Contrasting and categorization of emotions
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The contrasting and categorization of emotions describes how emotions are thought to relate to each other. Several proposals have been made for organizing them into groups.
- 1 Lists of emotions
- 1.1 Basic emotions
- 1.2 Contrasting basic emotions
- 1.3 HUMAINE's proposal for EARL
- 1.4 Parrott's emotions by groups
- 1.5 Plutchik's wheel of emotions
- 1.6 The Hourglass of Emotions
- 1.7 The Book of Human Emotions
- 1.8 Mapping facial expressions
- 1.9 Emotional equations
- 1.10 Atlas of Emotions
- 1.11 Emotion and Stress
- 2 See also
- 3 References
- 4 External links
Lists of emotions
Humans experience emotion, with evidence used that they influence action, thoughts and behavior. Emotions are categorized into various affects, which correspond to the current situation. An affect is a term used to describe the range of feeling experienced. Both positive and negative emotions are needed in our daily lives.
- William James in 1890 proposed four basic emotions: fear, grief, love, and rage, based on bodily involvement.
- Paul Ekman identified six basic emotions: anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness and surprise. Wallace V. Friesen and Phoebe C. Ellsworth worked with him on the same basic structure. The emotions can be linked to facial expressions. In the 1990s, Ekman proposed an expanded list of basic emotions, including a range of positive and negative emotions that are not all encoded in facial muscles. The newly included emotions are: Amusement, Contempt, Contentment, Embarrassment, Excitement, Guilt, Pride in achievement, Relief, Satisfaction, Sensory pleasure, and Shame.
- Richard and Bernice Lazarus in 1996 expanded the list to 15 emotions: aesthetic experience, anger, anxiety, compassion, depression, envy, fright, gratitude, guilt, happiness, hope, jealousy, love, pride, relief, sadness, and shame, in the book Passion and Reason.
- Researchers at University of California, Berkeley identified 34 categories of emotion: admiration, adoration, aesthetic appreciation, amusement, anger, anxiety, awe, awkwardness, boredom, calmness, confusion, contempt, craving, disgust, empathic pain, entrancement, excitement, fear, horror, interest, joy, nostalgia, relief, romance, sadness, satisfaction, sexual desire and surprise. This was based on 2185 short videos intended to elicit a certain emotion. These were then modelled onto a "map" of emotions.
Contrasting basic emotions
A 2009 review of theories of emotion identifies and contrasts fundamental emotions according to three key criteria for mental experiences that:
- have a strongly motivating subjective quality like pleasure or pain;
- are a response to some event or object that is either real or imagined;
- motivate particular kinds of behavior.
The combination of these attributes distinguishes emotions from sensations, feelings and moods.
|Kind of emotion||Positive emotions||Negative emotions|
|Related to object properties||Interest, curiosity, enthusiasm||Indifference, habituation, boredom|
|Attraction, desire, admiration||Aversion, disgust, revulsion|
|Surprise, amusement||Alarm, panic|
|Future appraisal||Hope, excitement||Fear, anxiety, dread|
|Event-related||Gratitude, thankfulness||Anger, rage|
|Joy, elation, triumph, jubilation||Sorrow, grief|
|Self-appraisal||Humility, modesty||Pride, arrogance|
|Social||Charity||Avarice, greed, miserliness, envy, jealousy|
HUMAINE's proposal for EARL
The emotion annotation and representation language (EARL) proposed by the Human-Machine Interaction Network on Emotion (HUMAINE) classifies 48 emotions.
- Negative and forceful
- Negative and not in control
- Negative thoughts
- Negative and passive
- Positive and lively
- Positive thoughts
- Quiet positive
Parrott's emotions by groups
Plutchik's wheel of emotions
In 1980, Robert Plutchik diagrammed a wheel of eight emotions: joy, trust, fear, surprise, sadness, disgust, anger and anticipation, inspired by his Ten Postulates Plutchik also theorized twenty-four "Primary", "Secondary", and "Tertiary" dyads (feelings composed of two emotions). The wheel emotions can be paired in four groups:
- Primary dyad = one petal apart = Love = Joy + Trust
- Secondary dyad = two petals apart = Envy = Sadness + Anger
- Tertiary dyad = three petals apart = Shame = Fear + Disgust
- Opposite emotions = four petals apart = Anticipation ≠ Surprise
There are also triads, emotions formed from 3 primary emotions. This leads to a combination of 24 dyads and 32 triads, making 56 emotions at 1 intensity level. Emotions can be mild or intense; for example, distraction is a mild form of surprise, and rage is an intense form of anger. The kinds of relation between each pair of emotions are:
|Mild emotion||Mild opposite||Basic emotion||Basic opposite||Intense emotion||Intense opposite|
|Human feelings||Emotions||Opposite feelings||Emotions|
|Optimism||Anticipation + Joy||Disapproval||Surprise + Sadness|
|Hope||Anticipation + Trust||Unbelief||Surprise + Disgust|
|Anxiety||Anticipation + Fear||Outrage||Surprise + Anger|
|Love||Joy + Trust||Remorse||Sadness + Disgust|
|Guilt||Joy + Fear||Envy||Sadness + Anger|
|Delight||Joy + Surprise||Pessimism||Sadness + Anticipation|
|Submission||Trust + Fear||Contempt||Disgust + Anger|
|Curiosity||Trust + Surprise||Cynicism||Disgust + Anticipation|
|Sentimentality||Trust + Sadness||Morbidness||Disgust + Joy|
|Awe||Fear + Surprise||Aggressiveness||Anger + Anticipation|
|Despair||Fear + Sadness||Pride||Anger + Joy|
|Shame||Fear + Disgust||Dominance||Anger + Trust|
The Hourglass of Emotions
The 2012 book The Hourglass of Emotions was based on Robert Plutchik's model, but categorised the emotions into four sentic dimensions. It contrasted anger, anticipation, joy, and trust as positive emotions, and fear, surprise, sadness and disgust as negative.
|Dimensions||High Sensitivity||Low Sensitivity||High Pleasantness||Low Pleasantness|
The Book of Human Emotions
Tiffany Watt Smith listed 154 different worldwide emotions and feelings.
Mapping facial expressions
|Despair = Suffering - Meaning|
|Disappointment = Expectations - Reality|
|Regret = Disappointment + Responsibility|
|Anxiety = Uncertainty x Powerlessness|
|Curiosity = Wonder + Awe|
|Authenticity = Self-Awareness x Courage|
|Narcissism = (Self-Esteem)2 x Entitlement|
|Integrity = Authenticity x Invisibility x Reliability|
|Happiness = Love - Fear|
|Wisdom = √|
Atlas of Emotions
The Dalai Lama made a website based on the emotions of enjoyment, disgust, anger, fear and sadness with the help of Paul Ekman. The emotions were similar to the ones found in Inside Out, a film that Paul Ekman advised.
Emotion and Stress
Emotions and stress are connected, so stressful situations produce emotion. Environments that make stress also make emotions.
- Affect (psychology)
- Basic emotions
- Emotion and memory
- Emotion classification
- Emotional mood
- List of virtues
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