Converse (shoe company)
|Industry||Accessories, apparel, sporting goods|
Malden, Massachusetts, U.S.
|Founder||Marquis Mills Converse|
|Headquarters||Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.|
Number of locations
|More than 100|
U.S. retail stores (2018)
|Scott Uzzell, President & CEO|
|Products||Apparel, clothing, shoes|
Number of employees
|2,658 (in U.S)|
|Parent||Nike, Inc. (2003-present)|
During World War II, the company shifted its manufacturing from the public, and instead made footwear for the military. It was one of the few producers of athletic shoes and for over a half century the company dominated the American court shoe market. From the 1970s, the company lost its dominant position after other companies presented their own styles.
Converse shoes are distinguished by a number of features, including the company's star insignia, the All Star's rubber sole, smooth rounded toe, and wrap-around strip.
Converse manufactures its products under the Cons, Chuck Taylor All-Star, John Varvatos, and Jack Purcell trade names. In addition to apparel and footwear, the company sells other items through retailers in over 160 countries and through approximately 75 company-owned retail stores across the United States, and employed 2,658 in the U.S. in 2015.
At age 47, Marquis Mills Converse, who was previously a manager at a footwear manufacturing firm, opened the Converse Rubber Shoe Company in February 1908 in Malden, Massachusetts. The company was a rubber shoe manufacturer, providing winterized rubber soled footwear for men, women, and children. By 1910, Converse was producing shoes daily, but it was not until 1915 that the company began manufacturing athletic shoes.
The company's catalyst came in 1917 when the Converse All-Star basketball shoe was introduced. Then in 1923, a basketball player named Charles H. "Chuck" Taylor walked into Converse complaining of sore feet. Converse gave him a job: he worked as a salesman and ambassador, promoting the shoes around the U.S., and in 1932 Taylor's signature was added to the All-Star patch on the classic, high-topped sneakers. He continued this work until shortly before his death in 1969. Converse also customized shoes for the New York Renaissance (the "Rens"), the first all–African American professional basketball team. In 1962, center Wilt Chamberlain of the Philadelphia Warriors scored 100 points in an NBA game while wearing a pair of Chucks, taking a 169–147 victory over the New York Knicks in Hershey, Pennsylvania on March 2.
1941–2001: War, rise, bankruptcy, and new management
When the U.S. entered World War II in 1941, Converse shifted production to manufacturing rubberized footwear, outerwear, and protective suits for the military. The company resumed production of athletic footwear after the war's end. Popular during the 1950s and 1960s, Converse promoted an American image with its Converse Basketball Yearbook. Artist Charles Kerins created cover art that celebrated Converse's role in the lives of high school and college athletes.
Converse lost their monopoly from the 1970s onward, with new competitors, including Puma and Adidas, then Nike, then a decade later Reebok, who introduced new designs to the sports market. Converse found themselves no longer the official shoe of the National Basketball Association (NBA), a title they had relished for many years.
The chevron and star insignia—a logo that remains on a large portion of Converse footwear other than the All Star—was created by Jim Labadini, an employee.
Canvas-rubber shoes regained popularity in the 1980s as casual footwear, but Converse eventually became over-dependent on the "All Stars" brand, whose market collapsed by 1989–1990. By the year 2000, Converse was slipping repeatedly into receivership as debt piled up yearly.
Converse filed for bankruptcy on January 22, 2001. Not too long after, on March 30, its last manufacturing plants in the U.S., closed down, as production fully moved overseas. In April 2001, Footwear Acquisitions, led by Marsden Cason and Bill Simon, purchased the brand from bankruptcy and added industry partners Jack Boys, Jim Stroesser, Lisa Kempa, and David Maddocks to lead the turnaround.
In July 2003, Nike paid $309 million to acquire Converse. Nike approached the 1980s revival around 2010 to relaunch the footwear. Nike also expanded the Converse brand to other businesses apart from shoes, much akin to its other brands.
By November 2012, Converse had disappeared completely from the NBA, as the last dozen players wearing the brand either left the NBA or switched shoes over a period of a year and a half. Carlos Arroyo went overseas in late 2011, and Maurice Evans last played for the Washington Wizards in April 2012. Nine switched to Nike: Acie Law (who went overseas) in late 2011; JJ Barea and Kirk Hinrich during the 2011–12 season; Luke Harangody and Larry Sanders after the season; Elton Brand, Louis Williams, and Kyle Korver for the 2012–13 season; and Chris Andersen during the season. Udonis Haslem, the last NBA player wearing Converse on the court, followed Miami Heat teammate Dwyane Wade to switch to Li-Ning in late November 2012.
