Contemporary classical music
|Periods, eras, and *movements of|
Western classical music
|Common practice period|
|20th-century and early 21st-century period|
Contemporary classical music is a relative term that refers to music of the "present day", the definition of which continually changes over time. At the beginning of the 21st century, it commonly referred to the post-1945 modern forms of post-tonal music after the death of Anton Webern, and included serial music, electronic music, experimental music, and minimalist music. Newer forms of music include spectral music, and post-minimalism.
- 1 History
- 2 Movements
- 3 Developments by medium
- 4 Festivals
- 5 Notes
- 6 References
- 7 Further reading
- 8 External links
At the beginning of the twentieth century, composers of classical music were experimenting with an increasingly dissonant pitch language, which sometimes yielded atonal pieces. Following World War I, as a backlash against what they saw as the increasingly exaggerated gestures and formlessness of late Romanticism, certain composers adopted a neoclassic style, which sought to recapture the balanced forms and clearly perceptible thematic processes of earlier styles (see also New Objectivity and Social Realism). After World War II, modernist composers sought to achieve greater levels of control in their composition process (e.g., through the use of the twelve-tone technique and later total serialism). At the same time, conversely, composers also experimented with means of abdicating control, exploring indeterminacy or aleatoric processes in smaller or larger degrees. Technological advances led to the birth of electronic music. Experimentation with tape loops and repetitive textures contributed to the advent of minimalism. Still other composers started exploring the theatrical potential of the musical performance (performance art, mixed media, fluxus).New works of Contemporary classical music continue to be created. Each year, the Boston Conservatory at Berklee presents 700 performances. New works from Contemporary classical music program students comprise roughly 150 of these performances.
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To some extent, European and the US traditions diverged after World War II. Among the most influential composers in Europe were Pierre Boulez, Luigi Nono, and Karlheinz Stockhausen. The first and last were both pupils of Olivier Messiaen. An important aesthetic philosophy as well as a group of compositional techniques at this time was serialism (also called "through-ordered music", "'total' music" or "total tone ordering"), which took as its starting point the compositions of Arnold Schoenberg and Anton Webern (but was opposed to traditional twelve-tone music), and was also closely related to Le Corbusier's idea of the modulor. However, some more traditionally based composers such as Dmitri Shostakovich and Benjamin Britten maintained a tonal style of composition despite the prominent serialist movement.
In America, composers like Milton Babbitt, John Cage, Elliott Carter, Henry Cowell, Philip Glass, Steve Reich, George Rochberg, and Roger Sessions, formed their own ideas. Some of these composers (Cage, Cowell, Glass, Reich) represented a new methodology of experimental music, which began to question fundamental notions of music such as notation, performance, duration, and repetition, while others (Babbitt, Rochberg, Sessions) fashioned their own extensions of the twelve-tone serialism of Schoenberg.
Many of the key figures of the high modern movement are alive, or only recently deceased. Despite its decline in the last third of the 20th century, there remained at the end of the century an active core of composers who continued to advance the ideas and forms of modernism, such as Pierre Boulez, Pauline Oliveros, Toru Takemitsu, George Benjamin, Jacob Druckman, Brian Ferneyhough, George Perle, Wolfgang Rihm, Richard Wernick, Richard Wilson, and Ralph Shapey.
Serialism is one of the most important post-war movements among the high modernist schools. Serialism, more specifically named "integral" or "compound" serialism, was led by composers such as Pierre Boulez, Bruno Maderna, Luigi Nono, and Karlheinz Stockhausen in Europe, and by Milton Babbitt, Donald Martino, Mario Davidovsky, and Charles Wuorinen in the United States. Some of their compositions use an ordered set or several such sets, which may be the basis for the whole composition, while others use "unordered" sets. The term is also often used for dodecaphony, or twelve-tone technique, which is alternatively regarded as the model for integral serialism.
