Colgan Air Flight 3407

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Colgan Air Flight 3407
Continental Connection Bombardier Q400.jpg
A Dash-8 Q400 similar to the aircraft involved.
Accident summary
Date February 12, 2009 (2009-02-12)
Summary Entered low-altitude stall, crashed into house
Site Clarence Center, New York, United States
Passengers 45
Crew 4
Injuries (non-fatal) 4 (all on the ground)
Fatalities 50 (one on the ground)
Survivors 0
Aircraft type Bombardier DHC8-402 Q400
Operator Colgan Air
as Continental Connection
Registration N200WQ
Flight origin Newark Liberty International Airport, Newark, New Jersey
Destination Buffalo Niagara International Airport, Buffalo, New York

Colgan Air Flight 3407, marketed as Continental Connection under a codeshare agreement with Continental Airlines, was a scheduled passenger flight from Newark, New Jersey to Buffalo, New York, which crashed on February 12, 2009. The aircraft, a Bombardier Dash-8 Q400, entered an aerodynamic stall from which it did not recover and crashed into a house in Clarence Center, New York at 10:17 p.m. EST (03:17 UTC), killing all 49 passengers, aircrew and cabin crew as well as one person inside the house.[1]

The accident triggered a wave of inquiries over the operations of regional airlines in the United States; it was the first fatal accident of a commercial airliner in the U.S. since the August 2006 crash of Comair Flight 5191. The flight is the most recent fatal crash of a U.S.-based commercial airliner. The accident was investigated by the National Transportation Safety Board. The final NTSB report, issued on February 2, 2010, determined that the leading cause of the crash was the pilots' inappropriate response to the stall warnings.[2] Families of the accident's victims lobbied the U.S. Congress to enact more stringent regulations for regional carriers, and apply greater scrutiny to safe operating procedures and the working conditions of pilots. The Airline Safety and Federal Aviation Administrative Extension Act of 2010 required some of these regulation changes.[3]

Flight details[edit]

Colgan Air Flight 3407 (9L/CJC 3407) was marketed as Continental Connection Flight 3407. The flight was delayed two hours, departing at 9:18 p.m. Eastern Standard Time (EST; 02:18 UTC), en route from Newark Liberty International Airport to Buffalo Niagara International Airport.[2] The flight was one of seven Continental flights bound for Buffalo Niagara that day, out of a total of 110 incoming and departing flights across all carriers at Buffalo.[4]

The twin-engine turboprop Bombardier Dash 8 Q400, registered N200WQ, was manufactured in 2008 for Colgan. N200WQ was registered with the Federal Aviation Administration in April 2008[5] and entered service later that month.[6]

The Q400 model has been involved in 13 incidents, but the crash of Flight 3407 was the first resulting in fatalities.[6] This crash was the first fatality on a Colgan Air passenger flight since the company was founded in 1991; there was a previous fatal accident (not involving passengers) in August 2003 when a repositioning flight crashed offshore of Massachusetts, killing both crew members. The only prior aviation incident on a Colgan Air passenger flight occurred at LaGuardia Airport, when another plane collided with the Colgan aircraft while taxiing, resulting in minor injuries to a flight attendant.[7]

The Colgan flight crew consisted of pilot in command (captain) Marvin Renslow, 47, of Lutz, Florida; first officer Rebecca Lynne Shaw, 24, of Maple Valley, Washington;[8][9][10] and flight attendants Matilda Quintero and Donna Prisco. The captain was hired in September 2005 and had accumulated 3,379 total flight hours, with 111 hours as captain on the Q400. The first officer was hired in January 2008, and had 2,244 hours, 774 of them in turbine aircraft including the Q400 (in aviation vernacular, known as "time in type").[11] Joseph Zuffoletto, an off-duty captain aboard Flight 3407, was hired by Colgan in September 2005[12][13] and regularly flew out of nearby Chautauqua County-Jamestown Airport.[14]


A Q400 showing the high aspect ratio wings
FAA ILS/LOC approach plate to runway 23 at Buffalo Niagara International Airport (KBUF). The flight crashed (marked in red) near the locator outer marker (LOM) (identifier: "KLUMP") about five nautical miles from the threshold of Rwy 23.

