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For other uses, see Consultant (disambiguation).
For Senior Physician Consultant, see Consultant (medicine).
A consultant delivering a presentation

A consultant (from Latin: consultare "to discuss") is a professional who provides expert advice[1] in a particular area such as security (electronic or physical), management, education, accountancy, law, human resources, marketing (and public relations), finance, engineering, science or any of many other specialized fields.

A consultant is usually an expert or an experienced professional in a specific field and has a wide knowledge of the subject matter.[2] The role of consultant outside the medical sphere (where the term is used specifically for a grade of doctor) can fall under one of two general categories:

  • Internal consultant - someone who operates within an organization but is available to be consulted on areas of his specialization by other departments or individuals (acting as clients); or
  • External consultant - someone who is employed externally to the client (either by a consulting firm or some other agency) whose expertise is provided on a temporary basis, usually for a fee. Consulting firms range in size from sole proprietorships consisting of a single consultant, small businesses consisting of a small number of consultants, to mid- to large consulting firms, which in some cases are multinational corporations. This type of consultant generally engages with multiple and changing clients, which are typically companies, non-profit organizations, or governments.

By hiring a consultant, clients have access to deeper levels of expertise than would be financially feasible for them to retain in-house on a long-term basis. As well, clients can control their expenditures on consulting services by only purchasing as much services from the outside consultant as desired.

Consultants provide their advice to their clients in a variety of forms. Reports and presentations are often used. However, in some specialized fields, the consultant may develop customized software or other products for the client. Depending on the nature of the consulting services and the wishes of the client, the advice from the consultant may be made public, by placing the report or presentation online, or the advice may be kept confidential, and only given to the senior executives of the organization paying for the consulting services.

Ways of work[edit]

The range of areas of expertise covered by the term "consultant" is wide. One of the more common types is the management consultant. Consulting and the means by which the (external) consultant is engaged vary according to industry and local practice. However the principal difference between a consultant and a temp is generally one of direction. A consultant is engaged to fulfill a brief in terms of helping to find solutions to specific issues but the ways in which that is to be done generally falls to the consultant to decide, within constraints such as budget and resources agreed with the client. A temp, on the other hand is normally fulfilling an employment role that usually exists within the organization and is helping to bridge a gap caused by staffing shortages. They are directed by the normal management structure of the organization. There is however a hybrid form where a consultant may be hired as an interim manager or executive, bringing a combination of specialist expertise to bear on a role that is temporarily vacant (usually at a senior level).

Some consultants are employed indirectly by the client via a consultancy staffing company, a company that provides consultants on an agency basis. The staffing company itself does not usually have consulting expertise but works rather like an employment agency. This form of working is particularly common in the ICT sector. Such consultants are often called "contractors" since they are usually providing technical services (such as programming or systems analysis) that could be performed in-house were it not easier for the employer to operate a flexible system of only hiring such technologists at times of peak workload rather than permanently.

While many consultants work for firms, there is also an increasing number of independent consultants. Many of these professionals also join networks or alliances that allow them to find collaborators and new clients.

Common types[edit]

In the business, and as of recently the private sphere, the most commonly found consultants are:

  • 3D Consultants who are specialists in the field of 3D scanning, printing, modeling, designing, engineering, building, and everything that has to do with the three dimensions.
  • Business transformation consultants are specialists in assisting business stakeholders to align the strategy and objectives to their business operations. This may include assisting in the identification of business change opportunities and capability gaps, defining solutions to enable required business capability (this may include technology, organisational, or process solutions) and supporting the implementation of these changes across the business.
  • Engineering consultants provide engineering-related services such as design, supervision, execution, repair, operation, maintenance, technology, creation of drawings and specifications, and make recommendations to public, companies, firms and industries.
  • Educational consultants assists students or parents in making educational decisions and giving advices in various issues, such as tuition fees, visa, and enrolling at Higher education
  • Human-resources (HR) consultants who provide expertise around employment practice and people management.
  • Immigration consultant who helps through legal procedure of immigration from one country to other country.
  • Internet consultants who are specialists in business use of the internet and keep themselves up-to-date with new and changed capabilities offered by the web. Ideally internet consultants also have practical experience and expertise in management skills such as strategic planning, change, projects, processes, training, team-working and customer satisfaction.
  • Information-technology (IT) consultants in many disciplines such as computer hardware, software engineering, or networks.
  • Interim managers as mentioned above may be independent consultants who act as interim executives with decision-making power under corporate policies or statutes. They may sit on specially constituted boards or committees.
  • Marketing consultants who are generally called upon to advise around areas of product development and related marketing matters including marketing strategy.
  • Process consultants who are specialists in the design or improvement of operational processes and can be specific to the industry or sector.
  • Public-relations (PR) consultants dealing specifically with public relations matters external to the client organization and often engaged on a semi-permanent basis by larger organizations to provide input and guidance.
  • Performance consultants who focus on the execution of an initiative or overall performance of their client.
  • Sales consultants who focus on all levels of sales and marketing for the improvement of sales ROI and moving share from competition
  • Strategy consultants (AKA management consultants) working on the development of and improvements to organizational strategy alongside senior management in many industries.

