Convection oven

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A tabletop convection oven cooking pork. For slower cooking, the gridiron here has been reversed to place the meat low and far from the main heat source (at the top of the pot) although near the heat of the glass pot's bottom. Flipping the gridiron would raise the meat closer to the main heat source.
An industrial convection oven used in the aircraft manufacturing industry

A convection oven (also known as a fan-assisted oven or simply a fan oven) is an oven that has fans to circulate air around food, using the convection mechanism to cook food faster than a conventional oven.[1] Convection ovens are also used for non-food, industrial applications.

Culinary convection ovens[edit]

Convection ovens distribute heat evenly around the food, removing the blanket of cooler air that surrounds food when it is first placed in an oven and allowing food to cook more evenly in less time and at a lower temperature than in a conventional oven.[2]


The first oven with a fan to circulate air was invented in 1914 but never launched commercially.[3]

The first convection oven in wide use was the Maxson Whirlwind Oven, invented in 1945.[4]


A convection oven has a fan with a heating element around it. A small fan circulates the air in the cooking chamber.[5][6]

Convection ovens may include radiant heat sources at the top and bottom of the oven, which improves heat transfer and speeds cooking from initial cold start. On the other hand, some ovens have all the heating elements placed in an outside enclosure and hidden from the food. This reduces the effect of radiant heat on the food; however, the walls of the oven will also be heated by the circulating hot air, and though the resulting temperature is much lower than that of a radiant heat source, it is still hot enough to provide some heating of the food by radiation from the walls.[citation needed]


A convection oven allows a reduction in cooking temperature compared to a conventional oven. This comparison will vary, depending on factors including, for example, how much food is being cooked at once or if airflow is being restricted, for example by an oversized baking tray.[citation needed] This difference in cooking temperature is offset as the circulating air transfers heat more quickly than still air of the same temperature. In order to transfer the same amount of heat in the same time, the temperature must be lowered to reduce the rate of heat transfer in order to compensate.[citation needed]

Product testing has not demonstrated that convection cooking within a toaster oven results in notable advantages to toasting or baking.[7]


Another form of a convection oven is called an impingement oven.[8] This type of oven is often used to cook pizzas in restaurants. Impingement ovens have a high flow rate of hot air from both above and below the food. The air flow is directed onto food that usually passes through the oven on a conveyor belt. Impingement ovens can achieve a much higher heat transfer than a conventional oven.

There are also convection microwave ovens which combine a convection oven with a microwave oven to cook food with the speed of a microwave oven and the browning ability of a convection oven.

An air fryer is a smaller countertop convection oven designed to fry foods by using hot air circulating around the food with a convection fan.

A combi steamer is an oven that combines convection functionality with superheated steam to cook foods even faster and retain more nutrients and moisture.

Industrial convection ovens[edit]

Industrial convection ovens can be very large-sized, and are typically used for manufacturing various items.


  1. ^ "Definition of CONVECTION OVEN".
  2. ^ Ojakangas, Beatrice (2009). Cooking with Convection: Everything You Need to Know to Get the Most from Your Convection Oven.
  3. ^ "Adding Pressure to Heat in Cooking". Technical World Magazine. May 1914. p. 403.
  4. ^ "Everything You Need to Know about Convection Ovens & Air Fryers". Air & Water.
  5. ^ "What's the difference between fan and convection ovens?". Archived from the original on 7 May 2013. Retrieved 20 July 2013.
  6. ^ "Ovens Advice Centre". Hoover Advice Centre. Archived from the original on 20 March 2013. Retrieved 20 July 2013.
  7. ^ "Toaster Buying Guide". Consumer Reports. November 2012. Archived from the original on 17 March 2014. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
  8. ^ "US5934178A — Air impingement oven" – via Google Patents.