Contrastive focus reduplication
Contrastive focus reduplication (also lexical cloning, the double construction) is a type of syntactic reduplication found in some languages that indicates the prototypical meaning of the repeated word or phrase, a form of retronymy. The term word word was coined by U.S. writer Paul Dickson in 1982 to describe this.
The first part of the reduplicant bears contrastive intonational stress.
- SALAD-salad refers to the original meaning of green salad
- AUCKLAND-Auckland refers to the New Zealand city, of all cities with this name
- "I’m up, I’m just not UP–up" — Language Log noticed that this example from the "Contrastive focus reduplication" paper was pinched by Zits. 
The poem "After the Funeral" by Billy Collins contains many examples of contrastive focus reduplication.
- Ghomeshi, Jila; Jackendoff, Ray; Rosen, Nicole; & Russell, Kevin. (2004). Contrastive focus reduplication in English (the salad-salad paper). Natural Language & Linguistic Theory, 22, 307–357
- The Oxford Companion to the English Language. Oxford University Press. 1992. p. 1127. ISBN 0-19-214183-X.
- Corpus of English contrastive focus reduplications
- Contrastive focus reduplication in Zits
- ""Elusive" and "After the Funeral" by Billy Collins" (PDF). Boulevard Magazine. Retrieved 2014-10-26.[dead link]
- Dray, Nancy. (1987). Doubles and modifiers in English. (Unpublished M.A. thesis, University of Chicago).
- Horn, Laurence. (1993). Economy and redundancy in a dualistic model of natural language. In S. Shore & M. Vilkuna (Eds.), SKY 1993: Yearbook of the Linguistic Association of Finland (pp. 31–72).
- Wierzbicka, Anna. (1991). Cross-cultural pragmatics: The semantics of human interaction. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.