Convergence tests

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In mathematics, convergence tests are methods of testing for the convergence, conditional convergence, absolute convergence, interval of convergence or divergence of an infinite series .

List of tests[edit]

Limit of the summand[edit]

If the limit of the summand is undefined or nonzero, that is , then the series must diverge. In this sense, the partial sums are Cauchy only if this limit exists and is equal to zero. The test is inconclusive if the limit of the summand is zero.

Ratio test[edit]

This is also known as D'Alembert's criterion.

Suppose that there exists such that
If r < 1, then the series is absolutely convergent. If r > 1, then the series diverges. If r = 1, the ratio test is inconclusive, and the series may converge or diverge.

Root test[edit]

This is also known as the nth root test or Cauchy's criterion.

Let
where "lim sup" denotes the limit superior (possibly ∞; if the limit exists it is the same value).
If r < 1, then the series converges. If r > 1, then the series diverges. If r = 1, the root test is inconclusive, and the series may converge or diverge.

Integral test[edit]

The series can be compared to an integral to establish convergence or divergence. Let be a non-negative and monotone decreasing function such that .

If
then the series converges. But if the integral diverges, then the series does so as well.
In other words, the series converges if and only if the integral converges.

Direct comparison test[edit]

If the series is an absolutely convergent series and for sufficiently large n , then the series converges absolutely.

Limit comparison test[edit]

If , and the limit exists, is finite and is not zero, then converges if and only if converges.

Cauchy condensation test[edit]

Let be a positive non-increasing sequence. Then the sum converges if and only if the sum converges. Moreover, if they converge, then holds.

Abel's test[edit]

Suppose the following statements are true:

  1. is a convergent series,
  2. {bn} is a monotone sequence, and
  3. {bn} is bounded.

Then is also convergent.

Alternating series test[edit]

This is also known as the Leibniz criterion. If is a series whose terms alternate from positive to negative, and if the limit as n approaches infinity of is zero and the absolute value of each term is less than the absolute value of the previous term, then is convergent.

Dirichlet's test[edit]

If is a sequence of real numbers and a sequence of complex numbers satisfying

  • for every positive integer N

where M is some constant, then the series

converges.

Raabe–Duhamel's test[edit]

Let { an } > 0.

Define

If

exists there are three possibilities:

  • if L > 1 the series converges
  • if L < 1 the series diverges
  • and if L = 1 the test is inconclusive.

An alternative formulation of this test is as follows. Let { an } be a series of real numbers. Then if b > 1 and K (a natural number) exist such that

for all n > K then the series {an} is convergent.

Notes[edit]

  • For some specific types of series there are more specialized convergence tests, for instance for Fourier series there is the Dini test.

Comparison[edit]

The root test is stronger than the ratio test (it is more powerful because the required condition is weaker): whenever the ratio test determines the convergence or divergence /of an infinite series, the root test does too, but not conversely.[1]

For example, for the series

1 + 1 + 0.5 + 0.5 + 0.25 + 0.25 + 0.125 + 0.125 + ... = 4

convergence follows from the root test but not from the ratio test.

Examples[edit]

Consider the series

.

Cauchy condensation test implies that (*) is finitely convergent if

is finitely convergent. Since

(**) is geometric series with ratio . (**) is finitely convergent if its ratio is less than one (namely ). Thus, (*) is finitely convergent if and only if .

Convergence of products[edit]

While most of the tests deal with the convergence of infinite series, they can also be used to show the convergence or divergence of infinite products. This can be achieved using following theorem: Let be a sequence of positive numbers. Then the infinite product converges if and only if the series converges. Also similarly, if holds, then approaches a non-zero limit if and only if the series converges .

This can be proved by taking the logarithm of the product and using limit comparison test.[2]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ratio Test
  2. ^ Convergence of Infinite Products

External links[edit]