Conversion of non-Islamic places of worship into mosques

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Hagia Sophia, an Eastern Orthodox cathedral converted into a mosque in 1453 AD.

The conversion of non-Islamic places of worship into mosques occurred during the life of Muhammad and continued during subsequent Islamic conquests and invasions and under historical Muslim rule. Hindu temples, Christian churches, synagogues, and Zoroastrian fire temples were converted into mosques. The practice has led to conflicts and religious strife in various parts of the world.[1][2][3]

Several such mosques in the areas of former Muslim rule have since been reconverted or have become museums, including the Parthenon in Greece and numerous mosques in Spain, such as Mosque–Cathedral of Córdoba, etc. Conversion of non-Islamic buildings into mosques influenced distinctive regional styles of Islamic architecture.

Qur'anic holy sites[edit]

Mecca[edit]

Muslims believe the mosque at Ka'ba was rebuilt and used for monotheistic worship since the time of Ibrahim and Ismail.[citation needed]

Before Muhammad, the Kaʿba and Mecca (referred to as Bakkah in the Quran), were revered as a sacred sanctuary and was a site of pilgrimage.[4] Some identify it with the Biblical "valley of Baca" from Psalms 84 (Hebrew: בָּכָא‎).[5][6] At the time of Muhammad (AD 570–632), his tribe the Quraysh was in charge of the Kaʿaba, which was at that time a shrine containing hundreds of idols representing Arabian tribal gods and other religious figures. Muhammad earned the enmity of his tribe by preaching the new religion of Islam. Early Muslims practiced, or attempted to practice, their rituals by the Ka'aba alongside polytheists, until they eventually left Mecca, driven out by escalating persecution. The aborted first pilgrimage, which was prevented by the Quraysh, who promised to allow it the following year in the Hudaybiyah treaty, did not also entail the prevention of continuing practices by polytheists. However, before the second pilgrimage season, allies of the Quraysh violated the treaty, allowing the Muslims to return as conquerors rather than guests. Henceforth, the Kaʿaba was to be dedicated to the worship of the one God alone, and the idols were destroyed. The Black Stone (al-Hajar-ul-Aswad) at the Kaʿaba was a special object of veneration at the site. According to some traditions the text of seven or ten especially honoured poems were suspended around the Kaʿaba.[7]

Jerusalem[edit]

Dome of the Rock is a shrine in Jerusalem. Prophet Muhammad, founder of Islam, is traditionally believed to have ascended into heaven from this site. In Jewish tradition, it is here that Abraham, the progenitor and first patriarch of the Hebrew people, is said to have prepared to sacrifice his son Isaac. The Dome and Al-Aqsa Mosque are both located on the Temple Mount the site of Solomon's Temple and its successors.

Upon the capture of Jerusalem, it is commonly reported that Umar, the Commander of the Faithful, refused to pray in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in spite of a treaty.[8] The architecturally similar Dome of the Rock was built on the Temple Mount, which was an abandoned and disused area since 70 AD in the 7th century but which had previously been the site of the Jewish Temple in Jerusalem, the most sacred site in Judaism.[9] Umar initially built there a small prayer house which laid the foundation for the later construction of the Al-Aqsa mosque by the Umayyads.[10]

Elsewhere[edit]

The mosque of Job in Al-Shaykh Saad, Syria, was previously a church of Job.[11]

The Herodian shrine of the Cave of the Patriarchs in Hebron, the second most holy site in Judaism,[12] was converted into a church during the Crusades before being turned into a mosque in 1266 and henceforth banned to Jews and Christians.[13] Part of it was restored as a synagogue by Israel after 1967.[14] Other sites in Hebron have undergone Islamification. The Tomb of Jesse and Ruth became the Church of the Forty Martyrs,[15] which then became the Tomb of Isai and later Deir Al Arba'een.[16]

Conversion of Hindu Temples into Mosques[edit]

