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Control register

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A control register is a processor register that changes or controls the general behavior of a CPU or other digital device. Common tasks performed by control registers include interrupt control, switching the addressing mode, paging control, and coprocessor control.

History[edit]

The early CPU lacked dedicated control registers, and relied on a limited set of internal signals and flags.[1] When IBM developed a paging version[note 1] of the System/360, they added 16 control registers[2][3] to the design for what became the 360/67. IBM did not provide control registers on other S/360 models, but made them a standard part[4] of System/370, although with different register and bit assignments. As IBM added new features to the architecture, e.g., DAS, S/370-XA, S/370-ESA, ESA/390, they added additional fields to the control registers. With z/Architecture, IBM doubled the control register size to 64 bits.

Control registers in IBM 360/67[edit]

On the 360/67, CR0 and CR2 are used by address translation, CR 4-6 contain miscellaneous flags including interrupt masks and Extended Control Mode,[3] and CR 8-14[5] contain the switch settings on the 2167 Configuration Unit.

M67 CR0[edit]

Control Register 0 contains the address of the segment table for dynamic address translation.

M67 CR2[edit]

Control register 2 is the Relocation exception address register.

M67 CR4[edit]

CR4 is the extended mask register for channels 0-31. Each bit is the 1/0 channel mask for the corresponding channel.

M67 CR5[edit]

CR5 is reserved for the extended mask register for channels 32–63. Each bit is the 1/0 channel mask for the corresponding channel.

M67 CR6[edit]

CR6 contains two mode flags plus extensions to the PSW mask bits.

CR6 Flags and Masks
Field Bit Description
0 0 Machine Check Mask Extension for Channel Controller o
1 1 Machine Check Mask Extension for Channel Controller 1
2-3 Reserved for channel controllers 2-3
4-7 Unassigned
8 8 Extended Control Mode
9 9 Configuration Control Bit
10-23 Unassigned
24-31 External interrupt masking
24 Timer
25 Interrupt Key
26 Malfunction Alert - CPU 1 (Ext. Sig. 2)
27 Malfunction Alert - CPU 2 (Ext. Sig. 3)
28 Reserved (Ext. Sig. 4)
29 Reserved (Ext. Sig. 5)
30 External Interrupt - CPU 1, 2 (Ext. Sig. 6)
31 Reserved (Ext. Sig. 7)

M67 CR8[edit]

Control Register 8 contains the assignments of Processor Storage units 1–4 to central processing units (CPUs) and channel controllers (CCs).

Processor Storage unit 1-4 assignment
Bit Description
0 Processor Storage Unit 1 to CPU 1
1 Processor Storage Unit 1 to CPU 2
2-3 Reserved for CPU 3-4
4 Processor Storage Unit 1 to CC 0
5 Processor Storage Unit 1 to CC 1
6-7 Reserved for CC 3-4
8 Processor Storage Unit 2 to CPU 1
9 Processor Storage Unit 2 to CPU 2
10-11 Reserved for CPU 3-4
12 Processor Storage Unit 2 to CC 0
13 Processor Storage Unit 2 to CC 1
14-15 Reserved for CC 3-4
16 Processor Storage Unit 3 to CPU 1
17 Processor Storage Unit 3 to CPU 2
18-19 Reserved for CPU 3-4
20 Processor Storage Unit 3 to CC 0
21 Processor Storage Unit 3 to CC 1
22-23 Reserved for CC 3-4
24 Processor Storage Unit 4 to CPU 1
25 Processor Storage Unit 4 to CPU 2
26-27 Reserved for CPU 3-4
28 Processor Storage Unit 4 to CC 0
29 Processor Storage Unit 4 to CC 1
30-31 Reserved for CC 3-4

M67 CR9[edit]

Control Register 9 contains the assignments of Processor Storage units 5–8 to central processing units (CPUs) and channel controllers (CCs).