Modernist composers active during this period include Scottish composer James MacMillan (who draws on sources as diverse as plainchant, South American 'liberation theology', Scottish folksongs, and Polish avant-garde techniques of the 1960s), Finnish composers Erkki Salmenhaara, Henrik Otto Donner, and Magnus Lindberg, Italian composer Franco Donatoni, and English composer Jonathan Harvey.
Between 1975 and 1990, a shift in the paradigm of computer technology had taken place, making electronic music systems affordable and widely accessible. The personal computer had become an essential component of the electronic musician’s equipment, superseding analog synthesizers and fulfilling the traditional functions of composition and scoring, synthesis and sound processing, sampling of audio input, and control over external equipment.
Musical historicism—the use of historical materials, structures, styles, techniques, media, conceptual content, etc., whether by a single composer or those associated with a particular school, movement, or period—is evident to varying degrees in minimalism, post-minimalism, world-music, and other genres in which tonal traditions have been sustained or have undergone a significant revival in recent decades. Some post-minimalist works employ medieval and other genres associated with early music, such as the "Oi me lasso" and other laude of Gavin Bryars.
The historicist movement is closely related to the emergence of musicology and the early music revival. A number of historicist composers have been influenced by their intimate familiarity with the instrumental practices of earlier periods (Hendrik Bouman, Grant Colburn, Michael Talbot, Paulo Galvão, Roman Turovsky-Savchuk). The musical historicism movement has also been stimulated by the formation of such international organizations as the Delian Society and Vox Saeculorum.
The vocabulary of extended tonality, which flourished in the late 19th and very early 20th centuries, continues to be used by contemporary composers. It never has been considered shocking or controversial in the larger musical world—as has been demonstrated statistically for the United States, at least, where "most composers continued working in what has remained throughout this century the mainstream of tonal-oriented composition"
Art rock influence
A movement in Denmark (Den Nye Enkelhed) in the late nineteen-sixties and another in Germany in the late seventies and early eighties, the former attempting to create more objective, impersonal music, and the latter reacting with a variety of strategies to restore the subjective to composing, both sought to create music using simple textures. The German New Simplicity's best-known composer is Wolfgang Rihm, who strives for the emotional volatility of late 19th-century Romanticism and early 20th-century Expressionism. Called Die neue Einfachheit in German, it has also been termed "New Romanticism", "New Subjectivity", "New Inwardness", "New Sensuality", "New Expressivity", and "New Tonality".
Styles found in other countries sometimes associated with the German New Simplicity movement include the so-called "Holy Minimalism" of the Pole Henryk Górecki, the Estonian Arvo Pärt, and American-Uruguayan Miguel del Aguila (in their works after 1970), as well as Englishman John Tavener, who unlike the New Simplicity composers have turned back to Medieval and Renaissance models, however, rather than to 19th-century romanticism for inspiration. Important representative works include Symphony No. 3 "Symphony of Sorrowful Songs" (1976) by Górecki, Cantus in memoriam Benjamin Britten (1977) by Pärt, The Veil of the Temple (2002) by Tavener, and "Silent Songs" (1974–1977) by Valentin Silvestrov.
New Complexity is a current within today's European contemporary avant-garde music scene, named in reaction to the New Simplicity. Amongst the candidates suggested for having coined the term are the composer Nigel Osborne, the Belgian musicologist Harry Halbreich, and the British/Australian musicologist Richard Toop, who gave currency to the concept of a movement with his article "Four Facets of the New Complexity".
Though often atonal, highly abstract, and dissonant in sound, the "New Complexity" is most readily characterized by the use of techniques which require complex musical notation. This includes extended techniques, microtonality, odd tunings, highly disjunct melodic contour, innovative timbres, complex polyrhythms, unconventional instrumentations, abrupt changes in loudness and intensity, and so on. The diverse group of composers writing in this style includes Richard Barrett, Brian Ferneyhough, Claus-Steffen Mahnkopf, James Dillon, Michael Finnissy, James Erber, and Roger Redgate.
