Conus magus

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Conus magus
Conus magus 001.jpg
Dorsal (left) and ventral (right) views of a shell of Conus magus
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Gastropoda
Clade: Caenogastropoda
Clade: Hypsogastropoda
Clade: Neogastropoda
Superfamily: Conoidea
Family: Conidae
Genus: Conus
Species: C. magus
Binomial name
Conus magus
Linnaeus, 1758
Synonyms[2]
  • Conus (Pionoconus) magus Linnaeus, 1758 · accepted, alternate representation
  • Conus adansoni sensu G. B. Sowerby II, 1858 (misidentification)
  • Conus ambaroides Shikama, 1977
  • Conus assimilis A. Adams, 1855
  • Conus borneensis G. B. Sowerby II, 1866 (invalid: junior homonym of Conus borneensis A. Adams & Reeve, 1848)
  • Conus carinatus Swainson, 1822
  • Conus cernohorskyi da Motta, 1983
  • Conus circae G. B. Sowerby II, 1858
  • Conus consul Boivin, 1864
  • Conus epistomioides Weinkauff, 1875
  • Conus epistomium Reeve, 1844
  • Conus frauenfeldi Crosse, 1865
  • Conus fucatus Reeve, 1849
  • Conus fulvobullatus da Motta, 1982
  • Conus melancholicus Lamarck, 1810
  • Conus metcalfii Reeve, 1843
  • Conus raphanus Hwass in Bruguière, 1792
  • Conus rollandi Bernardi, 1860
  • Conus signifer Crosse, 1865
  • Conus tasmaniae G. B. Sowerby II, 1866
  • Conus ustulatus Reeve, 1844
  • Conus worcesteri Brazier, 1891
  • Cucullus caesius Röding, 1798
  • Pionoconus magus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Conus magus, common name the magical cone, is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Conidae, the cone snails and their allies.[2]

Like all species within the genus Conus, these snails are predatory and venomous. Their venom contains conotoxins which have powerful neurotoxic effects. Given that they are capable of "stinging" humans, live cone shells should be handled with great care or preferably not at all.

The variety Conus magus var. decurtatus Dautzenberg, 1910 is a synonym of Conus striolatus Kiener, 1848

Description[edit]

Conus magus (syn.:Conus fulvobullatus) shows the variability in pattern and color of this species

The size of an adult shell varies between 16 mm and 94 mm. This common species is very variable in pattern and shade of coloring and embraces a large synonymy. The moderate spire is striate. The body whorl is long and rather cylindrical, closely striate below. The color of the shell is white, clouded with bluish ash, orange-brown, chestnut or chocolate, everywhere encircled by narrow chocolate interrupted lines, often separated into somewhat distant dots The middle of the body whorl is usually irregularly fasciate with white. The spire is tessellated with chestnut or chocolate.[3]

Venom use[edit]

Ziconotide is a chemical derived from the Conus magus toxin that acts as a painkiller with a potency 1000 times that of morphine. Discovered by Dr. Baldomero Olivera at University of Utah, it was developed for treatment of chronic and intractable pain caused by AIDS, cancer, neurological disorders and other maladies, and was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in December 2004 under the name Prialt.

Ziconotide works by blocking calcium channels in pain-transmitting nerve cells, rendering them unable to transmit pain signals to the brain. It is administered through injection into the spinal fluid.[4]

Distribution[edit]

This marine species occurs in the Red Sea and in the Indian Ocean off Madagascar and the Mascarene Basin. It is also found over a wide area of the Pacific Ocean from Indonesia to Japan and to the Marshall Islands, Wallis and Futuna and Fiji, but mainly centered on the Philippines; off Australia (Queensland).

References[edit]