Processor Storage unit 1-4 assignment
Bit Description
0 Processor Storage Unit 5 to CPU 1
1 Processor Storage Unit 5 to CPU 2
2-3 Reserved for CPU 3-4
4 Processor Storage Unit 5 to CC 0
5 Processor Storage Unit 5 to CC 1
6-7 Reserved for CC 3-4
8 Processor Storage Unit 6 to CPU 66
9 Processor Storage Unit 6 to CPU 2
10-11 Reserved for CPU 3-4
12 Processor Storage Unit 6 to CC 0
13 Processor Storage Unit 6 to CC 1
14-15 Reserved for CC 3-4
16 Processor Storage Unit 7 to CPU 1
17 Processor Storage Unit 7 to CPU 2
18-19 Reserved for CPU 3-4
20 Processor Storage Unit 7 to CC 0
21 Processor Storage Unit 7 to CC 1
22-23 Reserved for CC 3-4
24 Processor Storage Unit 8 to CPU 1
25 Processor Storage Unit 8 to CPU 2
26-27 Reserved for CPU 3-4
28 Processor Storage Unit 8 to CC 0
29 Processor Storage Unit 8 to CC 1
30-31 Reserved for CC 3-4

M67 CR10[edit]

Control Register 10 contains the Processor storage address assignment codes.

Processor storage address bits 11-14 assignment codes
Bit Starting Address Code for
0-3 Processor Storage Unit 1
4-7 Processor Storage Unit 2
8-11 Processor Storage Unit 3
12-15 Processor Storage Unit 4
16-19 Processor Storage Unit 5
20-23 Processor Storage Unit 6
24-27 Processor Storage Unit 7
28-31 Processor Storage Unit 8

M67 CR11[edit]

Control Register 11 contains channel controller (CC) assignments.

CR11 Channel Controller (CC) partitioning
Bit Description
0 CC 0 available on CPU 1
1 CC 0 available on CPU 2
2-3 Reserved for CPUs 3-4
4 CC 1 available on CPU 1
5 CC 1 available on CPU 2
6-7 Reserved for CPUs 3-4
8-15 Unassigned
16 CPU 1 to only CC 0
17 CPU 1 to only CC 1
18-19 Reserved for CC 2-3
20 CPU 2 to only CC 0
21 CPU 2 to only CC 1
22-23 Reserved for CC 2-3
24-31 Unassigned

M67 CR12[edit]

CR12 contains I/O Control Unit Partitioning.

CR12 I/O Control Unit 1-16 Partitioning
Bit I/O Control Unit Interface
0 1 1
1 2
2 2 1
3 2
4 3 1
5 2
6 4 1
7 2
8 5 1
9 2
10 6 1
11 2
12 7 1
13 2
14 8 1
15 2
16 9 1
17 2
18 10 1
19 2
20 11 1
21 2
22 12 1
23 2
24 13 1
25 2
26 14 1
27 2
28 15 1
29 2
30 16 1
31 2

M67 CR13[edit]

CR13 contains I/O Control Unit Partitioning.

CR13 I/O Control Unit 17-32 Partitioning
Bit I/O Control Unit Interface
0 17 1
1 2
2 18 1
3 2
4 19 1
5 2
6 20 1
7 2
8 21 1
9 2
10 22 1
11 2
12 23 1
13 2
14 24 1
15 2
16 25 1
17 2
18 26 1
19 2
20 27 1
21 2
22 28 1
23 2
24 29 1
25 2
26 30 1
27 2
28 31 1
29 2
30 32 1
31 2

M67 CR14[edit]

CR14 contains indicators.

CR14 Indicators
Bit Indicator
0-27 Unassigned
22 2167 Power On
23 Unassigned
24 Direct Control, CPU 1
25 Direct Control, CPU 2
26-27 Unassigned
28 Prefix, CPU 1
29 Prefix, CPU 2
30-31 Unassigned

Control registers in IBM S/390[edit]

The control registers of ESA/390[6] on the IBM S/390 are an evolutionary enhancement to the control registers on the earlier ESA/370,[7] S/370-XA[8] and S/370[9] processors. For details on which fields are dependent on specific features, consult the Principles of Operation.[10]