The flight had been cleared for the instrument landing system approach to Buffalo Niagara International Airport runway 23 when it disappeared from radar. Weather conditions were a wintry mix in the area, with light snow, fog, and winds at 17 miles per hour (15 knots). The de-icing system was turned on 11 minutes into the flight by the crew, who discussed significant ice buildup on the aircraft's wings and windscreen shortly before the crash.[15][16][17] Two other aircraft reported icing conditions around the time of the crash. The last radio transmission from the flight occurred when the plane was 3.0 miles (4.8 km) northeast of the airport radio beacon known as KLUMP (see diagram), when the first officer acknowledged a routine instruction to change to tower frequency. The aircraft crashed 41 seconds after the last transmission. After several attempts to hail the crew, controllers requested the assistance of Delta Air Lines Flight 1998 from Atlanta, Georgia and US Airways Flight 1452 from Charlotte, North Carolina to make visual contact with the missing airplane; the Delta crew members responded that they did not see the plane.[13][18][19][20][21]

During the flight and continuing through the plane's landing approach, the crew had been flying on autopilot. During final approach, the pilots extended the aircraft's flaps and landing gear for landing. After the landing gear and flaps had been extended, the flight data recorder (FDR) indicated that the airspeed had decayed to 145 knots (269 km/h).[2] The captain, who was the pilot flying, then called for the flaps to be set at the 15 degree position. As the flaps transitioned past the 10 degree mark, the FDR indicated that the airspeed had further slowed to 135 knots (250 km/h). Six seconds later, the aircraft's stick shaker, a device intended to provide aural and tactile awareness of a low speed condition, sounded. At that time, the cockpit voice recorder (CVR) recorded the autopilot disengaging. The FDR now indicated that the aircraft's speed was a dangerously slow 131 knots (243 km/h). Instead of following the established stall recovery procedure of adding full power and lowering the nose to prevent the imminent low-altitude stall, the captain only added about 75% power and continued applying nose-up inputs. As the aircraft came even closer to stalling the stick pusher activated ("The Q400 stick pusher applies an airplane-nose-down control column input to decrease the wing angle-of-attack [AOA] after an aerodynamic stall").[2] The captain overrode the stick pusher and continued pulling on the control yoke which caused the aircraft upset and later loss of control; in addition, the first officer retracted the flaps without consulting with the captain, making recovery more difficult.[22] The aircraft went into a yaw and pitched up at an angle of 31 degrees in its final moments, before pitching down at 25 degrees. It then rolled to the left at 46 degrees and snapped back to the right at 105 degrees. Occupants aboard experienced forces estimated at nearly twice that of gravity.

The plane struggled for about 25 seconds, during which time the flight crew made no emergency declaration. The Q400 rapidly lost altitude and crashed into a private home at 6038 Long Street,[23] about 5 miles (8.0 km) from the end of the runway, and nearly directly under its intended approach path, with the nose pointed away from the destination airport. The aircraft exploded on impact, destroying the house and most of the plane, with the tail of the plane broken off and nearly intact. The house was the home of Douglas and Karen Wielinski along with their daughter Jill. Douglas was killed; his wife and daughter escaped with minor injuries and were treated at the Millard Fillmore Hospital. The lots in the area are only 60 feet (18.3 meters) wide; the plane hit the house squarely, destroying it in the ensuing fire with little damage to surrounding homes.[24] The home was close to the Clarence Center Fire Company, so emergency personnel were able to respond quickly. Two of the firefighters were injured. The crash and intense fire caused the evacuation of 12 nearby houses.[4][16][21][25][26][27][28]


A total of 50 people died, including the 49 passengers and crew on board when the aircraft was destroyed, and one resident of the house that was struck. There were four injuries on the ground, including two other people inside the home at the time of the crash. Among the dead were:

U.S. President Barack Obama shaking hands with Beverly Eckert six days before the accident
Nationality Passengers Crew Ground Total[29]
 United States 41 4 1 46
 Canada 2 0 0 2
 China 1 0 0 1
 Israel 1 0 0 1
Total 45 4 1 50


  • The University at Buffalo (UB), which lost 11 passengers who were former employees, faculty or alumni, and 12 who were family members of faculty, employees, students or alumni in the crash, also held a remembrance service on February 17, 2009.[39][40] A band with the flight number was worn on UB players' uniforms for the remainder of the basketball season.
  • On March 4, 2009, New York Governor David Paterson proposed the creation of a scholarship fund to benefit children and financial dependents of the 50 crash victims. The Flight 3407 Memorial Scholarship would cover costs for up to four years of undergraduate study at a SUNY or CUNY school, or a private college or university in New York State.[42]
  • The accident was the basis for a PBS Frontline episode on the regional airline industry. Discussed in the episode were issues relating to regional airline regulation, training requirements, safety, and working conditions. In the episode, Frontline raised the possibility that industry practices may have contributed to the accident.[43] Also discussed were the operating principles of regional airlines and the agreements between regional airlines and major airlines.[44]


This 3-D animated reconstruction shows the last 2 minutes of the February 12, 2009, accident involving a Bombardier DHC-8-400, N200WQ, operated by Colgan Air, Inc., which crashed about 5 nautical miles northeast of Buffalo-Niagara International Airport, Buffalo, New York, while on an instrument landing system approach to runway 23.

The U.S. National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) announced that they would send a team to the crash site on February 13 to begin the investigation.[18][19] NTSB spokesman Steve Chealander said that 14 investigators were assigned to the crash of Continental Connection Flight 3407.[45] Both the flight data recorder (FDR) and the cockpit voice recorder (CVR) were retrieved and analyzed in Washington, D.C.[21][46]

After initial analysis of the recordings, it was determined that the aircraft went through severe pitch and roll oscillations after positioning its flaps and landing gear for landing. Until that time, the aircraft had been maneuvering normally. The de-icing system was reported to be turned on. During descent, the crew reported about 3 miles (4.8 km) of visibility with snow and mist. Preceding the crash, the aircraft's stall-protection systems had activated. Instead of the aircraft's diving straight into the house as was initially thought, it was found that the aircraft fell 800 feet (240 m) before crashing pointing northeast, away from the destination airport. The passengers were given no warning of any trouble by the pilots. Occupants experienced an estimated force two times that of gravity just before impact. Chealander said information from the aircraft's flight data recorder indicates that the plane pitched up at an angle of 31 degrees, then down at 45 degrees. The aircraft rolled to the left at 46 degrees, then snapped back to the right at 105 degrees, before crashing into the house, and erupting in flames on impact.[16][21][27][47][48]

At the crash scene, an area 2 square miles (5.2 km2) in size was cordoned off. Investigators stated it would take three or four days to remove all human remains and a few weeks to positively identify them. As the recovery efforts proceeded, Chealander remarked that freezing temperatures as well as difficulty accessing debris were slowing the investigation. Portable heaters had to be brought to the site to melt ice left in the wake of the firefighting efforts. Initial analysis of the aircraft's remains revealed the cockpit had sustained the greatest impact force, while the main cabin was mostly destroyed by the ensuing fireball. Towards the rear of the aircraft, passengers were found still strapped in their seats.[27][47][49]

On February 15, more information on the crash was released by the NTSB saying it appeared the plane had been on autopilot when it went down. The investigators did not find evidence of the severe icing conditions that would have required the pilots to fly manually.[50] Colgan recommends pilots fly manually in icing conditions, and requires them to do so in severe icing conditions. The NTSB had issued a safety alert about the use of autopilot in icing conditions in December 2008. Without flying manually, pilots may be unable to feel changes in the handling characteristics of the airplane, which is a warning sign of ice buildup. The NTSB also revealed that the plane crashed 26 seconds after trouble was first registered on the flight data recorder.[51][52][53]