Celebrities who have worn Converse include Snoop Dogg, Kristen Stewart, Rihanna, and, Tyler, the Creator. The growth of Converse as a casual fashion accessory contributed to $1.7 billion in revenue in 2014 and $2 billion in 2015.
In January 2013, Converse announced plans for a new headquarters building, and moved in April 2015. It was constructed near North Station in downtown Boston, on the Lovejoy Wharf, overlooking the Charles River as part of a major site overhaul and restoration of public waterfront access. The 10-story 214,000-square-foot (19,900 m2) office building includes a permanent music recording studio for the new "Converse Rubber Tracks" project, 5,000-square-foot (460 m2) gym with a separate yoga studio designed in partnership with Nike, and a new 3,500-square-foot (330 m2) retail Flagship Store.
Chuck Taylor All Star II
An improved model of the Chuck Taylor All-Star, the Chuck Taylor II, was announced by company management in July, 2015. The Chuck Taylor II's were released on July 28, 2015. Incorporating Nike technology, it retains the most of outward appearance of the original while employing a modern lightweight lunarlon insole. The notable changes made to the new sneakers are the removal of the wrap around strip, premium canvas with higher quality stitching, and a no slip tongue.
Under the "CONS" name, Converse launched its skateboarding program in 2009 with a team of "ambassadors": Kenny Anderson, Anthony Pappalardo, Nick Trapasso, Sammy Baca, Ethan Fowler, Raymond Molinar, and Rune Glifberg.
In August 2012, Converse sponsored a skate event at Huntington Beach, California, US. Trapasso, Tom Remillard, Aaron Homoki, Greyson Fletcher, Ben Raemers, Ben Hatchell, Robbie Russo, and Ben Raybourn participated in the competition that was held. Raybourn eventually won the US$20,000 grand prize and Homoki won the US$3,000 Best Trick contest.
As of July 2014, the CONS skateboard team consisted of original members Anderson, Trapasso, Baca, and Glifberg, while Jessee, Anderson, Julian Davidson, Remillard, Zered Basset, Ben Raemers, Jake Johnson, Eli Reed, Louie Lopez, Sage Elsesser, and Sean Pablo were subsequently added. Bassett filmed a new advertisement that was broadcast online during July 2014, in which he skateboarded through New York City in a newly launched skate shoe version of the Converse Weapon model, the "CONS Weapon Skate."
Starting in July 2008, Converse sent around 180 cease-and-desist letters to over 30 other companies who they claimed were violating the alleged Chuck Taylor All Star trademark and selling so-called look-alike sneakers.
In October 2014, Converse filed a lawsuit against 30 companies for allegedly infringing on its generic sneaker style's bumper toe, striped midsole and toe cap. The brand argued that companies were violating an alleged common-law trademark by importing sneakers with similar elements. A number of companies settled with Converse and they were dropped from the list.
In November 2015, Charles Bullock, chief administrative judge at the International Trade Commission, preliminarily ruled that several brands Converse filed against were violating Converse's outsole design trademarks, i.e. the pattern on the bottom of the sole of the shoe. Judge Bullock further ruled that while Skechers "Twinkle Toes" brands did share similarities to Converse, "Twinkle Toes" were different enough and marketed in a way for it not to be mistaken for Chuck Taylor All-Stars. Judge Bullock also ruled that most of the shoes sold by Highline United under the Ash brand did not infringe and that Converse did not have a valid common law mark for its midsole.
On June 23, 2016, the anniversary of the death of Chuck Taylor, the International Trade Commission ruled that Converse's alleged trade dress for the midsole design of a combined toe cap, toe bumper, and stripe was not entitled to trademark protection under the common law and found invalid Converse's federal trademark registration. This case is currently on appeal to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit. An oral hearing in that appeal was conducted on February 8, 2018. The decision in that appeal is pending.
In 1986, Converse released "The Weapon" basketball shoe. Manufactured in two color schemes to match the kit colors of basketball teams, it has been available in both high-top and low cut varieties. The unique aspect of this shoe is the leather construction throughout, including the inside heel which is also heavily padded for comfort. Converse re-released "The Weapon" classic (which Kobe Bryant wore at least three times in 2002 and Andre Miller wore in 2002 from mid August to early September) several times from 1999 to 2003 and after, "The Loaded Weapon" in 2003, "The Weapon 86" in 2008 (and the Poorman version in 2009, and the John Varvatos version in 2012), "The Weapon EVO" in 2009, and its successor "The Star Player EVO" (sometimes reduced to "The Star Plyr EVO" or "The Star Ply EVO") in 2010.
