 1 December 1989 4 years, 0 days
6. prof. Alfons Klafkowski   1 December 1985 – 1 December 1989 4 years, 0 days
7. prof. Stanisław Pawela   1 December 1985 – 1 December 1989 4 years, 0 days
8. dr Czesław Bakalarski   1 December 1985 – 1 December 1993 8 years, 0 days
9. prof. Kazimierz Działocha   1 December 1985 – 1 December 1993 8 years, 0 days
10. prof. Henryk Groszyk   1 December 1985 – 1 December 1993 8 years, 0 days
11. prof. Leonard Łukaszuk   1 December 1985 – 1 December 1993 8 years, 0 days
12. Remigiusz Orzechowski   1 December 1985 – 13 August 1993 7 years, 255 days (died in office)
13. Maria Łabor-Soroka[45] - 25 November 1986 – 30 November 1993 7 years, 5 days
14. Antoni Filcek   X (PRL) 1 December 1989 – 31 October 1992 2 years, 335 days (resigned)
15. prof. Mieczysław Tyczka   1 December 1989 – 17 June 1994 4 years, 198 days (resigned)
16. prof. Janina Zakrzewska   1 December 1989 – 27 May 1995 5 years, 177 days (died in office)
17. prof. Tomasz Dybowski   1 December 1989 – 1 December 1997 8 years, 0 days
18. prof. Wojciech Łączkowski   1 December 1989 – 1 December 1997 8 years, 0 days
19. prof. Andrzej Zoll   1 December 1989 – 1 December 1997 8 years, 0 days
20. Ferdynand Rymarz - I 19 February 1993 – 19 February 2001[46] 8 years, 0 days
21. dr hab. Błażej Wierzbowski   II 1 December 1993 – 30 November 1998[47] 4 years, 364 days (resigned)
22. prof. Wojciech Sokolewicz   1 December 1993 – 31 May 1999[47] 5 years, 181 days (resigned)
23. prof. Zdzisław Czeszejko-Sochacki 1 December 1993 – 1 December 2001[47] 8 years, 0 days
24. prof. Lech Garlicki 1 December 1993 – 1 December 2001[47] 8 years, 0 days
25. Stefan Jan Jaworski   1 December 1993 – 1 December 2001[47] 8 years, 0 days
26. prof. Janusz Trzciński   1 December 1993 – 1 December 2001[47] 8 years, 0 days
27. prof. Krzysztof Kolasiński - 27 May 1994 – 27 May 2002[48] 8 years, 0 days
28. Jadwiga Skórzewska-Łosiak   21 July 1995 – 21 July 2003[49] 8 years, 0 days
29. prof. Teresa Dębowska-Romanowska   III 5 November 1997 – 5 November 2006[50] 9 years, 0 days
30. prof. Marek Safjan   5 November 1997 – 5 November 2006[50] 9 years, 0 days
31. prof. Marian Zdyb   5 November 1997 – 5 November 2006[50] 9 years, 0 days
32. Wiesław Johann   1 December 1997 – 1 December 2006[51] 9 years, 0 days
33. prof. Biruta Lewaszkiewicz-Petrykowska   1 December 1997 – 1 December 2006[51] 9 years, 0 days
34. prof. Andrzej Mączyński   1 December 1997 – 1 December 2006[51] 9 years, 0 days
35. dr hab. Jerzy Ciemniewski   18 December 1998 – 18 December 2007[52] 9 years, 0 days
36. Jerzy Stępień   25 June 1999 – 25 June 2008[53] 9 years, 0 days
37. Janusz Niemcewicz   2 March 2001 – 2 March 2010[54] 9 years, 0 days
38. prof. Marian Grzybowski   IV 2 December 2001 – 2 December 2010[55] 9 years, 0 days
39. dr hab. Marek Mazurkiewicz   2 December 2001 – 2 December 2010[55] 9 years, 0 days
40. dr hab. Mirosław Wyrzykowski   2 December 2001 – 2 December 2010[55] 9 years, 0 days
41. dr Bohdan Zdziennicki   2 December 2001 – 2 December 2010[55] 9 years, 0 days
42. prof. Ewa Łętowska   28 May 2002 – 28 May 2011[56] 9 years, 0 days
43. prof. Adam Jamróz   22 July 2003 – 22 July 2012[57] 9 years, 0 days
44. dr hab. Maria Gintowt-Jankowicz   V 6 November 2006 – 6 November 2015[58] 9 years, 0 days
45. Wojciech Hermeliński   6 November 2006 – 6 November 2015[58] 9 years, 0 days
46. Marek Kotlinowski   6 November 2006 – 6 November 2015[58] 9 years, 0 days