Minimalism and post-minimalism
Developments by medium
Notable composers of operas since 1975 include:
- Mark Adamo
- John Adams
- Thomas Adès
- Miguel del Águila
- Bruce Adolphe
- Robert Ashley
- Lera Auerbach
- Gerald Barry
- George Benjamin
- Tim Benjamin
- Luciano Berio
- Michael Berkeley
- Oscar Bianchi
- Harrison Birtwistle
- Antonio Braga
- Rudolf Brucci
- John Cage
- Roberto Carnevale
- Elliott Carter
- Daniel Catán
- Tom Cipullo
- Azio Corghi
- Michael Daugherty
- Peter Maxwell Davies
- John Eaton
- Oscar Edelstein
- Péter Eötvös
- Mohammed Fairouz
- Brian Ferneyhough
- Lorenzo Ferrero
- Juan Carlos Figueiras
- Luca Francesconi
- Philip Glass
- Elliot Goldenthal
- Ricky Ian Gordon
- Daron Hagen
- Hans Werner Henze
- Bern Herbolsheimer
- York Höller
- Helmut Lachenmann
- Lori Laitman
- André Laporte
- György Ligeti
- Liza Lim
- David T. Little
- Luca Lombardi
- Missy Mazzoli
- Richard Meale
- Olivier Messiaen
- Robert Moran
- Nico Muhly
- Olga Neuwirth
- Luigi Nono
- Per Nørgård
- Michael Nyman
- Michael Obst
- Henri Pousseur
- Kevin Puts
- Einojuhani Rautavaara
- Kaija Saariaho
- Aulis Sallinen
- Carol Sams
- David Sawer
- Howard Shore
- Louis Siciliano
- Karlheinz Stockhausen
- Somtow Sucharitkul
- Josef Tal
- Stefano Vagnini
- Michel van der Aa
- Judith Weir
Notable choral composers include René Clausen, Karl Jenkins, James MacMillan, Morten Lauridsen, Scott Perkins, Nico Muhly, Arvo Pärt, John Rutter, Veljo Tormis, Paul Mealor, John Tavener, Michael John Trotta and Eric Whitacre.
Concert bands (wind ensembles)
In recent years, many composers have composed for concert bands (also called wind ensembles). Notable composers include:
- James Barnes
- Leslie Bassett
- David Bedford
- Richard Rodney Bennett
- Warren Benson
- Steven Bryant
- Daniel Bukvich
- Mark Camphouse
- Michael Colgrass
- John Corigliano
- Michael Daugherty
- David Del Tredici
- Thomas C. Duffy
- Eric Ewazen
- Aldo Rafael Forte
- Michael Gandolfi
- David Gillingham
- Julie Giroux
- Peter Graham
- Donald Grantham
- Edward Gregson
- John Harbison
- Samuel Hazo
- Kenneth Hesketh
- Karel Husa
- Yasuhide Ito
- Scott Lindroth
- Scott McAllister
- W. Francis McBeth
- James MacMillan
- Cindy McTee
- David Maslanka
- Nicholas Maw
- John Mackey
- Johan de Meij
- Olivier Messiaen
- Lior Navok
- Ron Nelson
- Carter Pann
- Vincent Persichetti
- Marco Pütz
- Alfred Reed
- Steven Reineke
- Rolf Rudin
- Gunther Schuller
- Joseph Schwantner
- Robert W. Smith
- Philip Sparke
- Jack Stamp
- Karlheinz Stockhausen
- Steven Stucky
- Frank Ticheli
- Michael Tippett
- Jan Van der Roost
- Dan Welcher
- Eric Whitacre
- Dana Wilson
- Guy Woolfenden
- Charles Rochester Young
Contemporary classical music can be heard in film scores such as Stanley Kubrick's 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968) and Eyes Wide Shut (1999), both of which used concert music by György Ligeti, and also in Kubrick's The Shining (1980) which used music by both Ligeti and Krzysztof Penderecki. Jean-Luc Godard, in La Chinoise (1967), Nicolas Roeg in Walkabout (1971), and the Brothers Quay in In Absentia (2000) used music by Karlheinz Stockhausen.
