Continuously compounded nominal and real returns
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Let Pt be the price of a security at time t, including any cash dividends or interest, and let Pt − 1 be its price at t − 1. Let RSt be the simple rate of return on the security from t − 1 to t. Then
The continuously compounded rate of return or instantaneous rate of return RCt obtained during that period is
If this instantaneous return is received continuously for one period, then the initial value Pt-1 will grow to during that period. See also continuous compounding.
Let be the purchasing power of a dollar at time t (the number of bundles of consumption that can be purchased for $1). Then , where PLt is the price level at t (the dollar price of a bundle of consumption goods). The simple inflation rate ISt from t –1 to t is . Thus, continuing the above nominal example, the final value of the investment expressed in real terms is
Then the continuously compounded real rate of return is
The continuously compounded real rate of return is just the continuously compounded nominal rate of return minus the continuously compounded inflation rate.