More details emerged on February 18. It was reported that a re-creation of events leading up to the crash indicated that the stick pusher had activated, which pushes the nose down when it determines a stall is imminent in order to maintain airspeed so the wings continue to generate lift and keep the aircraft aloft. The crew, concerned about a nose-down attitude so close to the ground, may have responded by pulling the nose upward and increasing power, but over-corrected, causing a stall or even a spin.[54] Bill Voss, president of Flight Safety Foundation, told USA Today that it sounded like the plane was in "a deep stall situation".[55]

On March 25, 2009, NTSB investigators said that icing probably did not contribute greatly to the accident.[56] On May 11, 2009, new information came out that Captain Renslow had failed three "check rides",[57] including some at Gulfstream International in its pay to fly program,[citation needed] and it was suggested[who?] that he may not have been adequately trained to respond to the emergency that led to the airplane's fatal descent.[57] Investigators also suspected crew fatigue as both pilots appear to have been at Newark airport overnight and all day before the 9:18 pm departure.[58][2]:104 et seq. In response to questioning from the NTSB, Colgan Air officials acknowledged that both pilots apparently were not paying close attention to the aircraft's instruments and unable to follow the airline's procedures for handling an impending stall in the final minutes of the flight. "I believe Capt. Renslow did have intentions of landing safely at Buffalo, as well as first officer Shaw, but obviously in those last few moments ... the flight instruments were not being monitored, and that's an indication of a lack of situational awareness," said John Barrett, Colgan's director of flight standards.[59] The official transcript of the crew's communication, obtained from the cockpit voice recorder, as well as an animated depiction of the crash, constructed using data from the flight data recorder were made available to the public on May 12, 2009, the first day of the public hearing which was led by the NTSB's then-chair Mark Rosenker.[citation needed] Some of the crew's communication violated federal rules banning nonessential conversation.[60] From May 12 to 14, the NTSB interviewed 20 witnesses of the flight.[61]

On June 3, 2009, the New York Times published an article[62] detailing complaints about Colgan's operations from an FAA inspector who observed test flights in January 2008. As in a previous FAA incident handling other inspectors' complaints,[62] the Colgan inspector's complaints were deferred and the inspector was demoted. The incident is under investigation by the Office of Special Counsel, the agency responsible for U.S. Government federal whistle-blower complaints.

Safety issues examined during the accident investigation process included pilot training, hiring, and fatigue problems, leading the FAA to issue a "Call to Action" for improvements in the practices of regional carriers.[63]

Final report[edit]

On February 2, 2010, the NTSB issued its final report, describing its investigation, findings, conclusions and recommendations. The report includes a "Conclusions" section that summarizes the known facts and lists a variety of contributing factors relating to the flight crew. According to the final report, the accident's probable cause "was the captain’s inappropriate response to the activation of the stick shaker, which led to an aerodynamic stall from which the airplane did not recover."[2]:155

The NTSB further added the following contributing factors:

Contributing to the accident were (1) the flight crew’s failure to monitor airspeed in relation to the rising position of the low- speed cue, (2) the flight crew’s failure to adhere to sterile cockpit procedures, (3) the captain’s failure to effectively manage the flight, and (4) Colgan Air’s inadequate procedures for airspeed selection and management during approaches in icing conditions.

However, the NTSB was unable to determine why the first officer retracted the flaps and suggested that the landing gear should be retracted. The method by which civil aircraft pilots can obtain their licenses was also criticized by the NTSB. It also found that: "The pilots' performance was likely impaired because of fatigue, but the extent of their impairment and the degree to which it contributed to the performance deficiencies that occurred during the flight cannot be conclusively determined." NTSB Chair Deborah Hersman, while concurring, made it clear she considered fatigue a contributing factor. She compared the twenty years that fatigue has remained on the NTSB's Most wanted list of transportation safety improvements, without getting substantial action on the matter from regulators, to the changes in tolerance for alcohol over the same time period, noting that the performance impacts of fatigue and alcohol were similar.[2]:176-178


