65th cabinet of Italy
|Date formed||1 June 2018|
|People and organisations|
|Head of state||Sergio Mattarella|
|Head of government||Giuseppe Conte|
|Deputy head of government||Luigi Di Maio|
|No. of ministers||19|
|Total no. of ministers||19|
|Member parties||Five Star Movement (8)|
|Status in legislature||Coalition government|
|Opposition parties||Democratic Party|
Brothers of Italy
Free and Equal
|Legislature term(s)||XVIII Legislature (2018–2023)|
|Incoming formation||2018 government formation|
Formed by the Five Star Movement, the League and some independents proposed by each party, the cabinet is also referred to as "government of change" (Italian: governo del cambiamento) after the political agreement signed by the two parties, "populist government" (the first of that kind in Europe according to several sources)[which?] or "yellow-green government" (governo gialloverde) based on their customary colours, while the League calls it "yellow-blue government" (governo gialloblù), due to the League's official campaign colour. The government, and more specifically the League, have been described by Italian newspapers[which?] as "souverainist".
- 1 Supporting parties
- 2 Background and formation
- 3 Investiture votes
- 4 Party breakdown
- 5 Geographical breakdown
- 6 Composition
- 7 Electoral program
- 8 References
- 9 External links
The government is supported and most of its members are provided by the two following parties.
|Five Star Movement (M5S)||Big tent||Populism, Direct democracy||Luigi Di Maio|
|League (L)||Right-wing||Populism, Federalism||Matteo Salvini|
At its birth, the government was also supported by the Associative Movement Italians Abroad (MAIE), five deputies and two senators previously expelled from the M5S, one dissident senator from the South American Union Italian Emigrants (USEI) who later joined the MAIE and one deputy of Forza Italia (FI) who sarcastically voted in favour of it. Ricardo Merlo, the leader of MAIE, was also named Undersecretary to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs on 12 June 2018. The government is also supported by the National Movement for Sovereignity, the Sardinian Action Party and the Italian Liberal Party (whose senators sit in the League group).
Brothers of Italy (FdI), the parties representing liguistic minorities (Valdostan Union, South Tyrolean People's Party and Trentino Tyrolean Autonomist Party) and one deputy from USEI announced that they were willing to vote for measures that reflect their respective ideologies.
Background and formation
The March 2018 general election resulted in a hung parliament, with the Five Star Movement (M5S) led by Luigi Di Maio as the party with the largest number of votes and of parliamentary seats while the centre-right alliance in which Matteo Salvini's League emerged as the main political force won a plurality of seats in the Chamber of Deputies and in the Senate. The centre-left coalition, built around the Democratic Party (PD) led by former Prime Minister Matteo Renzi, came third.
On 9 May, after weeks of political deadlock and the failure of various attempts of forming a cabinet, including M5S–Centre-right and M5S–PD, Di Maio and Salvini officially requested President Sergio Mattarella to give them 24 more hours to strike a government agreement between their two parties. In the evening, Silvio Berlusconi publicly announced that Forza Italia would not support a M5S–League government on a vote of confidence, but it would still maintain the centre-right alliance nonetheless, thus opening the doors to a possible majority government between the two parties.
On 13 May, the M5S and the League reached an agreement in principle on a government program, but they could not find an agreement regarding the Prime Minister and the ministers. M5S and League leaders met with President Mattarella on 14 May and asked for an additional week of negotiations. Both parties announced they would ask their respective members to vote on the government agreement by the weekend.
On 21 May, private law professor and M5S advisor Giuseppe Conte was proposed by Di Maio and Salvini for Prime Minister. Despite reports in the media suggesting that President Mattarella had significant reservations about the direction of the new government, Conte was invited at the Quirinal Palace to receive the presidential mandate to form a new cabinet on May 23. In his statement after the appointment, Conte said that he would be the "defender of Italian people". The next day, Conte held talks with all the parliamentary parties, but the government formation was soon stuck on Paolo Savona as Minister of Economy and Finances, unfavoured by President Mattarella, considering his alleged support for Italy's covert exit from the Euro as an overwhelming risk for the country's economy. On 27 May, President Mattarella refused to appoint Savona and Conte renounced his task after days of negotiation and an ultimatum by the two party leaders on Savona.