ESA/390 control registers
CR bits Field
0 1 SSM-suppression
0 2 TOD-clock-sync control
0 3 Low-address-protection control
0 4 Extraction-authority control
0 5 Secondary-space control
0 6 Fetch-protection-override control
0 7 Storage-protection-override control
0 8-12 Translation format
0 13 AFP-register control
0 14 Vector control
0 15 Address-space-function control
0 16 Malfunction-alert subclass mask
0 17 Emergency-signal subclass mask
0 18 External-call subclass mask
0 19 TOD-clock sync-check subclass mask
0 20 Clock-comparator subclass mask
0 21 CPU-timer subclass mask
0 22 Service-signal subclass mask
0 24 Set to 1
0 25 Interrupt-key subclass mask
0 26 Set to 1
0 27 ETR subclass mask
0 28 Program-call-fast
0 29 Crypto control
1 0 Primary space-switch-event control
1 1-19 Primary segment-table origin
1 22 Primary subspace-group control
1 23 Primary private-space control
1 24 Primary storage-alteration-event control
1 25-31 Primary segment-table length
2 1-25 Dispatchable-unit-control-table origin
3 0-15 PSW-key mask
3 16-31 Secondary ASN
4 0-15 Authorization index
4 16-31 Primary ASN
5 0 Subsystem-linkage control
5 1-24 Linkage-table origin
5 25-31 Linkage-table length
5 1-25 When the address-space-function control is one,
Primary-ASN-second-table-entry
6 0-7 I/O-interruption subclass mask
7 1-19 Secondary segment-table origin
7 22 Secondary subspace-group control
7 23 Secondary private-space control
7 24 Secondary storage-alteration-event control
7 25-31 Secondary segment-table length
8 0-15 Extended authorization index
8 16-31 Monitor masks
9 0 Successful-branching-event mask
9 1 Instruction-fetching-event mask
9 2 Storage-alteration-event mask
9 3 GR-alteration-event mask
9 4 Store-using-real-address-event mask
9 8 Branch-address control
9 10 Storage-alteration-space control
9 16-31 PER general-register masks
10 1-31 PER starting address
11 1-31 PER ending address
12 0 Branch-trace control
12 1-29 Trace-entry address
12 30 ASN-trace control
12 31 Explicit-trace control
13 0 Home space-switch-event control
13 1-19 Home segment-table origin
13 23 Home private-space control
13 24 Home storage-alteration-event control
13 25-31 Home segment-table length
14 0 Set to 1
14 1 Set to 1
14 2 Extended-save-area control
14 3 Channel-report-pending subclass mask
14 4 Recovery subclass mask
14 5 Degradation subclass mask
14 6 External-damage subclass mask
14 7 Warning subclass mask
14 10 TOD-clock-control-override control
14 12 ASN-translation control
14 13-31 ASN-first-table origin
15 1-28 Linkage-stack-entry address

Control registers in IBM z/Architecture[edit]

The control registers of z/Architecture[11] are an evolutionary enhancement to the control registers of the earlier ESA/390 on the IBM S/390 processors. For details on which fields are dependent on specific features, consult the Principles of Operation.[12] Because z/Architecture expands the control registers from 32 bits to 64, the bit numbering differs from that in ESA/390.

