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Continental climates often have a significant annual variation in temperature (hot summers and cold winters).[specify] They tend to occur in the middle latitudes (40 to 55 north), where prevailing winds blow overland, and temperatures are not moderated by bodies of water such as oceans or seas. Continental climates occur mostly in the Northern Hemisphere, which has the kind of large landmasses on temperate latitudes required for this type of climate to develop. Most of northern and northeastern China, eastern and southeastern Europe, central and southeastern Canada, and the central and northeastern United States have this type of climate.
In continental climates, precipitation tends to be moderate in amount, concentrated mostly in the warmer months. Only a few areas—in the mountains of the Pacific Northwest of North America and in Iran, northern Iraq, adjacent Turkey, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Central Asia—show a winter maximum in precipitation. A portion of the annual precipitation falls as snowfall, and snow often remains on the ground for more than a month. Summers in continental climates can feature thunderstorms and frequent hot temperatures; however, summer weather is more stable than winter weather.
Spring and autumn
The timing of intermediate spring-like or autumn-like temperatures in this zone vary depending on latitude and/or elevation. For example, spring may arrive as soon as early March in the southern parts of this zone or as late as May in the north. Annual precipitation in this zone is usually between 600 millimetres (24 in) and 1,200 millimetres (47 in), most of it in the form of snow during winter. It also has cold winters and warm summers.
Köppen climate classification
Most such areas fit Köppen classifications of Dfa, Dwa (cold winters, hot summers; "w" indicating very dry winters characteristic especially of China) or Dfb or Dwb (cold winters, warm summers, same distinction for winter dryness). Dry summer continental climates (Dsa and Dsb) exist in high altitude areas near Mediterranean climates. In some cases, the semi-arid climate classification of BSk can also be considered to be continental as long as it has cold winters. The definition of this climate regarding temperature is as follows: the mean temperature of the coldest month must be below 0 °C (32.0 °F) (some researchers use −3 °C (26.6 °F) for this threshold) and there must be at least four months whose mean temperatures are at or above 10 °C (50 °F).
Continental climates exist where cold air masses infiltrate during the winter and warm air masses form in summer under conditions of high sun and long days. Places with continental climates are as a rule are either far from any moderating effect of oceans (examples: Omaha, Nebraska and Kazan, Russia) or are so situated that prevailing winds tend to head offshore (example: Boston, USA). Such regions get quite warm in the summer, achieving temperatures characteristic of tropical climates but are colder than any other climates of similar latitude in the winter.
In the Koppen climate system, these climates grade off toward temperate climates equator-ward where winters are less severe and semi-arid climates where precipitation becomes inadequate for tall-grass prairies. In Europe these climates may grade off into oceanic climates in which the influence of cool oceanic air masses is more marked toward the west. The subarctic climate (Köppen: Dfc), with very cold, long and dry winters, but with at least one month above 10 °C (50 °F), might be considered a sub-type of the continental climate.
List of locations with a oceanic climate
- Afghanistan: Kabul
- Armenia: Yerevan, Gyumri
- Azerbaijan: Nakhchivan
- China: Ürümqi, Turpan, Shijiazhuang, Lhasa, Beijing, Harbin, Tianjin, Changchun, Heihe, Qiqihar, Xining
- Georgia: Gori
- India: Leh, Dras
- Iran: Sanandaj, Saqqez, Arak, Ardabil, Tabriz
- Japan: Mostly found in the Hokkaido region as well as high elevations in Mainland Japan: Major cities: Sapporo, Asahikawa, Nayoro, Kushiro, Obihiro, Kitami, Abashiri, Wakkanai, and Nemuro.
