Convention People's Party

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Convention People's Party
Apam Nkorɔfo Kuw (Akan)
Leader Edmund N. Delle
Chairman Edmund N. Delle
General Secretary Nii Armah Akomfrah
Founder Kwame Nkrumah
Founded June 12, 1949 (1949-06-12). Banned 1966. Refounded 29 January 1996.
Headquarters House No. 64, Mango Tree Avenue,
Asylum Down, Accra, Ghana
Youth wing
Convention People's Party Youth League
Ideology Nkrumaism
African socialism
Political position Left-wing
International affiliation Socialist International (consultative)
Colors Red, white and green
  • "Forward ever, backward never"
  • "Ghana Must Work Again the CPP
      is emerging!"
Election symbol
Red cockerel on a white background
Party flag
Flag of the Convention People's Party (Ghana)

The Convention People's Party (CPP) (Akan: Apam Nkorɔfo Kuw) is a socialist political party in Ghana based on the ideas of the first President of Ghana, Kwame Nkrumah.

The CPP was formed on 12 June 1949 by Kwame Nkrumah to campaign for the independence of the Gold Coast.[1] It was the governing party under Nkrumah of the autonomous British colony of the Gold Coast from 1951 to 1957, and independent Ghana from 1957 to 1966. In 1964 the constitution was changed to make the CPP the only legal party in Ghana, making the nation a one-party state. The party was banned after the 24 February 1966 coup d'état by the National Liberation Council. Parties following in its tradition have used various names.[2] The party was reformed from some of the Nkrumah factions in 1996.

Creation of the CPP[edit]

The United Gold Coast Convention (UGCC) was formed on 4 August 1947 after he resigned from the Ugcc with the goal of bringing about independence for Ghana. Kwame Nkrumah thought the UGCC's opposition to the colonial rulers lacked the necessary vehemence and urgency; he wanted immediate independence. Breaking from the UGCC on these grounds, he founded the CPP with the motto "self-government now". Original party members included Dzenkle Dzewu, Saki Sheck, and Kojo Botsio.

On 9 January 1950 the CPP called for countrywide boycotts and strikes, during which two policemen were shot dead and the CPP leadership was arrested and imprisoned. This only increased Nkrumah's popularity. When general elections were held in 1951, the CPP won decisively despite the imprisonment of Dr Nkrumah and other party leaders. Nkrumah was subsequently released to form the colony's first African government.[3]

Achieving independence[edit]

Nkrumah formed the first African cabinet in the British Empire in 1951.[1] He rejected the idea that local rulers who favoured the British should be given a role in governing, since he viewed them as undemocratic, and thus continued to call for full independence.[1]

In 1956 parliamentary elections were held. The British colonial government promised that if the majority of people voted in favour of independence, a date would be set.[4] The CPP won 71 out 104 seats, and Ghana finally gained its independence on 6 March 1957.[4]

Nkrumah's victory would be short-lived, however, thanks to the passage of two unpopular pieces of legislation in 1958.[4] The Trade Union Act outlawed public strikes, and the Preventive Detention Act allowed the government to detain political opponents without trial.[4] A clearly rigged referendum in 1964, which made the CPP the only legal party and declared Kwame Nkrumah as president for life of both nation and party, empowered the opposition.[4] A coup d’état by the National Liberation Council in 1966 ended the reign of the CPP, which was banned thereafter.[5]

CPP rebirth[edit]

Not until 29 January 1996, when the National Convention Party and the People's Convention Party merged, did the Convention People's Party resurface.[6] The new CPP has contested each election since 1996.

At the elections on 7 December 2004, the party won three out of 230 seats. Its candidate in the presidential elections, George Aggudey, won only 1.0% of the vote.

In the 2008 presidential and parliamentary elections, the party won one parliamentary seat for Kwame Nkrumah's daughter, Samia Nkrumah in the Jomoro constituency. The presidential candidate, Paa Kwesi Nduom, performed below expectation, managing to get 1.4% of total valid votes.