A more comprehensive list of types is shown below.

Place of work[edit]

Though most of the back-office research and analysis occurs at the consultants' offices or home-offices, in the case of smaller consulting firms, consultants typically work at the site of the client for at least some of the time. By spending time at the client's organization, the consultant is able to observe work processes, interview workers, managers, executives, board members, or other individuals, and study how the organization operates.

The governing factor on where a consultant works tends to be the amount of interaction required with other employees of the client. If a management consultant is providing advice to a software firm that is struggling with employee morale, absenteeism and issues with managers and senior engineers leaving the firm, the consultant will probably spend a good deal of time at the client's office, interviewing staff, engineers, managers and executives, and observing work processes. On the other hand, a legal consultant asked to provide advice on a specific property law issue might only have a few meetings at the client's office, and conduct the majority of her work at the consultant's office and in legal libraries.

Similarly, the growth of online, highly skilled consultant marketplaces has begun to grow.[3] These online platforms provide consultants with experience working for typical consulting firms to easily transition into freelancing. This means that many consultants have become much more flexible in where they can work and the nature of their work.


There is no single qualification to be a consultant other than those laid down in relation to medical, psychological and engineering personnel who have attained this level-degree in it and/or professional licences. Consultants may hold undergraduate degrees, graduate degrees, professional degrees and/or professional designations pertaining to their field(s) of expertise. In some fields, a consultant may be required to hold certain professional licences (e.g., a civil engineer providing consulting on a bridge project may have to be a professional engineer). In other types of consulting, there may be no specific qualification requirements. A legal consultant may have to be a member of the bar and/or hold a law degree. An accounting consultant may have to have an accounting designation, such as Chartered Accountant status. On the other hand, some individuals become consultants after a lengthy and distinguished career as an executive or political leader, so their management or government experience may be their main "credential", rather than a degree or professional designation.

Consultant Peter Block defines a consultant as "someone who has influence over an individual, group, or organization, but who has no direct authority to implement changes." He contrasts this with a surrogate manager who is a person who "acts on behalf of, or in place of, a manager." The key difference is that a consultant never makes decisions for the individual or group, whereas a surrogate manager does make decisions.

Accredited Associates are bound by a Code of Ethics that requires the consultant to only provide “practical advice that works” — by “Analysing as a Generalist and Solving as a Specialist” — using the skills and experience of a sub-contracted fellow Associate, thus at all times providing the client with the best available advice and support. Internationally the accreditation of Management Consultants is overseen by higher education training and accreditation organizations.

  • The International Council of Management Consulting Institutes (ICMCI) was founded in 1987 and has around 50 member institutes covering the globe. The award of Certified Management Consultant (CMC) status is its internationally recognised accreditation (in some countries like the US, conforms to ISO/IEC 17024:2003 standards) that is not specific to the technical content of the consultant's practice. For instance this could be held equally by a Human Resources (HR) expert or a Chemical Engineer operating as management consultants in their field(s) of expertise. There are about 10,000 CMCs worldwide.
  • Chartered Institute of Management Consultants (CIMC) is a not-for-profit professional body chartered federally under Letters Patent granted by the Government of Canada. CIMC is also chartered under the Laws of the State of Delaware, USA. CIMC is also registered with the National Certification Commission, USA. The CIMC award Chartered Management Consultant Ch.MC designation as a global management credential.
  • International Federation of Consulting Engineers (FIDIC) is a Federation whose members are national associations of Consulting Engineers.
  • Management Consulting Institute (MCI) is a non-profit founded in 2009 and has trained over 5000 individuals in MBA Programs in the United States. Its mission is to make Management Consulting a Business Discipline and to democratize business consulting competencies and skills and make them available to everyone, everywhere. It develops standards and body of knowledge for Management Consulting through a Board of experts (Management Consulantants currently or previously at leading management consulting firms) that defines the competencies and skills required by people wanting to become management consultants. It provide the mechanisms to learn these skills as well as individual recognition through certificates, which are available globally through its network of partners.


See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Consultant | Define Consultant at". 2004-03-09. Retrieved 2014-07-20. 
  2. ^ Pieter P. Tordoir (1995). The professional knowledge economy: the management and integration services in business organizations. p.140.
  3. ^ "Bosses have given in to demands for more a more flexible workplace". Financial Review. Retrieved 2016-03-15.