Current Name Mosque Name Images City Country Notes
Kashi Vishwanath Temple Gyanvapi Mosque The unpainted remnants of the temple can still be seen today Varanasi, UP India The temple was demolished under the orders of Aurangzeb - the sixth Mughal emperor who then constructed the Gyanvapi Mosque atop the original Hindu temple. Aurangzeb's demolition of the temple was motivated by the rebellion of local zamindars (landowners) associated with the temple.[17] The temple's demolition was intended as a warning to the anti-Mughal factions and Hindu religious leaders in the city.[18]

As described by Jadunath Sarkar, on 9 April 1669, Aurangzeb issued a general order “to demolish all the schools and temples of the infidels and to put down their religious teaching and practices.” His destroying hand now fell on the great shrines that commanded the veneration of the Hindus all over India—such as the second temple of Somnath, the Vishwanath temple of Benares and the Keshav Rai temple of Mathura.[19]

Conversion of Sikh Gurdwaras into Mosques[edit]

Current Name Gurdwaras Images City Country Notes
Haq Char Yaar Gurdwara Lal Khoohi image Lahore, PB Pakistan Gurdwara Lal Khoohi in Lahore, Pakistan, was a Sikh Gurdwara which was converted to muslim shrine.[20][21]
Bala Pir Ziarat Gurudwara Pehli Patshah image Balakot, KP Pakistan Gurudwara Pehli Patshahi (Bhai Bala Di Baithak) dedicated to Bhai Bala was a Sikh Gurudwara at Balakot, Mansehra district of Pakistan which was converted into Bala Pir Muslim shrine (Bala Pir Ziarat) after beheading of Syed Ahmad Barelvi by Sikh Empire forces in 1831 Battle of Balakot.[22][23][24]

Zoroastrian fire temples[edit]

After the Islamic conquest of Persia, Zoroastrian fire temples, with their four axial arch openings, were usually turned into mosques simply by setting a mihrab (prayer niche) on the place of the arch nearest to qibla (the direction of Mecca). This practice is described by numerous Muslim sources; however, the archaeological evidence confirming it is still scarce. Zoroastrian temples converted into mosques in such a manner could be found in Bukhara, as well as in and near Istakhr and other Iranian cities,[11] such as: Tarikhaneh Temple, Jameh Mosque of Qazvin, Heidarieh Mosque of Qazvin, Jameh Mosque of Isfahan, Jameh Mosque of Kashan, Jameh Mosque of Ardestan, Jameh Mosque of Yazd, Jameh Mosque of Borujerd, Great Mosque of Herat as well as Bibi Shahr Banu Shrine near Tehran.

Conversion of church buildings to mosques[edit]

Albania[edit]

Bosnia and Herzegovina[edit]

Fethija Mosque in Bihać, Bosnia

The Fethija Mosque (since 1592) of Bihać was a Catholic church devoted to Saint Anthony of Padua (1266).[citation needed]

Turkey[edit]

Before the 20th century[edit]

Istanbul[edit]

Following the Ottoman conquest of Anatolia, virtually all of the churches of Istanbul were converted into mosques except the Church of St. Mary of the Mongols.[25]

Rest of Turkey[edit]

Elsewhere in Turkey numerous churches were converted into mosques, including:

Orthodox[edit]
Armenian Apostolic[edit]

Hundreds of Armenian Churches were converted into Mosques in Turkey and Azerbaijan. Thousands were destroyed after Armenian Genocide in 1915

The Selimiye Mosque was the largest and oldest surviving Gothic church in Cyprus, which was possibly constructed on the site of an earlier Byzantine church.