On 28 May, President Mattarella summoned Carlo Cottarelli (a former director of the International Monetary Fund) on 28 May and gave him the task to form a new government. On the same day, the PD announced that it would abstain from voting the confidence to Cottarelli while the M5S, the League, FI and the Brothers of Italy (FdI) would vote against. Cottarelli was expected to submit his list of ministers for approval to President Mattarella on 29 May. However, he held only informal consultations with the President on 29 May and 30 May, waiting for the formation of a "political government". Meanwhile, Di Maio and Salvini announced their willingness to restart negotiations to form a "political" government and Giorgia Meloni (FdI leader) gave her support.
On 31 May, the M5S and the League announced their new agreement on a Conte-led government with Giovanni Tria as Minister of Economy and Finances and Savona as Minister of European Affairs. Subsequently, President Mattarella summoned Conte, who announced the list of ministers. On 1 June, Prime Minister Conte and his ministers took their oaths of office and were sworn in. On June 5, the Italian Senate approved the new government in a vote of confidence. On June 6, the government was confirmed following a second vote of confidence, this time in the Chamber of Deputies.
On 12 June, the cabinet appointed 6 deputy ministers and 39 undersecretaries. Of all these appointments, 25 were M5S members, 17 Leghisti, two non-party independents and one member of the Associative Movement Italians Abroad. The M5S received four deputy ministers while the League received two.
On 5 June 2018, the Conte Cabinet was granted the confidence of the Senate by receiving 171 votes in favor and 117 votes against (25 senators abstained; 7 senators did not vote, among which 6 were absent). Senators for life Elena Cattaneo, Mario Monti and Liliana Segre abstained while senators for life Carlo Rubbia, Renzo Piano and Giorgio Napolitano did not vote. On 6 June 2018, the so-called Government of Change received the confidence of the Chamber of Deputies by receiving 350 votes in favor and 236 votes against (35 deputies abstained; 8 deputies did not vote, among which 5 were absent).
Investiture votes for Conte Cabinet
|House of Parliament||Vote||Parties||Votes|
|Senate of the Republic||Yes||M5S (109), League (58), MAIE (2), Independents (2)|
171 / 313
|‹See TfM› No||FI (57), PD (52), LeU (4), AUT. (2), PSI (1), +E (1)|
117 / 313
|Abstension||FdI (18), AUT. (5), Independents (2)|
25 / 313
|Chamber of Deputies||Yes||M5S (220), League (123), MAIE (6), FI (1)|
350 / 621
|‹See TfM› No||PD (111), FI (104), LeU (14), CP–AP–PSI–AC (4), NcI (3), +E–CD (3)|
236 / 621
|Abstension||FdI (30), SVP-PATT (4), USEI (1)|
35 / 621
Ministers and other members
- Five Star Movement (M5S): 8 ministers, 4 deputy ministers, 21 undersecretaries
- League (LN): 5 ministers, 3 deputy ministers, 15 undersecretaries
- Associative Movement Italians Abroad: 1 undersecretary
- Independents: 6 ministers (including Conte), 2 undersecretaries
- Northern Italy: 9 ministers
- Central Italy: 2 ministers
- Lazio: 2 ministers
- Southern and Insular Italy: 8 ministers (including Conte)
- Proposed by the Five Star Movement.
- Replacing in the second selection the original candidate, Luca Giansanti (independent).
- Chosen after the original candidate, Paolo Savona, was rejected by the President.
- Proposed by the League.
- Replacing in the second selection the original candidate, Mauro Coltorti (M5S).