The FAA has proposed or implemented several rule changes as a result of the Flight 3407 accident, in areas ranging from pilot fatigue to Airline Transport Pilot Certificate (ATP) qualifications of up to 1500 hours of flight experience prior to hiring. One of the most significant changes has already taken effect, changing the way examiners grade checkrides in flight simulators during stalls.[64]

Investigators also scrutinized the Practical Test Standards (PTS) for ATP certification, which allowed for an altitude loss of no more than 100 feet (30 m) in a simulated stall. The NTSB theorized that due to this low tolerance in a tested simulation environment, pilots may have come to fear loss of altitude in a stall and thus focused primarily on preventing such a loss, even to the detriment of recovering from the stall itself. New standards subsequently issued by the FAA eliminate any specific altitude loss stipulation, calling instead for "minimal loss of elevation" in a stall. One examiner has told an aviation magazine that he is not allowed to fail any applicant for losing altitude in a simulated stall, so long as the pilot is able to regain the original altitude.[64]

The crash site is now a vacant lot as the remains of the building were removed.


The story of the disaster was featured on the tenth season of Canadian National Geographic Channel show Mayday (known as Air Emergency in the US, Mayday in Ireland and France, and Air Crash Investigation in the UK and the rest of world) episode entitled "Dead Tired".

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Update on NTSB investigation into crash of Colgan Air Dash-8 near Buffalo, New York NTSB advisory, March 25, 2009 "The data indicate a likely separation of the airflow over the wing and ensuing roll two seconds after the stick shaker activated while the aircraft was slowing through 125 knots and while at a flight load of 1.42 Gs. The predicted stall speed at a load factor of 1 G would be about 105 knots." Note: The predicted stall speed for this aircraft at a flight load of 1.42 Gs would be about 125 kts which is arrived at by multiplying 105 kts (the predicted stall speed at 1 G) by 1.19164 (the square root of the flight load in Gs).
  2. ^ a b c d e f g "Accident report - Loss of control on approach Colgan Air, Inc. operating as Continental Connection Flight 3407 Bombardier DHC-8-400, N200WQ Clarence Center" (PDF). National Transportation Safety Board. February 12, 2009. Retrieved November 10, 2015. 
  3. ^ "Airline Safety and Federal Aviation Administration Extension Act of 2010". LegiScan. Retrieved October 26, 2014. 
  4. ^ a b Carey, Elizabeth (February 13, 2009). "Buffalo area plane crash claims 50 lives". The Business Review. Retrieved February 13, 2009. 
  5. ^ "FAA Registry: N-Number Inquiry Results". Federal Aviation Administration. Retrieved November 10, 2015. 
  6. ^ a b c Dolmetsch, Chris; Miller, Hugo (February 13, 2009). "Continental flight crashes near Buffalo, killing 50" (Update3 ed.). Bloomberg. Retrieved November 10, 2015. 
  7. ^ Babineck, Mark; Hensel, Bill Jr. (February 13, 2009). "Records show Colgan flights had been fatality free". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved February 13, 2009. 
  8. ^ "Co-pilot of crashed plane was from Wash". KATU. February 13, 2009. Retrieved February 13, 2009. 
  9. ^ "Tahoma High grad Rebecca Shaw dies in Continental 3407 crash". Pacific Northwest Local News. February 14, 2009. 
  10. ^ "Maple Valley woman co-pilot in plane crash: Rebecca Shaw, 24, worked hard to join ranks of airlines". February 13, 2009. 
  11. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions – Colgan Air Flight 3407" (PDF). February 24, 2009. Retrieved February 26, 2009. 