47. dr hab. Zbigniew Cieślak   2 December 2006 – 2 December 2015[59] 9 years, 0 days
48. dr hab. Teresa Liszcz[60]   8 December 2006 – 8 December 2015[61] 9 years, 0 days
49. Lidia Bagińska[62]   8 December 2006 – 12 March 2007[63] 94 days (resigned)
50. prof. Mirosław Granat[64]   27 April 2007 – 27 April 2016[65] 9 years, 0 days
51. prof. Andrzej Rzepliński[66]   VI 19 December 2007 – 19 December 2016[67] 9 years, 0 days
52. prof. Stanisław Biernat   26 June 2008 – 26 June 2017[68] 9 years, 0 days
53. prof. Sławomira Wronkowska-Jaśkiewicz[69]   6 May 2010 – 6 May 2019[70] 9 years, 0 days
54. Stanisław Rymar[71]   3 December 2010 – 3 December 2019[72] 9 years, 0 days
55. prof. Piotr Tuleja[71]   3 December 2010 – 3 December 2019[72] 9 years, 0 days
56. prof. Marek Zubik[71]   3 December 2010 – 3 December 2019[72] 9 years, 0 days
57. prof. Małgorzata Pyziak-Szafnicka[73]   5 January 2011 – 5 January 2020[74] 9 years, 0 days
58. prof. Andrzej Wróbel   29 May 2011 – 24 January 2017[75] 5 years, 240 days (resigned)
59. prof. Leon Kieres   23 July 2012 – 23 July 2021[76] 9 years, 0 days
prof. Roman Hauser   VII 7 November 2015[77]
(never seated)
5 years, 350 days
(election overruled)
prof. Krzysztof Ślebzak   7 November 2015[78]
(never seated)
5 years, 350 days
(election overruled)
prof. Andrzej Jakubecki   7 November 2015[79]
(never seated)
5 years, 350 days
(election overruled)
prof. Bronisław Sitek   (3 December 2015)[80]
(never seated)
5 years, 324 days
(election ruled unconstitutional)
prof. Andrzej Sokala   (9 December 2015)[81]
(never seated)
5 years, 318 days
(election ruled unconstitutional)
60. prof. Henryk Cioch[82]   VIII 2 December 2015[83] – 20 December 2017 2 years, 18 days (died in office)
61. prof. Lech Morawski[82]   2 December 2015[83] – 12 July 2017 1 year, 222 days (died in office)
67. dr hab. Grzegorz Jędrejek[84]   27 February 2017 – 19 January 2020[85] 2 years, 326 days (died in office)
No. Full name [c] Sejm Term as a Justice Term length

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d The colors only represent the majorities that elected each judge, as the Polish Constitution of 1997 mandates that judges shall be independent and shall not belong to any political party (Article 195).[14]
  2. ^ a b c d e The 8th Sejm elected Mariusz Muszyński, Piotr Pszczółkowski, and Julia Przyłębska, even though prof. Andrzej Jakubecki, Bronisław Sitek and Andrzej Sokala had been elected by the 7th Sejm in advance. The 3 seats' terms were to end after the 2015 election, but during the recess, leaving room for conflicting interpretation of the constitution.
  3. ^ The colors only represent the majorities that elected each judge, as the Polish Constitution of 1997 mandates that judges shall be independent and shall not belong to any political party (Article 195).[14]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Dz.U. z 1982 r. nr 11, poz. 83.
  2. ^ a b c d e Skrzydło, Wiesław; Grabowska, Sabina; Grabowski (red.), Radosław (2009). Konstytucja Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej. Komentarz encyklopedyczny. Warsaw: Wolters Kluwer Polska. ISBN 978-83-7601-686-3.
  3. ^ a b c d e f Alberski, Robert (2010). Trybunał Konstytucyjny w polskich systemach politycznych. Wrocław: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego. ISBN 978-83-229-3146-2.
  4. ^ a b c Kryszkiewicz, Małgorzata; Osiecki, Grzegorz (2016). "Twarda linia Prawa i Sprawiedliwości". Dziennik Gazeta Prawna.