The first endorsers of "The Weapon" were Larry Bird and Magic Johnson, who were prominently featured in a Converse commercial set in Bird's hometown of French Lick, Indiana in 1985. They were also worn by Axl Rose in the Guns N' Roses music video "Estranged".
Several special editions of Converse shoes have been made, including DC Comics, Pink Floyd, The Ramones, AC/DC, Sailor Jerry, Metallica, The Clash, Dr. Seuss, Grateful Dead, Ozzy Osbourne, Jimi Hendrix, Miley Cyrus (who helped advertise rainbow designed converse for Pride Month in 2017  and designed the 2018 collection also for pride month in conjunction with her charity Happy Hippie Foundation ), Drew Brophy, Nirvana, Bad Meets Evil, Green Day, Gorillaz, Matt and Kim, Black Sabbath, the Control, green, brown or camouflage edition, Super Mario and Danny Potthoff. Three new designs were created for high tops, inspired by The Who.
July 2018, Converse teamed up the BT21, a millennial pop character created by South Korean hip-hop group BTS to launch the special collaboration line of Chuck Taylor All-Stars featured the illustrations of BT21 characters, it's currently available limited quantities in Asia starting from July 27.
A special collection called "1Hund (RED)", whereby fifteen percent of the profits are used to support HIV/AIDS prevention, was released by the brand. One hundred artists from around the world were chosen to create designs for the collection as part of the (RED) campaign. Professional skateboarder, Anthony Pappalardo, who, at the time, was also associated with another (RED) participant, Girl skateboards—Pappalardo was sponsored by Chocolate skateboards, a brand distributed by the Crailtap, the distribution company that owns both Girl and Chocolate—released a (RED) edition of his high-selling signature skate shoe model. A short video piece was published on the internet and Pappalardo explains in it:
I got into woodworking about two years ago, through a buddy of mine who I used to skate with every day—he turned into a woodworker. So he gave me this scrap box of wood, and, basically, I just wanted to do something with it ... make something with it. It just definitely started consuming me like skating did. I wanted to read about it, you know? Go on the internet and watch videos about it, and just learn anything and everything I could about woodworking. The first thing I ever made was a bench, and that's, kinda, what I've been making ever since. the cool thing about working with Product (RED) is just by doing the two things that I love, I'm also able to help people.
Pappalardo's first signature shoe with Converse was released in February 2010 and it was produced in the (RED) colorway.
In 2012, Converse is listed as a partner in the (RED) campaign, together with other brands such as Nike Inc., Girl, and Bugaboo. The campaign's mission is to prevent the transmission of the HIV virus from mother to child by 2015 (the campaign's byline is "Fighting For An AIDS Free Generation").
In winter of 2018, Converse teamed up with a number of influential figures and taste-makers from the Los Angeles area to create an exclusive collection paying to those who help move the culture forward in the city. Among those selected by the Boston-based footwear brand for this L.A.-themed collection is Vince Staples, Dr. Woo, Rocket, BornXRaised, and Clot
Former Converse college teams
- Marquette Golden Eagles—switched to Jordan when most famous alum, Dwyane Wade, signed with Jordan
- Western Kentucky Hilltoppers—shoes only
- "Converse turns 100". Chucksconnection.com. 2008-05-29. Archived from the original on 2011-08-13. Retrieved 2011-08-31.
- Wayne, Leslie. "For $305 million, Nike buys Converse". the New York Times. Retrieved March 27, 2016.
- "Converse Inc Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Converse Inc". www.encyclopedia.com. Retrieved 2016-02-11.
- Bertho, Michelle; Crawford, Beverly; Fogarty, Edward A. (2008-09-30). The Impact of Globalization on the United States [3 volumes]. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9780313083198.
- "Who the heck was Chuck Taylor anyway?". Kentucky New Era. Hopkinsville. Associated Press. March 28, 2001. p. A7.
- "Wilt Breaks NBA Record; Gets 100 Against Knicks". Reading Eagle. Pennsylvania. Associated Press. March 3, 1962. p. 7.
- Perrin, Charles. "Old Sneakers (since 1935) - Goodrich (now Converse) Jack Purcell". Archived from the original on 2011-09-28. Retrieved 2011-08-31.
- "The 25 Best Logos in Sneaker History". Complex. Complex. December 6, 2012. Retrieved February 17, 2018.
Jim Labadini helped cook up the Converse 2.0 logo during a time when sneaker brands where getting extremely competitive. The Converse Chevron logo marked the move forward into what would become an exciting time for the brand, thanks to some guys with nicknames like Dr. J, Magic and Legend.