z/Architecture mode control registers
CR bits Field
0 8 Transactional-execution control
0 9 Transactional-execution program-interruption filtering override
0 10 Clock-comparator sign control
0 13 Cryptography counter controll
0 14 Processor-activity-instrumentation-extension control
0 15 Measurement-counter-extraction-authorization control
0 30 Warning-track subclass mask
0 32 TRACE TOD-clock control
0 33 SSM-suppression
0 34 TOD-clock-sync control
0 35 Low-address-protection control
0 36 Extraction-authority control
0 37 Secondary-space control
0 38 Fetch-protection-override control
0 39 Storage-protection-override control
0 40 Enhanced-DAT-enablement control
0 43 Instruction-execution-protection-enablement control
0 44 ASN-and-LX-reuse control
0 45 AFP-register control
0 46 Vector enablement control
0 48 Malfunction-alert subclass mask
0 48 Malfunction-alert subclass mask
0 49 Emergency-signal subclass mask
0 50 External-call subclass mask
0 52 Clock-comparator subclass mask
0 53 CPU-timer subclass mask
0 54 Service-signal subclass mask
0 56 Initialized to 1
0 57 Interrupt-key subclass mask
0 58 Measurement-alert subclass mask
0 59 Timing-alert subclass mask
0 61 Crypto control
1 0-51 Primary Address-Space Control Element (ASCE)
Primary region-table origin
Primary segment-table origin
Primary real-space token origin
1 54 Primary subspace-group control
1 55 Primary private-space control
1 56 Primary storage-alteration-event
1 57 Primary space-switch-event control
1 58 Primary real-space control
1 60-61 Primary designation-type control
1 62-63 Primary table length
2 33-57 Dispatchable-unit-control-table origin
2 59 Guarded-storage-facility enablement control
2 61 Transaction diagnostic scope
2 62-63 Transaction diagnostic control
3 0-31 Secondary ASN-second-table-entry instance number
3 32-47 PSW-key mask
3 48-63 Secondary ASN
4 0-31 Primary ASN-second-table-entry instance number
4 32-47 Authorization index
4 48-63 Primary ASN
5 33-57 Primary-ASN-second-table-entry origin
6 32-39 I/O-interruption subclass mask
7 0-51 Secondary Address-Space Control Element (ASCE)
Secondary region-table origin
Secondary segment-table origin
Secondary real-space token origin
7 54 Secondary subspace-group control
7 55 Secondary private-space control
7 56 Secondary storage-alteration-event control
7 58 Secondary real-space control
7 60-61 Secondary designation-type control
7 62-63 Secondary table length
8 16-31 Enhanced-monitor masks
8 32-47 Extended authorization index
8 48-63 Monitor masks
9 32 Successful-branching-event mask
9 33 Instruction-fetching-event mask
9 34 Storage-alteration-event mask
9 35 Storage-key-alteration-event mask
9 36 Store-using-real-address-event mask
9 37 Zero-address-detection-event mask
9 38 Transaction-end event mask
9 39 Instruction-fetching-nullification-event mask
9 40 Branch-address control
9 41 PER-event-suppression control
9 43 Storage-alteration-space control
10 0-63 PER starting address
11 0-63 PER ending address
12 0 Branch-trace control
12 1 Mode-trace control
12 2-61 Trace-entry address
12 62 ASN-trace control
12 63 Explicit-trace control
13 0-51 Home Address-Space Control Element (ASCE)
Home region-table origin
Home segment-table origin
Home real-space token origin
13 55 Home private-space control
13 56 Home storage-alteration-eventl
13 57 Home space-switch-event control
13 58 Secondary real-space control
13 60-61 Home designation-type control
13 62-63 Home table length
14 32 Set to 1
14 33 Set to 1
14 34 Extended save-area control (ESA/390-compatibility mode

only)

14 35 Channel-report-pending subclass mask
14 36 Recovery subclass mask
14 37 Degradation subclass mask
14 38 External-damage subclass mask
14 39 Warning subclass mask
14 42 TOD-clock-control-override control
14 44 ASN-translation control
14 45-63 ASN-first-table origin
15 0-60 Linkage-stack-entry address

Control registers in Intel x86 series[edit]

CR0[edit]

The CR0 register is 32 bits long on the 386 and higher processors. On x64 processors in long mode, it (and the other control registers) is 64 bits long. CR0 has various control flags that modify the basic operation of the processor. Register CR0 is the 32 Bit version of the old Machine Status Word (MSW) register. The MSW register was expanded to the Control Register with the appearance of the i386 processor.

Bit Name Full Name Description
0 PE Protected Mode Enable If 1, system is in protected mode, else, system is in real mode
1 MP Monitor co-processor Controls interaction of WAIT/FWAIT instructions with TS flag in CR0
2 EM Emulation If set, no x87 floating-point unit present, if clear, x87 FPU present
3 TS Task switched Allows saving x87 task context upon a task switch only after x87 instruction used
4 ET Extension type On the 386, it allowed to specify whether the external math coprocessor was an 80287 or 80387
5 NE Numeric error Enable internal x87 floating point error reporting when set, else enables PC style x87 error detection
16 WP Write protect When set, the CPU cannot write to read-only pages when privilege level is 0
18 AM Alignment mask Alignment check enabled if AM set, AC flag (in EFLAGS register) set, and privilege level is 3
29 NW Not-write through Globally enables/disable write-through caching
30 CD Cache disable Globally enables/disable the memory cache
31 PG Paging If 1, enable paging and use the § CR3 register, else disable paging.

CR1[edit]

Reserved, the CPU will throw a #UD exception when trying to access it.

CR2[edit]

Contains a value called Page Fault Linear Address (PFLA). When a page fault occurs, the address the program attempted to access is stored in the CR2 register.

CR3[edit]

Typical use of CR3 in address translation with 4 KiB pages

Used when virtual addressing is enabled, hence when the PG bit is set in CR0. CR3 enables the processor to translate linear addresses into physical addresses by locating the page directory and page tables for the current task. Typically, the upper 20 bits of CR3 become the page directory base register (PDBR), which stores the physical address of the first page directory. If the PCIDE bit in CR4 is set, the lowest 12 bits are used for the process-context identifier (PCID).[13]

CR4[edit]

Used in protected mode to control operations such as virtual-8086 support, enabling I/O breakpoints, page size extension and machine-check exceptions.