  12. ^ "Flight 3407 crew members names released". WIVB. February 13, 2009. Retrieved February 13, 2009. 
  13. ^ a b All calm moments before plane crashes (February 13, 2009). CBS News. Retrieved 2009-02-13.
  14. ^ Dave Emke (February 14, 2009). "Off-duty pilot on flight was city resident". The Post-Journal. Retrieved February 23, 2015. 
  15. ^ "Commuter plane crashes into New York home". CBS News. February 12, 2009. Retrieved February 12, 2009. 
  16. ^ a b c "Search for answers begins in Buffalo plane crash". CNN. February 13, 2009. Retrieved February 13, 2009. 
  17. ^ "Obama extends sympathies to crash victims". UPI. February 12, 2009. Retrieved February 12, 2009. 
  18. ^ a b Dale Anderson and Phil Fairbanks (February 12, 2009). "Federal investigators begin searching for the cause of Clarence Center crash". The Buffalo News. 
  19. ^ a b Precious Yutangco (February 13, 2009). "49 killed after plane crashes into home near Buffalo". Toronto: Toronto Star. 
  20. ^ Transcript of CVR recording
  21. ^ a b c d "NTSB: Crew reported ice buildup before crash". MSNBC. February 12, 2009. Retrieved February 14, 2009. 
  22. ^ "NTSB: Colgan 3407 pitched up despite anti-stall push". Flight Global. February 15, 2009. Archived from the original on May 24, 2013. Retrieved February 16, 2009. 
  23. ^ George, Eli (February 26, 2014). "Flight 3407 crash site to become town property". WIVB-TV. Retrieved March 29, 2014. 
  24. ^ Residents survive after plane crashes through home. WBEN (AM) 930 Buffalo. February 13, 2009. Archived February 15, 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  25. ^ Karen Wielinski tells her story of survival after Flight 3407 crashed into her home February 13, 2009
  26. ^ "Mom, daughter escape after plane crashes into home". February 13, 2009. Retrieved February 13, 2009. 
  27. ^ a b c "NTSB: Plane didn't dive, landed flat on house". MSNBC. February 14, 2009. Retrieved February 14, 2009. 
  28. ^ "50 killed as US plane crashes into house". Dawn. February 14, 2009. [dead link]
  29. ^ a b c d "Victims of the crash of Flight 3407". Buffalo News. February 18, 2009. 
  30. ^ "Fiery plane crash in upstate N.Y. kills 50". NPR. February 13, 2009. 
  31. ^ Tapper, Jake; Travers, Karen (February 13, 2009). "President Obama mentions plane crash, and victim Beverly Eckert". Retrieved February 13, 2009. 
  32. ^ Newberg, Rich (February 19, 2009). "Community says goodbye to Susan Wehle". WIVB. Retrieved May 27, 2013. 
  33. ^ "Colgan Air, Inc. releases additional information regarding Flight 3407" (PDF). Colgan Air. February 13, 2009. Retrieved February 13, 2009. [dead link]
  34. ^ "Senior Services". Town of Cheektowaga. Retrieved May 25, 2009. [dead link]
  35. ^ "Cheektowaga CDP, New York". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved May 25, 2009. 
  36. ^ "Red Cross provides comfort and counseling to families of Buffalo plane crash". American Red Cross. Retrieved February 13, 2009. 
  37. ^ "Local leaders react in wake of Flight 3407 crash". WCBSTV (via Archive.Org). February 13, 2009. Archived from the original on May 20, 2009. Retrieved February 13, 2009. 
  38. ^ Hunter, Brian (February 14, 2009). "Sabres gut out emotional win". NHL. Retrieved February 14, 2009. 
  39. ^ "11 with UB ties die in plane crash". University at Buffalo: UB Reporter. February 13, 2009. Retrieved February 18, 2009. 
  40. ^ "UB remembers victims of plane crash". University at Buffalo: UB Reporter. February 18, 2009. Retrieved February 18, 2009. 
  41. ^ "A Message from President Howard about the Tragedy of Flight 3407". Buffalo State College. February 19, 2009. Retrieved February 25, 2009. 
  42. ^ "Paterson plans Flight 3407 scholarships". University at Buffalo: UB Reporter. March 4, 2009. Retrieved March 4, 2009. 