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The following is an incomplete list of Contemporary-music festivals:
- Ars Musica, Brussels, Belgium
- Bang on a Can Marathon
- Darmstädter Ferienkurse
- Donaueschingen Festival
- Festival Atempo in Caracas, Venezuela
- Gaudeamus Foundation Music Week in Amsterdam
- Huddersfield Contemporary Music Festival
- Lucerne Festival in Switzerland
- MATA Festival in New York
- Music Biennale Zagreb
- Musica (French music festival)
- November Music in 's Hertogenbosch (the Netherlands)
- Other Minds in San Francisco
- Peninsula Arts Contemporary Music Festival
- Warsaw Autumn in Poland
- George Enescu Festival in Romania
- Cabrillo Festival of Contemporary Music in Santa Cruz, California
- Whittall "Neo-Classicism" (subscription access).
- Schwartz and Godfrey 1993, chapter 7: "Order and Chaos", pp. 78ff.
- Manning 2004, 19ff.
- Schwartz and Godfrey 1993, 325.
- Schwartz and Godfrey 1993, 289ff.
- "Master of Music in Contemporary Classical Music Performance". Retrieved October 11, 2018.
- Bandur 2001, 5, 10–11.
- Botstein 2001, §9.
- Johnson 2001.
- Anderson 1992, 18.
- Schwartz 1994, 199.
- Holmes 2008, 272.
- OED, entry "Polystylistic", quoting Christian & Cornwall's Guide to Russian Literature (1998): "Zhdanov is eclectic; he mixes high poetic, archaic, scientific and everyday realities without imposing any hierarchy. His manner may be called ‘polystylistic’", and entry "Polystylist", quoting Musical America, November 1983: "An eclectic only passively collects material from different sources, but a polystylist puts together what he collects, consciously, in a new way."
- Watkins, 440-42, 446-48.
- Colburn 36-45, 54-55.
- Straus 1999, 303, 307–308, 310–11, 314–29).
- Chatham 1994.
- Toop 1988.
- Anderson, Martin. 1992. "A Conversation with Kalevi Aho". Tempo, new series, no. 181, Scandinavian Issue (June): 16–18.
- Bandur, Markus. 2001. Aesthetics of Total Serialism: Contemporary Research from Music to Architecture. Basel, Boston, Berlin: Birkhäuser. ISBN 3-7643-6449-1.
- Botstein, Leon. 2001. "Modernism". The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell. London: Macmillan Publishers.
- Botstein, Leon. "Modernism". Grove Music Online, ed. L. Macy (Accessed 28 April 2007). (Subscription access)
- Chatham, Rhys. 1994. "Composer's Notebook 1990: Toward a Musical Agenda for the Nineties", with "Postscript, Summer 1994". Rhys Chatham website. (Accessed 20 January 2010)
- Chute, James. 2001. "Torke, Michael." The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell. London: Macmillan.
- Colburn, Grant. 2007. "A New Baroque Revival." Early Music America 13, no. 2 (Summer): 36–45, 54–55.
- Cross, Jonathan. 2001. "Turnage, Mark-Anthony". The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell. London: Macmillan Publishers.
- Danuser, Hermann. 1984. Die Musik des 20. Jahrhunderts: mit 108 Notenbeispielen, 130 Abbildungen und 2 Farbtafeln. Neues Handbuch der Musikwissenschaft 7. Laaber: Laaber-Verlag. ISBN 3-89007-037-X
- Dibelius, Ulrich. 1998. Moderne Musik Nach 1945. Munich: Piper Verlag. ISBN 3-492-04037-3 (pbk.)