Bit Name Full Name Description
0 VME Virtual 8086 Mode Extensions If set, enables support for the virtual interrupt flag (VIF) in virtual-8086 mode.
1 PVI Protected-mode Virtual Interrupts If set, enables support for the virtual interrupt flag (VIF) in protected mode.
2 TSD Time Stamp Disable If set, RDTSC instruction can only be executed when in ring 0, otherwise RDTSC can be used at any privilege level.
3 DE Debugging Extensions If set, enables debug register based breaks on I/O space access.
4 PSE Page Size Extension If set, enables 32-bit paging mode to use 4 MiB huge pages in addition to 4 KiB pages.

If PAE is enabled or the processor is in x86-64 long mode this bit is ignored.[14]

5 PAE Physical Address Extension If set, changes page table layout to translate 32-bit virtual addresses into extended 36-bit physical addresses.
6 MCE Machine Check Exception If set, enables machine check interrupts to occur.
7 PGE Page Global Enabled If set, address translations (PDE or PTE records) may be shared between address spaces.
8 PCE Performance-Monitoring Counter enable If set, RDPMC can be executed at any privilege level, else RDPMC can only be used in ring 0.
9 OSFXSR Operating system support for FXSAVE and FXRSTOR instructions If set, enables Streaming SIMD Extensions (SSE) instructions and fast FPU save & restore.
10 OSXMMEXCPT Operating System Support for Unmasked SIMD Floating-Point Exceptions If set, enables unmasked SSE exceptions.
11 UMIP User-Mode Instruction Prevention If set, the SGDT, SIDT, SLDT, SMSW and STR instructions cannot be executed if CPL > 0.[13]
12 LA57 57-Bit Linear Addresses If set, enables 5-Level Paging.[15][16]: 2–18 
13 VMXE Virtual Machine Extensions Enable see Intel VT-x x86 virtualization.
14 SMXE Safer Mode Extensions Enable see Trusted Execution Technology (TXT)
15 [a] (Reserved)
16 FSGSBASE FSGSBASE Enable If set, enables the instructions RDFSBASE, RDGSBASE, WRFSBASE, and WRGSBASE.
17 PCIDE PCID Enable If set, enables process-context identifiers (PCIDs).
18 OSXSAVE XSAVE and Processor Extended States Enable
19 KL Key Locker Enable If set, enables the AES Key Locker instructions.
20 SMEP[19] Supervisor Mode Execution Protection Enable If set, execution of code in a higher ring generates a fault.
21 SMAP Supervisor Mode Access Prevention Enable If set, access of data in a higher ring generates a fault.[20]
22 PKE Protection Key Enable See Intel 64 and IA-32 Architectures Software Developer's Manual.
23 CET Control-flow Enforcement Technology If set, enables control-flow enforcement technology.[16]: 2–19 
24 PKS Enable Protection Keys for Supervisor-Mode Pages If set, each supervisor-mode linear address is associated with a protection key when 4-level or 5-level paging is in use.[16]: 2–19 
25 UINTR User Interrupts Enable If set, enables user-mode inter-processor interrupts and their associated instructions and data structures.
63-26 (Reserved)
  1. ^ In early drafts of the Intel SGX specification, bit 15 of CR4 was named "CR4.SEE" and was described as an SGX enclave-instruction enable bit.[17] Later revisions of this specification removed references to this bit.[18]

CR5–7[edit]

Reserved, same case as CR1.

Additional Control registers in Intel x86-64 series[edit]

EFER[edit]

Extended Feature Enable Register (EFER) is a model-specific register added in the AMD K6 processor, to allow enabling the SYSCALL/SYSRET instruction, and later for entering and exiting long mode. This register becomes architectural in AMD64 and has been adopted by Intel as IA32_EFER. Its MSR number is 0xC0000080.