20th century and after[edit]

In addition, after the Greco-Turkish War (1919–1922), some of the Greek Orthodox churches in Turkey were converted into mosques. In 2015, Turkey decided to renovate the ruined Hagia Sophia church in Enez, dating back to the 12th century, as a mosque despite former statements made about the possibility of restoring it as a museum.[30] As of 2020, four Byzantine church museums converted to mosques under Erdogan's rule (including the Haghia Sophia in İznik (2011),[31] the Chora Church in Istanbul (2019)[32] and the Haghia Sophia in Istanbul (2020)).[33]

Cyprus[edit]

Following the Ottoman conquest of Cyprus, a number of Christian churches were converted into mosques. A relatively significant surge in church-mosque conversion followed the 1974 Turkish Invasion of Cyprus. Many of the Orthodox churches in Northern Cyprus have been converted, and many are still in the process of becoming mosques.

France[edit]

During the Ottoman wintering in Toulon (1543–44), the Toulon Cathedral was temporarily used as a mosque for the 30,000 members of the crew of the Ottoman fleet.

Greece[edit]

Painting of the ruins of the Parthenon and the Ottoman mosque built after 1715, in the early 1830s.

Numerous orthodox churches were converted to mosques during the Ottoman period in Greece. Among them:

The Rotunda of Galerius in Thessaloniki, initially a Mausoleum of Roman Emperor Galerius, a Christian church (326–1590), then a mosque and again a church after 1912.

Hungary[edit]

Following the Ottoman conquest of the Kingdom of Hungary, a number of Christian churches were converted into mosques. Those that survived the era of Ottoman rule, were later reconverted into churches after the Great Turkish War.

  • Church of Our Lady of Buda, converted into Eski Djami immediately after the capture of Buda in 1541, reconverted in 1686.
  • Church of Mary Magdalene, Buda, converted into Fethiye Djami c. 1602, reconverted in 1686.
  • The Franciscan Church of St John the Baptist in Buda, converted into Pasha Djami, destroyed in 1686.

Lebanon[edit]

Morocco[edit]

Spain[edit]

A Catholic Christian church dedicated to Saint Vincent of Lérins, was built by the Visigoths in Córdoba; during the reign of Abd al-Rahman I, it was converted into a mosque.[34][35][36] In the time of the Reconquista, Christian rule was reestablished and the building became a church once again, the Cathedral of Our Lady of the Assumption.[34][35][36]

Syria[edit]

Post-colonial North Africa[edit]

A number of North African cathedrals and churches were converted into mosques in the mid-20th century

Iraq[edit]

The Islamic State of Iraq and Syria converted a number of Christian churches into mosques after they occupied Mosul in 2014. The churches were restored into its original functions after Mosul was liberated in 2017.[37]

  • Syrian Orthodox Church of St. Ephraim in Mosul, Iraq; converted to the Mosque of the Mujahideen
  • Chaldean Church of St. Joseph in Mosul, Iraq

Israel[edit]

After the conquest of Hebron, this holy place was "taken over from the Jewish tradition" by the Muslim rulers. The cave and the surrounding Herodian enclosure was converted into a mosque.[38]

Influence on Islamic architecture[edit]

