Conversion of scripts

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The conversion of scripts or writing is a procedure of replacing text written in one script or writing system with the characters of another script or system in order to make the text (e.g., proper names) legible for users of another language or script.

It has two basic forms and many practical implementations of each:

Graphemic conversion, i.e., from one script to another.
Phonemic conversion, i.e., from one writing system into another, possibly including script conversion.

A special case is re-conversion, i.e., returning to the original form from a form written while using one of the above-mentioned systems. This is used, among other things, as a text input method.


  • Hans H. WELLISCH: The Conversion of Scripts – Its Nature, History, and Utilization, John Wiley & Sons: New York – Chichester – Brisbane – Toronto, 1978.
  • Janina PELCOWA: Z zagadnień konwersji pism, „Przegląd Biblioteczny”, 1982, No. 1/2, p. 57-77.
  • Александра В. СУПЕРАНСКАЯ: Теоретические основы практической транскрипции, Изд. Наука: Москва, 1978.
  • World writing systems, ed. by Peter T. Daniels and William Bright, Oxford University Press: New York – Oxford, 1996.
  • Charles Geoffry ALLEN: A Manual of European Languages for Librarians, Bowker: London – New York, 1977 (2nd. ed.).
  • G. E. MEIER, B. MEIER: Handbuch der Linguistik und Kommunikationswissenschaft. Band I. Sprache, Sprachentstehung, Sparachen, Akademie-Verlag: Berlin, 1979.