Bit Purpose
0 SCE (System Call Extensions)
1 DPE (AMD K6 only: Data Prefetch Enable)
2 SEWBED (AMD K6 only: Speculative EWBE# Disable)
3 GEWBED (AMD K6 only: Global EWBE# Disable)
4 L2D (AMD K6 only: L2 Cache Disable)
5-7 Reserved, Read as Zero
8 LME (Long Mode Enable)
9 Reserved
10 LMA (Long Mode Active)
11 NXE (No-Execute Enable)
12 SVME (Secure Virtual Machine Enable)
13 LMSLE (Long Mode Segment Limit Enable)
14 FFXSR (Fast FXSAVE/FXRSTOR)
15 TCE (Translation Cache Extension)
16 Reserved
17 MCOMMIT (MCOMMIT instruction enable)
18 INTWB (Interruptible WBINVD/WBNOINVD enable)
19 Reserved
20 UAIE (Upper Address Ignore Enable)
21 AIBRSE (Automatic IBRS Enable)
22–63 Reserved

CR8[edit]

CR8 is a new register accessible in 64-bit mode using the REX prefix. CR8 is used to prioritize external interrupts and is referred to as the task-priority register (TPR).[14]

The AMD64 architecture allows software to define up to 15 external interrupt-priority classes. Priority classes are numbered from 1 to 15, with priority-class 1 being the lowest and priority-class 15 the highest. CR8 uses the four low-order bits for specifying a task priority and the remaining 60 bits are reserved and must be written with zeros.

System software can use the TPR register to temporarily block low-priority interrupts from interrupting a high-priority task. This is accomplished by loading TPR with a value corresponding to the highest-priority interrupt that is to be blocked. For example, loading TPR with a value of 9 (1001b) blocks all interrupts with a priority class of 9 or less, while allowing all interrupts with a priority class of 10 or more to be recognized. Loading TPR with 0 enables all external interrupts. Loading TPR with 15 (1111b) disables all external interrupts.

The TPR is cleared to 0 on reset.

XCR0 and XSS[edit]

XCR0, or Extended Control Register 0, is a control register which is used to toggle the storing or loading of registers related to specific CPU features using the XSAVE/XRSTOR instructions. It is also used with some features to enable or disable the processor's ability to execute their corresponding instructions. It can be changed using the privileged XSETBV read using the unprivileged XGETBV instructions.[21]

Bit Name Enabled Feature Purpose
0 X87 x87 FPU x87 FPU/MMX State, must be '1'
1 SSE SSE MXCSR and 16 XMM registers
2 AVX AVX 16 upper-halves of the YMM registers[a]
3 BNDREG MPX Four BND registers
4 BNDCSR BNDCFGU and BNDSTATUS registers
5 OPMASK AVX-512 Eight k-mask registers
6 ZMM_Hi256 16 upper-halves of the ZMM registers[b]
7 Hi16_ZMM 16 "high" ZMM registers (ZMM16 through ZMM31)
8 PT Processor Trace
9 PKRU Protection Keys PKRU register
10 PASID
11 CET_U Intel CET User shadow stack
12 CET_S Supervisor shadow stack
13 HDC Hardware Duty Cycling
14 UINTR User interrupts
15 LBR Last Branch Records
16 HWP Hardware P-states
17 XTILECFG Intel AMX 64-byte TILECFG register
18 XTILEDATA Eight 1024-byte TILE registers
19[c] APX Intel APX 16 "high" GPRs (R16 through R31)
20–63 Reserved
  1. ^ The lower 128 bits of all YMM registers is stored in the SSE state.
  2. ^ The lower 256 bits of ZMM registers ZMM0 through ZMM15 are stored in the SSE and AVX states.
  3. ^ Even though Intel APX is indicated through bit 19 of XCR0, it is actually written, through XSAVE (the uncompacted form), in the unused 64 byte space left where Intel MPX went.

There is also the IA32_XSS MSR, which is located at address DA0h. The IA32_XSS MSR controls bits of XCR0 which are considered to be "supervisor" state, and should be invisible to regular programs. It operates with the privileged XSAVES and XRSTORS instructions by adding supervisor state to the data they operate with. Put simply, if the X87 state was enabled in XCR0 and PT state was enabled in IA32_XSS, the XSAVE instruction would only store X87 state, while the privileged XSAVES would store both X87 and PT states. Because it is an MSR, it can be accessed using the RDMSR and WRMSR instructions.