  5. ^ "Prezes polskiego TK o słowach prezesa niemieckiego TK: jestem zażenowana". Onet.pl. 13 May 2020. Archived from the original on 13 May 2020. Retrieved 13 May 2020.
  6. ^ prof. Marcin Matczak. "Poland's Constitutional Crisis: Facts and interpretations" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 May 2020. Retrieved 13 May 2020.
  7. ^ Dominika Sitnicka (22 April 2020). "Captured Constitutional Tribunal rules on the Supreme Court: Implementation of CJEU judgment inconsistent with EU law". Rule of Law. Archived from the original on 13 May 2020. Retrieved 13 May 2020.
  8. ^ Tomasz Tadeusz Koncewicz (13 March 2020). "From Constitutional to Political Justice: The Tragic Trajectories of the Polish Constitutional Court". Reconnect EU. Archived from the original on 13 May 2020. Retrieved 13 May 2020.
  9. ^ Biernat, Stanisław; Dębowska–Romanowska, Teresa; et al. (10 February 2020). "'Constitutional Tribunal has virtually been abolished,' announce retired judges". Ruleoflaw.pl. Archived from the original on 28 October 2020. Retrieved 28 October 2020.
  10. ^ "Planowanie rodziny, ochrona płodu ludzkiego i warunki dopuszczalności przerywania ciąży". Trybunał Konstytucyjny. 22 October 2020. Archived from the original on 10 February 2021. Retrieved 27 October 2020.
  11. ^ "Poland: The Constitutional Court Repeals Eugenic Abortion". ECLJ. 23 October 2020.
  12. ^ "Ocena zgodności z Konstytucją RP wybranych przepisów Traktatu o Unii Europejskiej". Trybunał Konstytucyjny. 7 October 2021. Retrieved 12 October 2021.
  13. ^ a b c "Polexit? Fury in Brussels after Warsaw court rules Polish Constitution overrides EU law". Euronews. 8 October 2021. Retrieved 12 October 2021.
  14. ^ a b "The Constitution of the Republic of Poland". Sejm.
  15. ^ W związku ze złożoną rezygnacją, Uchwałą Sejmu Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej z dnia 26 maja 1993 r. w sprawie odwołania Prezesa Trybunału Konstytucyjnego (M.P. Nr 28, poz. 290) odwołany ze stanowiska z chwilą wyboru nowego Prezesa TK.
  16. ^ W związku z rezygnacją poprzednika w trakcje kadencji, Uchwałą Sejmu Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej z dnia 19 listopada 1993 r. w sprawie wyboru Prezesa Trybunału Konstytucyjnego (M.P. Nr 62, poz. 558) powołany na stanowisko Prezesa TK.
  17. ^ M.P. z 1998 r. Nr 1, poz. 2
  18. ^ M.P. z 2006 r. Nr 80, poz. 804
  19. ^ M.P. z 2008 r. Nr 53, poz. 470
  20. ^ Nominated by Freedom Union
  21. ^ M.P. z 2015 r. poz. 1184
  22. ^ M.P. z 2015 r. poz. 1186; Przebieg procesu legislacyjnego – druk nr 56
  23. ^ M.P. z 2015 r. poz. 1185; Przebieg procesu legislacyjnego – druk nr 56
  24. ^ M.P. z 2016 r. poz. 393; Przebieg procesu legislacyjnego – druk nr 369
  25. ^ M.P. z 2016 r. poz. 1206; Przebieg procesu legislacyjnego – druk nr 1046
  26. ^ M.P. z 2017 r. Nr , poz. 610
  27. ^ prezydent.pl. "Oficjalna strona Prezydenta Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej / Aktualności / Wydarzenia / Prezydent odebrał ślubowanie od sędziego Trybunału Konstytucyjnego". www.prezydent.pl. Retrieved 28 June 2017.
  28. ^ M.P. z 2017 r. Nr , poz. 873
  29. ^ Prezydent RP przyjął ślubowanie od nowego sędziego TK Oficjalna strona Prezydenta Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej
  30. ^ M.P. z 2018 r. Nr , poz. 134
  31. ^ "Nowy sędzia TK Jarosław Wyrembak złożył ślubowanie". interia.pl. 30 January 2018. Retrieved 30 January 2018.
  32. ^ M.P. z 2019 r. Nr , poz. 414
  33. ^ "Oficjalna strona Prezydenta Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej / Aktualności / Nominacje / Prezydent przyjął ślubowanie od nowego sędziego TK". www.prezydent.pl. Retrieved 9 May 2019.
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