- Rovell, Darren (October 18, 2000). "Converse Nears Corporate Extinction". ESPN. ESPN. Retrieved February 17, 2018.
Industry sources have confirmed that Converse has racked up $180 million in debt, and the announcement of the company's death is merely a formality.
- ?"Converse closes Chuck Taylor plant". Billings Gazette. Associated Press. October 18, 2000. Retrieved March 30, 2001.
The Lumberton plant that has churned out 8 million to 10 million pairs of Chuck Taylors a year has sent its 475 employees home, and the factory officially closes Saturday. Plants in Mission, Texas, and Reynosa, Mexico, are also being closed by the 93-year-old company.
- Pope, Justin (July 16, 2001). "Getting Sneaker Maker Converse Back on Its Feet". Los Angeles Times. Associated Press. Retrieved February 17, 2018.
Investors Marsden Cason and William Simon, through their company Footwear Acquisition, saw an opportunity in the Converse name.
- "NIKE, INC. Reports Fiscal 2015 Fourth Quarter And Full Year Results". NIKE, Inc. Retrieved 2016-02-11.
- "Converse Announces New Global Headquarters in the City of Boston". Retrieved 10 May 2018.
- "CONVERSE OFFICIALLY OPENS WORLD HEADQUARTERS IN BOSTON AND DEBUTS NEW FLAGSHIP STORE". Converse Media. Retrieved 2016-02-15.
- Converse's new Chuck Taylors get a comfort boost, Boston Globe, July 22, 2015; Minimalist sneaker launched in 1917 receives upgrade with Nike tech
- "CONVERSE USHERS IN NEW ERA WITH GROUND-BREAKING CHUCK TAYLOR ALL STAR II". Converse Media. Retrieved 2016-02-11.
- asayer (13 May 2009). "Cons Comes Back: A Look at Converse Skateboarding". Push.ca. Bell Canada. Retrieved 9 September 2012.
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- RIDE Channel; Rob Brink; Erica Yary (3 August 2012). "Nick Trapasso, Tom Remillard & Robbie Russo at Coastal Carnage! Weeke ..." (Video upload). YouTube. Google, Inc. Retrieved 20 January 2013.
- Lance Dawes; Cory Williams (6 August 2012). "RAYBOURN CRUISES THROUGH CARNAGE". ESPN Action Sports. ESPN Internet Ventures. Retrieved 20 January 2013.
- Brian Farmer (20 July 2014). "Converse Launches the CONS Weapon Skate Shoe with Short Film featuring Zered Bassett". High Snobiety. Titel Media. Retrieved 26 July 2014.
- Schiavenza, Matt, "Why Converse is Fighting to Keep All Stars Cool," The Atlantic, 15 October 2014.
- Butler-Young, Sheena, "Iconix and Fila Settle in Converse Lawsuit Saga," Footwear News, 9 April 2015.
- Sutherlin, Margaret. "Converse Trademark Lawsuit: Skechers Declares Victory, Mixed Ruling Expected Overall". Footwear News. Retrieved 2016-02-11.
- "Miley Cyrus Teams Up With Converse To Create a Collection of Pride-Inspired Sneakers". Billboard. Retrieved 2018-06-12.
- "Miley Cyrus Talks Equal Rights, Gender Fluidity, and Her Pride Collaboration With Converse". Vogue. Retrieved 2018-06-12.
- "All Star Films". www.chucksconnection.com. Retrieved 2018-06-14.
- "How To Dress Like The Tenth Doctor | BBC America". BBC America. Retrieved 2018-06-14.
- "BTS team up with Converse for BT21 sneakers". SBS PopAsia. Retrieved 2018-10-19.
- "Anthony Pappalardo". 48 Blocks. 48 Blocks. 2012. Retrieved 20 January 2013.
- Blair Alley (2 December 2009). "ANTHONY PAPPALARDO'S PROJECT RED CONS PRO MODEL". Transworld Skateboarding. Bonnier Corporation. Retrieved 20 January 2013.
- Aaron Meza; crailtap (30 November 2009). "Anthony Pappalardo and (RED)" (Video upload). YouTube. Retrieved 20 January 2013.
- "(RED)". (RED) Partners. (RED), a division of The ONE Campaign. 2012. Archived from the original on 28 May 2012. Retrieved 13 October 2012.
- Rovell, Darren (2011-04-05). "Dwyane Wade Gets His First Jordan Signature Shoe". CNBC. Retrieved 2018-10-19.
- "Footwear News". Footwear News. Retrieved 10 May 2018.
- "PBA: After wearing Chuck Taylors, Asi Taulava wants to bring back short shorts". Retrieved 10 May 2018.
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