- du Noyer, Paul (ed.). 2003. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Music: From Rock, Pop, Jazz, Blue, and Hip-Hop to Classical, Folk, World, and More. London: Flame Tree. ISBN 978-1-904041-70-2
- Duckworth, William. 1995. Talking Music: Conversations with John Cage, Philip Glass, Laurie Anderson, and Five Generations of American Experimental Composers. New York: Schirmer Books; London: Prentice-Hall International. ISBN 0-02-870823-7 Reprinted 1999, New York: Da Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-80893-5
- Du Noyer, Paul (ed.) (2003), "Contemporary" in The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Music. Flame Tree, ISBN 1-904041-70-1
- Gann, Kyle. 1997. American Music in the Twentieth Century. New York: Schirmer Books; London: Prentice Hall International. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning ISBN 0-02-864655-X.
- Griffiths, Paul. 1995. Modern Music And After: Directions Since 1945. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-816578-1 (cloth) ISBN 0-19-816511-0 (pbk.) Rev. ed. of: Modern Music: The Avant Garde Since 1945 (1981)
- Holmes, Thomas B. 2008. Electronic and Experimental Music: Pioneers in Technology and Composition. Third edition. London and New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-95781-6 (cloth) ISBN 978-0-415-95782-3 (pbk) ISBN 978-0-203-92959-9 (ebook)
- Johnson, Stephen. 2001. "MacMillan, James (Loy)". The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell. London: Macmillan Publishers.
- Manning, Peter. 2004. Electronic and Computer Music. Revised and expanded edition. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-514484-8 (cloth) ISBN 0-19-517085-7 (pbk.)
- Morgan, Robert P. 1991. Twentieth-century Music: A History of Musical Style in Modern Europe and America. New York: Norton. ISBN 0-393-95272-X
- Nyman, Michael. 1999. Experimental Music: Cage and Beyond. Second edition. Music in the 20th century. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-65297-9 ISBN 0-521-65383-5 (pbk.)
- Schwartz, Elliott. 1994. "European Journal, 1993". Perspectives of New Music 32, no. 2 (Summer): 292–99.
- Schwartz, Elliott, and Daniel Godfrey. 1993. Music Since 1945: Issues, Materials, and Literature. New York: Schirmer Books; Toronto: Maxwell Macmillan Canada; New York: Maxwell Macmillan International. ISBN 0-02-873040-2
- Schwartz, Elliott, and Barney Childs (eds.), with Jim Fox. 1998. Contemporary Composers on Contemporary Music. Expanded edition. New York: Da Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-80819-6
- Smith Brindle, Reginald. 1987. The New Music: The Avant-Garde since 1945. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-315471-4 (cloth) ISBN 0-19-315468-4 (pbk.)
- Straus, Joseph. N. 1999. "The Myth of Serial 'Tyranny' in the 1950s and 1960s." The Musical Quarterly 83, no. 3 (Autumn): 301–43.
- Watkins, Glenn. 1994. Pyramids at the Louvre: Music, Culture, and Collage from Stravinsky to the Postmodernists. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-74083-1
- Whittall, Arnold. 1999. Musical Composition in the Twentieth Century. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-816684-2 (cloth) ISBN 0-19-816683-4 (pbk.)
- Whittall, Arnold. 2003. Exploring Twentieth-Century Music: Tradition and Innovation. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-81642-4 (cloth) ISBN 0-521-01668-1 (pbk)
- Whittall, Arnold. "Neo-Classicism". Grove Music Online, ed. L. Macy (Accessed 30 April 2007). (Subscription access)
- Cardoso-Firmo, Ana. 2011. "La Cantatrice Chauve de Jean-Philippe Calvin". In Dramaturgies de l'Absurde en France et au Portugal,[full citation needed], pp. 199–203. Paris: Université de Paris 8.
- New Music: Music since 1950. 1978. Vienna: Universal Edition. N.B.: Bio-bibliog. dictionary. Without ISBN
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- Modern and contemporary classical music
- Sussurro - Contemporary Brazilian Music
- Gateway to Contemporary Music Resources in France
- Contemporary composers interactive timeline, including, if available, photos and biographies (in French).
- BabelScores contemporary music online
- highSCORE Festival
- Institute and Festival for Contemporary Performance
- Worldwide contemporary music concert listings on Bachtrack