Conversion of non-Islamic religious buildings into mosques during the first centuries of Islam played a major role in the development of Islamic architectural styles. Distinct regional styles of mosque design, which have come to be known by such names as Arab, Persian, Andalusian, and others, commonly reflected the external and internal stylistic elements of churches and other temples characteristic for that region.[41]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Historical St Nicholas Cathedral in Cyprus Turned into a Mosque Under Turkish Occupation".
  2. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 17 January 2008. Retrieved 26 September 2010.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  3. ^ Uproar over India mosque report: Inquiry into Babri mosque's demolition in 1992 Archived 31 January 2010 at the Wayback Machine Al-Jazeera English – 24 November 2009
  4. ^ Britannica 2002 Deluxe Edition CD-ROM, "Ka'bah."
  5. ^ Daniel C. Peterson (2007). Muhammad, prophet of God. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. pp. 22–25. ISBN 978-0-8028-0754-0.
  6. ^ Psalms 84:6, King James Version
  7. ^ Amnon Shiloah (2001). Music in the World of Islam: A Socio-Cultural Study. Wayne State University Press. p. 4. ISBN 9780814329702.
  8. ^ Adrian Fortescue, "The Orthodox Eastern Church", Gorgias Press LLC, 1 December 2001, pg. 28 ISBN 0-9715986-1-4
  9. ^ Orlin, Eric (19 November 2015). Routledge Encyclopedia of Ancient Mediterranean Religions. ISBN 9781134625598. Retrieved 7 May 2016.
  10. ^ Le Strange, Guy (1890). Palestine Under the Moslems. p. 10. It seems probable, also, that this latter Khalif, when he began to rebuild the Aksa, made use of the materials which lay to hand in the ruins of the great St. Mary Church of Justinian, which must originally have stood on the site, approximately, on which the Aksa Mosque was afterwards raised.
  11. ^ a b Hillenbrand, R. "Masdjid. I. In the central Islamic lands". In P.J. Bearman; Th. Bianquis; C.E. Bosworth; E. van Donzel; W.P. Heinrichs (eds.). Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. Brill Academic Publishers. ISSN 1573-3912.
  12. ^ Johnson, Paul (14 September 1988). A History of the Jews. Harper Collins. pp. 3–5. ISBN 978-0-06-091533-9.
  13. ^ Tristram, Henry Baker (1865). The land of Israel: a journal of travels in Palestine, undertaken with special reference to its physical character. London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. pp. 390–396.
  14. ^ Goren, Shlomo (2016). With Might and Strength: An Autobiography. Maggid. ISBN 978-1592644094.
  15. ^ Pringle, Denys (1993). The Churches of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem: A Corpus: Volume 2, L-Z (excluding Tyre). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-39037-8.
  16. ^ Sharon, Moshe. Corpus Inscriptionum Arabicarum Palaestinae, Volume Five: H-I. ISBN 9004250972.
  17. ^ Truschke, Audrey (16 May 2017). Aurangzeb: The Life and Legacy of India's Most Controversial King. Stanford University Press. ISBN 9781503602595.
  18. ^ Catherine B. Asher (24 September 1992). Architecture of Mughal India. Cambridge University Press. pp. 278–279. ISBN 978-0-521-26728-1.
  19. ^ Sarkar, Jadunath (1930). A Short history of Aurangzib. Calcutta: M.C Sarkar & Sons. pp. 155–156.
  20. ^ "Lahore's historical gurdwara now a Muslim shrine". The Tribune. 14 June 2016. Retrieved 7 August 2020.
  21. ^ Sheikh, Majid (17 February 2019). "HARKING BACK: Fateful route of a great Guru as he walked to his death". DAWN.COM. Retrieved 7 August 2020.
  22. ^ Khalid, Haroon (4 March 2019). "Pakistan's Balakot is linked to puritanical Islam – but it also has a syncretic religious tradition". Scroll.in. Retrieved 12 October 2020.
  23. ^ Khalid, Haroon (6 March 2019). "The little-known religious history of Balakot". DAWN.COM. Retrieved 12 October 2020.
  24. ^ "Gurudwara Pehli Patshahi at BalaKot". Gateway To Sikhism. 27 January 2014. Retrieved 12 October 2020.
  25. ^ Mamboury (1953), p. 221.
  26. ^ "Archnet". Archived from the original on 5 January 2009. Retrieved 13 February 2009.
  27. ^ Magdalino, Paul; et al. "Istanbul: Buildings, Hagia Sophia". Grove Art Online. Archived from the original on 10 December 2010. Retrieved 28 February 2010.