Bit Purpose
0–7 Reserved; must be 0.
8 PT (Enables the saving and loading of nine Processor Trace MSRs.)
10 Processor Address Space ID (PASID) state
11 Control-flow Enforcement Technology (CET) User State
12 Control-flow Enforcement Technology (CET) Supervisor State
13 HDC (Enables the saving and loading of the IA32_PM_CTL1 MSR.)
14 User interrupts (UINTR) state
15 Last branch recording (LBR) state
16 HWP (enables the saving/loading of IA32_HWP_REQUEST MSR)
17–63 Reserved; must be 0.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ IBM never shipped the 360/64 or 360/66, only the 360/67.

References[edit]

IBM manuals
M67prelim
System/360 Model 67 - Time Sharing System - Preliminary Technical Summary (PDF). Systems Reference Library (First ed.). IBM. C20-1647-0. Retrieved May 8, 2023.
M67
IBM System/360 Model 67 - Functional Characteristics (PDF). Systems Reference Library (Third ed.). IBM. February 1972. A27-2719-0. Retrieved May 8, 2023.
S/370
IBM System/370 - Principles of Operation (PDF) (Eleventh ed.). IBM. September 1987. GA22-7000-10. Retrieved May 8, 2023.
S/370-XA
IBM System/370 Extended Architecture Principles of Operation (PDF) (Second ed.). IBM. January 1987. SA22-7085-1. Retrieved May 8, 2023.
S/370-ESA
IBM Enterprise Systems Architecture/370 Principles of Operation (PDF) (First ed.). IBM. August 1988. SA22-7200-0. Retrieved May 8, 2023.
S/390-ESA
IBM Enterprise Systems Architecture/390 Principles of Operation (PDF) (Ninth ed.). IBM. June 2003. SA22-7201-08. Retrieved May 8, 2023.
z/Architecture
z/Architecture - Principles of Operation (PDF) (Fourteenth ed.). IBM. May 2022. SA22-7832-13. Retrieved May 8, 2023.
  1. ^ "lab4.pdf" (PDF). Uppsala University. March 17, 2024. Archived (PDF) from the original on January 17, 2021. Retrieved March 16, 2024.
  2. ^ M67prelim, pp. 25-26, Control Registers.
  3. ^ a b M67, p. 16, Table 4. Control Registers.
  4. ^ S/370, pp. 4-8-4-11 , Control Registers.
  5. ^ M67, pp. 31-35, Control Register Bit Assignments for Sensing.
  6. ^ S/390-ESA.
  7. ^ S/370-ESA.
  8. ^ S/370-XA.
  9. ^ S/370.
  10. ^ S/390-ESA, pp. 4-6-4-10, Control Registers.
  11. ^ z/Architecture.
  12. ^ z/Architecture, pp. 4-9–4-12, Control Registers.
  13. ^ a b Intel Corporation (2016). "4.10.1 Process-Context Identifiers (PCIDs)". Intel 64 and IA-32 Architectures Software Developer's Manual (PDF). Vol. 3A: System Programming Guide, Part 1.
  14. ^ a b "AMD64 Architecture Programmer's Manual Volume 2: System Programming" (PDF). AMD. September 2012. pp. 127 & 130. Retrieved 2017-08-04.
  15. ^ "5-Level Paging and 5-Level EPT" (PDF). Intel. May 2017. p. 16. Retrieved 2018-01-23.
  16. ^ a b c "Intel 64 and IA-32 Architectures Software Developer's Manual" (PDF). Intel® Corporation. 2021-06-28. Retrieved 2021-09-21.
  17. ^ Intel, Software Guard Extensions Programming Reference, ref no. 329298-001, sep 2013 - chapters 1.7 and 6.5.2 describe CR4.SEE.
  18. ^ Intel, Software Guard Extensions Programming Reference, ref no. 329298-002, oct 2014 - makes no mention of CR4.SEE.
  19. ^ Fischer, Stephen (2011-09-21). "Supervisor Mode Execution Protection" (PDF). NSA Trusted Computing Conference 2011. National Conference Services, Inc. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-08-03. Retrieved 2017-08-04.
  20. ^ Anvin, H. Peter (2012-09-21). "x86: Supervisor Mode Access Prevention". LWN.net. Retrieved 2017-08-04.
  21. ^ "Chapter 13, Managing State Using The Xsave Feature Set" (PDF). Intel(R) 64 and IA-32 Architectures Software Developer's Manual, Volume 1: Basic Architecture. Intel Corporation (2019). Retrieved 23 March 2019.

External links[edit]