Contrasting and categorization of emotions
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The contrasting and categorisation of emotions describes how emotions are thought to relate to each other. Various recent proposals of such groupings are described in the following sections.
Contrasting basic emotions
The following table, based on a wide review of current theories, identifies and contrasts the fundamental emotions according to a set of definite criteria. The three key criteria used include mental experiences that:
- have a strongly motivating subjective quality like pleasure or pain;
- are in response to some event or object that is either real or imagined;
- motivate particular kinds of behaviour.
The combination of these attributes distinguish the emotions from sensations, feelings and moods.
|Kind of Emotion||Positive Emotions||Negative Emotions|
|Related to Object Properties||Interest, curiosity||Alarm, panic|
|Attraction, desire, admiration||Aversion, disgust, revulsion|
|Surprise, amusement||Indifference, familiarity, habituation|
|Event-Related||Gratitude, thankfulness||Anger, rage|
|Joy, elation, triumph, jubilation||Sorrow, grief|
|Self-Appraisal||Humility Remembering who you are||Pride, Thinking or acting in a way above others|
|Social||Charity||Avarice, greed, miserliness, envy, jealousy|
HUMAINE's proposal for EARL (Emotion Annotation and Representation Language)
The emotion annotation and representation language (EARL) proposed by the Human-Machine Interaction Network on Emotion (HUMAINE) classifies 48 emotions.
Parrott's emotions by groups
Plutchik's wheel of emotions
|Basic emotion||Basic opposite|
|Human feelings (results of emotions)||Emotions||Opposite|
|Optimism||Anticipation + Joy||Disapproval|
|Love||Joy + Trust||Remorse|
|Submission||Trust + Fear||Contempt|
|Awe||Fear + Surprise||Aggression|
|Disapproval||Surprise + Sadness||Optimism|
|Remorse||Sadness + Disgust||Love|
|Contempt||Disgust + Anger||Submission|
|Aggressiveness||Anger + Anticipation||Awe|
- List of virtues
- Affect (psychology)
- Emotion classification
- Emotional mood
- Emotion and memory
- Basic emotions
- Robinson, D. L. (2009). "Brain function, mental experience and personality". The Netherlands Journal of Psychology. pp. 152–167.
- "HUMAINE Emotion Annotation and Representation Language". Emotion-research.net. Retrieved June 30, 2006.
- Shaver, P., Schwartz, J., Kirson, D., & O'connor, C. (1987). Emotion knowledge: further exploration of a prototype approach. Journal of personality and social psychology, 52(6), 1061.
- Parrott, W. (2001), "Emotions in Social Psychology", Psychology Press, Philadelphia.
- Plutchik, R. "The Nature of Emotions". American Scientist. Archived from the original on July 16, 2001. Retrieved 14 April 2011.