  28. ^ "Ayasofya'yı camiden müzeye dönüştüren Bakanlar Kurulu kararı iptal edildi".
  29. ^ "Hagia Sophia: Turkey turns iconic Istanbul museum into mosque". BBC. 10 July 2020. Retrieved 10 July 2020.
  30. ^ Historic Hagia Sophia in a Turkish province to be re-opened as mosque
  31. ^ Letsch, Constanze (2 December 2011). "Turkey: Mystery Surrounds Decision to Turn Byzantine Church Museum into a Mosque". eurasianet.org. Retrieved 2 December 2011.
  32. ^ YACKLEY, AYLA JEAN (2 July 2020). "From museum to mosque? Turkish court to rule on Hagia Sophia's fate". politico.eu. Retrieved 2 July 2020.
  33. ^ Gall, Carlotta (15 July 2020). "Erdogan Signs Decree Allowing Hagia Sophia to Be Used as a Mosque Again". The New York Times. Retrieved 17 July 2020.
  34. ^ a b Christys, Ann (2017). "The meaning of topography in Umayyad Cordoba". In Lester, Anne E. (ed.). Cities, Texts and Social Networks, 400–1500. Routledge. It is a commonplace of the history of Córdoba that in their early years in the city, the Muslims shared with the Christians the church of S. Vicente, until ʿAbd al-Raḥmān I bought the Christians out and used the site to build the Great Mosque. It was a pivotal moment in the history of Córdoba, which later historians may have emphasised by drawing a parallel between Córdoba and another Umayyad capital, Damascus. The first reference to the Muslims’ sharing the church was by Ibn Idhārī in the fourteenth century, citing the tenth-century historian al-Rāzī. It could be a version of a similar story referring to the Great Mosque in Damascus, which may itself have been written long after the Mosque was built. It is a story that meant something in the tenth-century context, a clear statement of the Muslim appropriation of Visigothic Córdoba.
  35. ^ a b Guia, Aitana (1 July 2014). The Muslim Struggle for Civil Rights in Spain, 1985–2010: Promoting Democracy Through Islamic Engagement. Sussex Academic Press. p. 137. ISBN 978-1-84519581-6. It was originally a small temple of Christian Visigoth origin. Under Umayyad reign in Spain (711–1031 CE), it was expanded and made into a mosque, which it would remain for eight centuries. During the Christian reconquest of Al-Andalus, Christians captured the mosque and consecrated it as a Catholic church.
  36. ^ a b Armstrong, Ian (2013). Spain and Portugal. Avalon Travel Publishing. ISBN 978-1-61237031-6. On this site originally stood the Visigoths' Christian Church of San Vicente, but when the Moors came to town in 758 CE they knocked it down and constructed a mosque in its place. When Córdoba fell once again to the Christians, King Ferdinand II and his successors set about Christianizing the structure, most dramatically adding the bright pearly white Renaissance nave where mass is held every morning.
  37. ^ "Iraq: Daesh have robbed and demolished every church". Independent Catholic News. 6 March 2018. Archived from the original on 20 March 2018. Retrieved 20 March 2018.
  38. ^ Tristram, Henry Baker (1865). The land of Israel : a journal of travels in Palestine, undertaken with special reference to its physical character. London: London Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. p. 394. The design is unique and patriarchal in its magnificent simplicity. One can scarcely tolerate the theory of some architectural writers, that this enclosure is of a period later than the Jewish. It would have been strange if any of the Herodian princes should here alone have raised, at enormous cost, a building utterly differing from the countless products of their architectural passion and Roman taste with which the land is strewn.
  39. ^ "For first time in 18 years, Jews pray at biblical tombs in Palestinian village". Times of Israel. AFP. Retrieved 20 July 2020.
  40. ^ Adler, Elkan Nathan (4 April 2014). Jewish Travellers. Routledge. p. 135. ISBN 978-1-134-28606-5. "From there we reached Halhul, a place mentioned by Joshua. Here there are a certain number of Jews. They take travelers to see an ancient sepulchral monument attributed to Gad the Seer." — Isaac ben Joseph ibn Cehlo, 1334
  41. ^ Patrick D. Gaffney (2004). "Masjid". In Richard C. Martin (ed.). Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World. MacMillan Reference.