In June 2018 the party was admitted in the Socialist International as consultative member.[7]

Election results[edit]

Parliamentary elections[edit]

Election Number of CPP votes Share of votes Seats Outcome of election
2008 252,266 3.0% 1 Only one seat[8]
2004 257,466 3.0% 3 With others in opposition[9]
2000 85,643 1.3% 1 One seat in opposition[10]
1965 100% 198 One party state. Elected unopposed.[11]
1956 71 Parliament at independence in March 1957.[12]
1954 71 Majority in Legislative Assembly with CPP government.[13]
1951 Not available Not available First CPP government under colonial rule.[14]

Presidential elections[edit]

Election Candidate Number of votes Share of votes Outcome of election
2016 Ivor Greenstreet
2012 Abu Sakara
2008 Paa Kwesi Nduom 113,494 1.3% Placed 3rd[15]
2004 George Aggudey 85,968 1.0% 4th of 4[16]
2000 George Hagan 115,641 1.8% 4th of 7[17]
1965 Kwame Nkrumah Elected unopposed.[18]
1960 Kwame Nkrumah 1,016,076 89.07% First Ghanaian president[19]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c "Early years". Kwame Nkrumah. Encyclopædia Britannica. 
  2. ^ "A visit to the Gold Coast". Africa: Journal of the International African Institute. Edinburgh University Press. 1 (1): 107–111. January 1928. JSTOR 1155866. 
  3. ^ Finley, Cheryl (November 2006). "Of golden anniversaries and bicentennials: the convergence of memory, tourism, and national history in Ghana". Journeys. 7 (2): 15–32. 
  4. ^ a b c d e Kwame Nkrumah (1967). "African Socialism Revisited". 
  5. ^ "Heads of State of Ghana (1957 - To Date)". 
  6. ^ "Arkaah says he can work with Rawlings despite". GhanaWeb. 1 February 1996. 
  7. ^ "Socialist International - Progressive Politics For A Fairer World". Retrieved 2018-07-17. 
  8. ^ "REPUBLIC OF GHANA - LEGISLATIVE ELECTION OF 7 DECEMBER 2008". Adam Carr. Retrieved 2010-09-19. 
  9. ^ "REPUBLIC OF GHANA - LEGISLATIVE ELECTION OF 7 DECEMBER 2004". Adam Carr. Retrieved 2010-09-19. 
  10. ^ "REPUBLIC OF GHANA - LEGISLATIVE ELECTION OF 7 DECEMBER 2000". Adam Carr. Retrieved 2010-09-19. 
  11. ^ "History of the Parliament of Ghana". Parliament of Ghana. 
  12. ^ "17 July 1956 Legislative Assembly Election". Albert C. Nunley. Retrieved 2010-09-30. 
  13. ^ "15 June 1954 Legislative Assembly Election". Albert C. Nunley. Retrieved 2010-09-30. 
  14. ^ "08 February 1951 Legislative Assembly Election". Albert C. Nunley. Retrieved 2010-09-30. 
  15. ^ "REPUBLIC OF GHANA - PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION OF DECEMBER 2008". Adam Carr. Retrieved 2010-09-19. 
  16. ^ "07 December 2004 Presidential Election". Albert C. Nunley. Retrieved 2010-09-19. 
  17. ^ "REPUBLIC OF GHANA - PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION OF DECEMBER 2000". Adam Carr. Retrieved 2010-09-19. 
  18. ^ "Single Party Elections". Albert C. Nunley. Retrieved 2010-09-30. 
  19. ^ "27 April 1960 Presidential Election". Albert C. Nunley. Retrieved 2010-09-30. 

External links[edit]

New title Governments of Ghana
Parliamentary democracy
Queen Elizabeth II
ceremonial Head of state

1957 – 1960
First Republic established
New title Governments of Ghana
First Republic

1960 – 1966
Succeeded by
National Liberation Council
Military regime