- Kazakhstan: Nur-Sultan, Almaty, Oskemen, Oral
- Kyrgyzstan: Bishkek, Naryn
- Mongolia: Ulaanbaatar, Ulaangom
- North Korea: Pyongyang, Nampo
- South Korea: Seoul, Suwon, Incheon, Daejeon, Sejong City, Cheonan, Cheongju, Gangneung, Wonju, Chuncheon, Pyeongchang County
- Turkey: Hakkâri, Muş, Erzurum, Ardahan, Sivas, Yüksekova, Van, Kayseri, Bolu
- Uzbekistan: Nukus, Andijan
- Austria: Innsbruck, Salzburg (bordering on oceanic climate)
- Belarus: Minsk, Grodno
- Belgium: Bertrix
- Bosnia and Herzegovina: Sarajevo
- Bulgaria: Sofia, Pleven
- Croatia: Zagreb
- Czech Republic: Prague
- Estonia: Tallinn
- Finland: Helsinki, Turku
- France: Chamonix, Gap, Briançon, Megève, Bourg-Saint-Maurice
- Germany: Garmisch-Partenkirchen
- Hungary :Budapest
- Italy: Bruneck, Cortina d'Ampezzo
- Latvia: Riga
- Lithuania: Vilnius
- Moldova: Chișinău
- Norway: Oslo, Trondheim, Lillehammer
- Poland: Warsaw, Wrocław, Szczecin
- Romania: Bucharest
- Slovakia: Bratislava
- Sweden: Stockholm, Gothenburg
- Switzerland: Bern
- Ukraine: Kiev, Kharkiv, Lviv
- Russia: throughout much of southern Russia except coastal Black Sea. Major cities: Moscow, Saint Petersburg, Kazan, Novosibirsk, Ulan-Ude, Abakan, Vladivostok
- Canada: throughout much of Southern Canada from the Rocky Mountains to Atlantic Canada. Major cities: Whistler; Prince George; Kelowna; Calgary; Edmonton; Saskatoon; Regina; Winnipeg; Kenora; Thunder Bay; Sault Ste. Marie; Greater Sudbury; North Bay, Ontario; Timmins; Sarnia; London, Ontario; Kitchener, Ontario; Hamilton, Ontario; Toronto; Niagara Falls; Kingston; Ottawa; Val-d'Or; Montreal; Sherbrooke; Trois-Rivières; Quebec City; Saguenay; Sept-Îles; Fredericton, New Brunswick; Moncton, New Brunswick; Halifax; Sydney, Nova Scotia; Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island; St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador; Windsor, Ontario
Downtown Calgary from Southern Alberta Institute of Technology (SAIT) campus
- United States: throughout much of Northern United States, including parts of Alaska, and farther south at high elevations in Oregon, California, and Arizona, and along the Appalachian Mountains: Major cities: Spokane; South Lake Tahoe; Flagstaff; Idaho Falls; Wallace; Billings; Cheyenne; Salt Lake City; Aspen; Denver; Fargo; Sioux Falls; Omaha; Kansas City; St. Louis; Des Moines; Minneapolis; Green Bay, Wisconsin; Madison, Wisconsin; Milwaukee; Chicago; Indianapolis; Detroit; Cincinnati; Cleveland; Columbus, Ohio; Youngstown; Pittsburgh; Philadelphia; Erie; Scranton; Wheeling; Oakland, Maryland; Boone, North Carolina; Buffalo; Rochester; Syracuse; Albany; New York City; Montpelier; Concord; Hartford; Worcester; Boston; Portland, Maine; Augusta, Maine; Juneau, Alaska.
Boone, NC as seen from Howard's Knob
While there are no major cities in Oceania that fall in to the classification of a continental climate, there are some more sparsely populated areas that have this climate.
- Australia: High elevations such as the Victorian Alps between Victoria and New South Wales and in Tasmania: Major cities: Mount Buller (bordering a subartic climate), Perisher Ski Resort (bordering a subpolar oceanic climate), Kiandra, Cabramurra, Charlotte Pass and Hotham Alpine Resort (both bordering a subarctic climate)
- New Zealand: Parts of the interior of the South Island in the rain shadow of the Southern Alps have a continental climate. These include the Maniototo and upper Clutha Valley in Otago, and the Mackenzie Basin in Canterbury. Population centres in this area include Alexandra, Naseby, Ranfurly, Tekapo, and Twizel.
While there are no major cities in South America that fall in to the classification of a continental climate, there are some remote places that have this climate. Due to the influence of the Ocean, Patagonia, including cities such as Punta Arenas, Chile and Ushuaia, Argentina, have an average winter temperature above 0°C, and so are classified as an oceanic climate.
- Argentina: Moderately high elevations in the central Andes west of Mendoza, Argentina towards the Argentine Patagonia's internal areas (e.g; lying in the nation's southwestern frontier, near the Chilean border (e.g Bariloche, Puente del Inca)
- Chile: Moderately high elevations in the central and Andes east of Santiago, and within the interior of the Aysén region (e.g: Balmaceda)
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