Deputy Prime Ministers
Secretary of the Council
The two parties signed a contract on a shared program on various measures. During his speech before the investiture vote in the Italian Senate on 5 June, Conte announced his willingness to reduce illegal immigration and increase the contrast to human traffickers and smugglers. He also advocated a fight against political corruption, the introduction of a law which regulates the conflict of interests, a new bill which expands the right of self-defense, a taxes reduction and a drastic cut to politics's costs, thanks to the annuities' abolition. Conte also proposed to lift off the international sanctions against Russia.
The coalition's immigration policy was led by Interior Minister and Deputy Prime Minister Matteo Salvini, a strong opponent of illegal immigration. Salvini laid out a three-point program to contrast illegal immigration, including increasing the number of repatriation centers, reducing immigration and increasing deportations of those who don't qualify for asylum. The policy document calls for the deportation of Italy's estimated 500,000 undocumented immigrants "as a priority".
On 10 June 2018, Salvini announced the closure of Italian ports, stating: "Everyone in Europe is doing their own business, now Italy is also raising its head. Let's stop the business of illegal immigration". The following day, the Aquarius and SOS Méditerranée were turned away by Italy and Malta. On the following day, Spain accepted the passengers of the Aquarius.
On 18 June 2018, Salvini announced the government would conduct a census of Romani people in Italy for the purpose of deporting all who are not in the country legally. However, this measure was criticized as unconstitutional and was opposed by all the oppositions and also by some members of the M5S.
The Government of Change pledged to reform the Italian tax system by introducing flat taxes for businesses and individuals, with a no-tax area for low-income households and corrections to keep some degree of tax progression (as required by the Constitution).
Politicians salaries and pensions
The parties intend to cut the pensions and annuities of parliamentarians, regional councillors and those employed by constitutional bodies. All monthly pensions exceding by 5,000 euros the amount contributed while working will be reviewed.
The coalition has pledged to use direct democracy via referendum. Riccardo Fraccaro, a M5S long time advocate of such votes, became the world's first Minister for Direct Democracy, advocating a lowering of the 50% participation quorum for referendum to be valid and the introduction of citizens' initiatives for new laws.
The parties have pledged to reform the public health system to minimize inefficiencies and wastefulness of resources. The contract features the digitalization of the public health system, enhanced transparency, improved governance in the pharmaceutical sector, centralization of purchases, fight against corruption, new procedures for the accreditation of private clinics, implementation of tele-medicine and improvement of home care. The parties envisioned a health system mostly supported by the fiscal system, with minimal contribution from the patients. They also pledged to reduce the waiting times for a specialist visit or for emergency care in public hospitals.
The parties intend to implement the will of the Italian people who reaffirmed in a 2011 referendum the public nature of water. The parties pledged to guarantee the quality of public water in all the municipalities by improving the water transport network, minimizing the leaks and replacing old pipelines that may still contain asbestos and lead.
Agriculture, fishing and Made in Italy
The coalition intends to promote a reform of the Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union in a way that supports the Italian agriculture, but at the same time protects landscape and water resources and guarantees food safety. Small-scale agriculture and fishing should also be protected and the typical and traditional local productions should be safeguarded. Furthermore, the parties intend to promote the national productions within the trading treaties between the European Union and other countries and to protect the Made in Italy brand through proper labeling.
Environment, green economy and circular economy
The parties pledged to increase the awareness around environmental issues and enforce measures of prevention and maintenance of the environment in order to mitigate the risk related to landslides, hydrogeology and floods. They also plan to devote special attention to the issues raised by climate change and pollution. They intend to promote a green economy and support research, innovation and training for ecology-related employment to increase the competitiveness and sustainability of the industry and reduce the dependence on fossil fuels. They also intend to promote a circular economy for a sustainable waste management based on enhanced recycling and regeneration. Finally, the parties plan to arrest land consumption through strategies of urban renewal, retrofit of private and public buildings and infrastructure, with increase of energy efficiency and the promotion of distributed energy generation.
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