Contrasting and categorization of emotions
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The contrasting and categorization of emotions describes how emotions are thought to relate to each other. Various recent proposals of such groupings are described in the following sections.
Contrasting basic emotions
The following table, based on a wide review of current theories, identifies and contrasts the fundamental emotions according to a set of definite criteria. The three key criteria used include mental experiences that:
- have a strongly motivating subjective quality like pleasure or pain;
- are in response to some event or object that is either real or imagined;
- motivate particular kinds of behavior.
The combination of these attributes distinguish the emotions from sensations, feelings and moods.
|Kind of emotion||Positive emotions||Negative emotions|
|Related to object properties||Interest, curiosity, enthusiasm||Indifference, habituation, boredom|
|Attraction, desire, admiration||Aversion, disgust, revulsion|
|Surprise, amusement||Alarm, panic|
|Future appraisal||Hope, excitement||Fear, anxiety, dread|
|Event-related||Gratitude, thankfulness||Anger, rage|
|Joy, elation, triumph, jubilation||Sorrow, grief|
|Self-appraisal||Humility, modesty||Pride, thinking or acting in a way above others|
|Social||Charity||Avarice, greed, miserliness, envy, jealousy|
HUMAINE's proposal for EARL
The emotion annotation and representation language (EARL) proposed by the Human-Machine Interaction Network on Emotion (HUMAINE) classifies 48 emotions.
- Negative and forceful
- Negative and not in control
- Negative thoughts
- Negative and passive
- Positive and lively
- Positive thoughts
- Quiet positive
Parrott's emotions by groups
Plutchik's wheel of emotions
In 1980, Robert Plutchik constructed a wheel-like diagram of emotions visualising eight basic emotions: Joy, Trust, Fear, Surprise, Sadness, Disgust, Anger and Anticipation. The wheel combines the ideas of circles representing emotions and a color wheel. Similar emotions in the wheel are adjacent. The wheel was inspired by "Plutchik's Ten Postulates", a list of theorems which include some of the emotions listed below. The wheel is one of the most influential emotional theories today, although it has been frequently criticised for its lack of a longer list of emotions. Plutchik also theorized twenty-four "Primary", "Secondary", and "Tertiary" dyads (a feeling composed of two emotions). Due to the nature of the wheel, the emotions are arranged in pairs according to behavioural and evolutionary mechanisms. The ways the emotions can be paired up are listed here:
- Primary dyad = one petal apart = Love = Joy + Trust
- Secondary dyad = two petals apart = Envy = Sadness + Anger
- Tertiary dyad = three petals apart = Shame = Fear + Disgust
- Opposite emotions = four petals apart = Anticipation ≠ Surprise
Emotions also come in a variety of intensities; for example, Distraction is a mild form of Surprise, and Rage is an intense form of Anger. Weaker emotions lay among the outer circles and stronger emotions bloom in the middle. The kinds of relation between each pair of emotions follow below:
|Mild emotion||Mild opposite||Basic emotion||Basic opposite||Intense emotion||Intense opposite|
- Dyads (Combinations)
|Human feelings||Emotions||Opposite feelings||Emotions|
|Optimism||Anticipation + Joy||Disapproval||Surprise + Sadness|
|Hope||Anticipation + Trust||Unbelief||Surprise + Disgust|
|Anxiety||Anticipation + Fear||Outrage||Surprise + Anger|
|Love||Joy + Trust||Remorse||Sadness + Disgust|
|Guilt||Joy + Fear||Envy||Sadness + Anger|
|Delight||Joy + Surprise||Pessimism||Sadness + Anticipation|
|Submission||Trust + Fear||Contempt||Disgust + Anger|
|Curiosity||Trust + Surprise||Cynicism||Disgust + Anticipation|
|Sentimentality||Trust + Sadness||Morbidness||Disgust + Joy|
|Awe||Fear + Surprise||Aggression||Anger + Anticipation|
|Despair||Fear + Sadness||Pride||Anger + Joy|
|Shame||Fear + Disgust||Dominance||Anger + Trust|
- Jessica Hagy's Combinations
|Human feelings||Emotions||Opposite feelings||Emotions|
|Acknowledgement||Serenity + Acceptance||Listlessness||Pensiveness + Boredom|
|Devotion||Ecstasy + Admiration||Shame||Grief + Loathing|
|Acquiescence||Acceptance + Apprehension||Impatience||Boredom + Annoyance|
|Subservience||Admiration + Terror||Hatred||Loathing + Rage|
|Wariness||Apprehension + Distraction||Disfavor||Annoyance + Interest|
|Petrification||Terror + Amazement||Domination||Rage + Vigilance|
|Dismay||Distraction + Pensiveness||Bemusement||Interest + Serenity|
|Horror||Amazement + Grief||Zeal||Vigilance + Ecstasy|
The Hourglass of Emotions
In 2012, a scientific research book called The Hourglass of Emotions was largely based on Robert Plutchik's model, but categorised his emotions into four sentic dimensions. It contrasted Anger, Anticipation, Joy, and Trust as positive emotions, and Fear, Surprise, Sadness and Disgust as negative.
- Advanced emotions
|Dimensions||High Sensitivity||Low Sensitivity||High Pleasantness||Low Pleasantness|
- Affect (psychology)
- Basic emotions
- Emotion and memory
- Emotion classification
- Emotional mood
- List of virtues
- Robinson, D. L. (2009). "Brain function, mental experience and personality". The Netherlands Journal of Psychology. pp. 152–167.
- "HUMAINE Emotion Annotation and Representation Language". Emotion-research.net. Retrieved June 30, 2006.
- Shaver, P.; Schwartz, J.; Kirson, D. & O'connor, C. (1987). "Emotion knowledge: further exploration of a prototype approach". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 52 (6): 1061. doi:10.1037/0022-3518.104.22.1681. PMID 3598857.
- Parrott, W. (2001). Emotions in Social Psychology. Key Readings in Social Psychology. Philadelphia: Psychology Press. ISBN 978-0863776830.
- Plutchik, R. "The Nature of Emotions". American Scientist. Archived from the original on July 16, 2001. Retrieved 14 April 2011.
- Jonathan Turner (1 June 2000). On the Origins of Human Emotions: A Sociological Inquiry Into the Evolution of Human Affect. Stanford University Press. p. 76. ISBN 978-0-8047-6436-0.
- Atifa Athar; M. Saleem Khan; Khalil Ahmed; Aiesha Ahmed; Nida Anwar (June 2011). "A Fuzzy Inference System for Synergy Estimation of Simultaneous Emotion Dynamics in Agents". International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research. 2 (6).
- "Plutchik's Wheel of Emotions in Venn format".
- "The Hourglass of Emotions" (PDF).