  43. ^ Genzlinger, Neil (February 8, 2010). "Up in the air, with frayed safety nets". The New York Times. Retrieved May 20, 2015. 
  44. ^ "Flying Cheap". PBS. February 9, 2010. Retrieved April 10, 2010.  The full transcript of the episode is available here on PBS
  45. ^ Wawrow, John (February 13, 2009). "Fiery plane crash in upstate NY kills 50". Yahoo!. Retrieved February 13, 2009. [dead link]
  46. ^ "Black Boxes Found From Buffalo Crash". February 13, 2009. Retrieved February 13, 2009. 
  47. ^ a b "NTSB: Plane rolled violently before crash". CNN. February 15, 2009. Retrieved February 15, 2009. 
  48. ^ "NTSB: Crew saw ice buildup before crash". CBS News. February 13, 2009. Retrieved February 13, 2009. 
  49. ^ "Strong sense of purpose drives investigators". The Buffalo News. February 15, 2009. Retrieved February 15, 2009. 
  50. ^ "Crash plane 'dropped in seconds'". BBC News. February 15, 2009. Retrieved February 16, 2009. 
  51. ^ "Americas | Fatal US plane 'was on autopilot'". BBC News. February 16, 2009. Retrieved February 15, 2009. 
  52. ^ "Plane that crashed near Buffalo was on autopilot". The Washington Post. February 15, 2009. Retrieved February 15, 2009. 
  53. ^ Pasztor, Andy (February 15, 2009). "Flight was on autopilot; anti-ice systems apparently working". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved February 15, 2009. 
  54. ^ Wald, Matthew L. (February 18, 2009). "In recreating Flight 3407, a hint of human error". New York Times. Retrieved February 18, 2009. 
  55. ^ Alan Levin (February 15, 2009). "NTSB: Plane landed on its belly, facing away from airport". USA Today. Retrieved February 22, 2009. 
  56. ^ Andy Pasztor (March 25, 2009). "Ice likely not a big factor in Buffalo plane crash". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved March 26, 2009. 
  57. ^ a b Andy Pasztor (May 11, 2009). "Captain's training faulted in air crash that killed 50". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved June 2, 2015. (subscription required (help)). Before joining Colgan, he failed three proficiency checks on general aviation aircraft administered by the FAA, according to investigators and the airline 
  58. ^ Gregory Polek (May 12, 2009). "NTSB scrutinizes pilot actions in Q400 crash probe". Aviation International News. Archived from the original on October 17, 2014. Retrieved June 2, 2015. the captain appears to have violated Colgan Air’s policy prohibiting the use of the crew room to sleep overnight, according to testimony read this morning during the NTSB’s public hearing on the crash [...] the first officer commuted to Newark on an overnight flight to Newark [...] the tower cleared the flight for takeoff at 9:18 p.m. 
  59. ^ "Inquiry in New York air crash points to crew error". Los Angeles Times. May 13, 2009. 
  60. ^ Matthew L. Wald (May 13, 2009). "Pilots chatted in moments before Buffalo crash". New York Times;. Retrieved May 23, 2009. 
  61. ^ "Public Hearing - May 12-14, 2009". National Transportation Safety Board. Retrieved June 2, 2013. 13:30 – 15:30 Witnesses #18, #19, #20: Regulator Policy and Guidance 
  62. ^ a b Matthew L. Wald (June 3, 2009). "Inspector predicted problems a year before Buffalo crash". New York Times. Retrieved June 3, 2009. 
  63. ^ Frances Fiorino (September 25, 2009). "House hearing reviews efforts to improve safety". Aviation Week and Space Technology. (subscription required (help)). 
  64. ^ a b Goyer, Robert (July 2011). "To Push or to Pull". Flying (Bonnier Corporation) 138 (7): 8–9. Retrieved July 4, 2011. 

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 43°00′42″N 78°38′21″W / 43.011602°N 78.63904°W / 43.011602; -78.63904