  1. ^ NatureServe (2013). "Conus magus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  2. ^ a b Conus magus Linnaeus, 1758.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 18 July 2011.
  3. ^ George Washington Tryon, Manual of Conchology vol. VI, p. 53; 1879
  4. ^ http://nihrecord.od.nih.gov/newsletters/2005/03_01_2005/story03.htm
  • Linnaeus, C. (1758). Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentius Salvius: Holmiae. ii, 824 pp
  • Bruguière, M. 1792. Encyclopédie Méthodique ou par ordre de matières. Histoire naturelle des vers. Paris : Panckoucke Vol. 1 i-xviii, 757 pp.
  • Röding, P.F. 1798. Museum Boltenianum sive Catalogus cimeliorum e tribus regnis naturae quae olim collegerat Joa. Hamburg : Trappii 199 pp.
  • Swainson, W. 1822. Zoological Illustrations; or Original Figures and Descriptions of new, rare, or interesting Animals, selected chiefly from the classes of Ornithology, Entomology, and Conchology, and arranged on the principles of Cuvier and other modern zoologists. Series 1. London : Baldwin, Cradock & Joy Vol. 3 pls 84-134.
  • Reeve, L.A. 1843. Descriptions of new species of shells figured in the 'Conchologia Iconica'. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 11: 169-197
  • Reeve, L.A. 1849. Monograph of the genus Conus. pls 4-9 in Reeve, L.A. (ed). Conchologia Iconica. London : L. Reeve & Co. Vol. 1.
  • Adams, A. 1854. Descriptions of new species of the Genus Conus, from the collection of Hugh Cuming, Esq. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1853(21): 116-119
  • Sowerby, G.B. 1857-1858. Monograph of the genus Conus. 1-56, pls 1-24 in Thesaurus conchyliorum or monographs of genera of shells. London : Sowerby Vol. 3.
  • Bernardi, M. 1860. Descriptions d'espèces nouvelles. Journal de Conchyliologie 8: 332
  • Boivin, A. 1864. Descriptions de cinq espèces nouvelles du genre Conus. Journal de Conchyliologie 12: 33-40
  • Crosse, H. 1865. Description de cones nouveaux provenant de la collection Cuming. Journal de Conchyliologie 13: 299-315
  • Sowerby, G.B. 1866. Monograph of the genus Conus. pp. 328-329 in Thesaurus Conchyliorum, or monographs of genera of shells. London : Sowerby, G.B. Vol. 3.
  • Weinkauff, H.C. 1875. Conus. pp. 311-316 in Küster, H.C., Martini, F.W. & Chemnitz, J.H. (eds). Systematisches Conchylien-Cabinet von Martini und Chemnitz. Nürnberg : Bauer & Raspe Vol. 4.
  • Smith, E.A. 1876. A list of marine shells, chiefly from the Solomon Islands, with descriptions of several new species. Journal of the Linnean Society of London, Zoology 12: 535-562, pl. 30
  • Oostingh, C.H. 1925. Report on a collection of recent shells from Obi and Halmahera, Molluccas. Mededeelingen van de Landbouwhoogeschool te Wageningen 29(1): 1-362
  • Demond, J. 1957. Micronesian reef associated gastropods. Pacific Science 11(3): 275-341, fig. 2, pl. 1
  • Gillett, K. & McNeill, F. 1959. The Great Barrier Reef and Adjacent Isles: a comprehensive survey for visitor, naturalist and photographer. Sydney : Coral Press 209 pp.
  • Rippingale, O.H. & McMichael, D.F. 1961. Queensland and Great Barrier Reef Shells. Brisbane : Jacaranda Press 210 pp.
  • Cotton, B.C. 1964. Molluscs of Arnhem Land. Records of the American-Australian Scientific Expedition to Arnhem Land 4 (Zoology): 9-43
  • Wilson, B.R. & Gillett, K. 1971. Australian Shells: illustrating and describing 600 species of marine gastropods found in Australian waters. Sydney : Reed Books 168 pp.
  • Hinton, A. 1972. Shells of New Guinea and the Central Indo-Pacific. Milton : Jacaranda Press xviii 94 pp.
  • Shikama, T. 1977. Descriptions of new and noteworthy [sic] Gastropoda from Western Oceans. Science Reports of the Yokohama National University 24(2): 9-23
  • Cernohorsky, W.O. 1978. Tropical Pacific Marine Shells. Sydney : Pacific Publications 352 pp., 68 pls.
  • Motta, A.J. da 1982. Seventeen new cone shell names (Gastropoda: Conidae). Publicaçoes Ocasionais da Sociedade Portuguesa de Malacologia 1: 1-26
  • Motta, A.J. da 1983. Two new species of the genus Conus (Gastropoda: Conidae). Publicaçoes Ocasionais da Sociedade Portuguesa de Malacologia 2: 1-9
  • Vine, P. (1986). Red Sea Invertebrates. Immel Publishing, London. 224 pp
  • Wilson, B. 1994. Australian Marine Shells. Prosobranch Gastropods. Kallaroo, WA : Odyssey Publishing Vol. 2 370 pp.
  • -Röckel, D., Korn, W. & Kohn, A.J. 1995. Manual of the Living Conidae. Volume 1: Indo-Pacific Region. Wiesbaden : Hemmen 517 pp.
  • Filmer R.M. (2001). A Catalogue of Nomenclature and Taxonomy in the Living Conidae 1758 - 1998. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden. 388pp
  • Tucker J.K. (2009). Recent cone species database. 4 September 2009 Edition
  • Tucker J.K. & Tenorio M.J. (2009) Systematic classification of Recent and fossil conoidean gastropods. Hackenheim: Conchbooks. 296 pp
  • Puillandre N., Duda T.F., Meyer C., Olivera B.M. & Bouchet P. (2015). One, four or 100 genera? A new classification of the cone snails. Journal of Molluscan Studies. 81: 1-23

Gallery[edit]

External links[edit]