Cook Islands dollar
|Cook Islands dollar|
|tāra Kūki 'Āirani|
|1/100||cent / tene|
|cent / tene||c|
|Banknotes||$3, $10, $20, $50|
|Coins||10, 20, 50 cents, $1, $2, $5|
|User(s)||Cook Islands (New Zealand) (alongside New Zealand dollar)|
|Source||The World Factbook, 2005 est.|
|Pegged with||New Zealand dollar at par|
Until 1967, the New Zealand pound was used on the Cook Islands, when it was replaced by the New Zealand dollar. In 1972, coins were issued specifically for the Cook Islands, with banknotes appearing in 1987. The Cook Islands dollar is pegged at par to the New Zealand dollar. The currency of New Zealand and the Cook Islands circulate concurrently within the country.
In 1972, bronze 1 and 2 cents, and cupro-nickel 5-, 10-, 20- and 50-cents, and 1-dollar coins were introduced. All were the same size, weight, and composition as the corresponding New Zealand coins, however, the unique crown-sized dollar coin circulated much more readily than its New Zealand equal. Each coin depicted plants, animals, and items unique to the Cook Islands.
In 1983, production of the 1 and 2-cents coins was ceased and the two coins were later demonetized.
In 1987, a smaller, lighter scallop-edged $1 coin with a similar size and shape to the Hong Kong $2 piece. This coin was issued to replace its bulky predecessor. Along with the new dollar, a triangular $2 coin and a dodecagonal (twelve-sided) $5 piece in equal size and shape to the Australian 50-cents coin were introduced, with the new $1 and $2 composed of cupro-nickel and the $5 coin in aluminium bronze.
2003 saw the reintroduction of a 1-cent coin, this time composed of aluminium rather than bronze and slightly smaller and thicker than the 10-cents piece. These were issued with five different reverses, each commemorating a few of the nation's historical themes.
A large, stainless steel 5 cents coin was issued in 2000 centred on the theme of the FAO and food security, depicting the Tangaroa image present on the dollar piece.
The Cook Islands has a long reputation for frequent monetary oddities. It was one of the last countries to hold on to large crown-sized coins while elsewhere, coins of such size are seldom ever minted in large enough quantities intended for circulation. In 1987, with the release of its new $2 piece, Cook Islands officially became the first modern country to issue a circulating three-sided coin, as well as one of only a handful of countries at the time with a widely circulating $5 piece. 1988 brought the redesign of the 50-cent piece, quite unique in becoming the first coin in the country to bear a denomination name. Although widely recognized as "cents" this coin depicts "tene", the native language equivalent to the English word cent. It also abandoned its 1 and 2-cent pieces almost 10 years before both New Zealand and Australia, only to bring the 1 cent back 20 years later. It also replaced $1 and $2 notes for coins two years before New Zealand did, even though the Cook Islands dollar is pegged to the NZD at par. Amidst minting $2 and $5 coins, it also issued an oddball $3 note in between the dollar coins as part of the same series.
With the reduction in size of New Zealand's 10, 20 and 50-cents coins in 2006, older cent coins began to be phased out in both countries. However, $1, $2, and $5 pieces remained in use. Although a 2010 commemorative Cook Islands coin set in denominations 1-, 2-, 5-, 10-, 20-, and 50-cents and a bimetallic $1 have been minted with a similar size to some of the newer New Zealand ones, these coins appear to be collectors issues intended to raise money for the Cook Islands government rather than a true legal tender circulating coin set and it seems very unlikely that these will actually be found anywhere on the islands.
As part of a coinage reform, new coins were minted in 2015 by the Royal Australian Mint. The new coins carry similar designs to the older ones with the 10-, 20-, and 50-cents struck in nickel-plated steel, while the 1-, 2-, and 5-dollar coins are struck in brass-plated steel. The new 5 dollar coin features a traditional vaka instead of a conch. The cents are smaller than previous issues with closer size and weight to the current coins of New Zealand while the new dollars continue to have their distinctive shapes.
The reverse of standard issue coins are as depicts:
|1 cent||18 mm||Bronze||Queen||Taro leaf|
|2 cents||21 mm||Queen||Pineapples|
|5 cents||19 mm||Cupronickel||Queen||Hibiscus blossom|
|10 cents||24 mm||Queen||Orange on branch|
|20 cents||29 mm||Queen||Fairy tern|
|50 cents||32 mm||Queen||Bonito (1972–87; also 1992)
Sea turtle (1988–94)
|1 dollar||30 mm||Queen||Tangaroa, sea god in Māori mythology|
|2 dollars||27/27/27 mm||Queen||Table and water vessel|
|5 dollars||33 mm||Nickel-brass||Queen||Conch|
|10 cents||19 mm||Nickel-plated steel||Queen||Orange on branch|
|20 cents||21 mm||Queen||Fairy tern|
|50 cents||24.2 mm||Queen||Albacore Tuna|
|1 dollar||28.52 mm||Brass-plated steel||Queen||Tangaroa, sea god in Māori mythology|
|2 dollars||23.89 mm||Queen||Mortar and pestle|
|5 dollars||28.75 mm||Queen||Vaka|
A large number of commemorative non circulating collectors coins are also issued by the Cook Islands featuring an almost endless array of themes as the government has a contract in which a coin design can be commissioned and minted with the name "Cook Islands" and dollar units for a fee, making coinage a resource for extra revenue. Due to exchange schemes involving large stocks of non-circulating commemorative coins, mintages are regulated and not recognized or accepted as legal tender within the Cook Islands.
On 20 July 1987, 3, 10, and 20 dollar notes were introduced by the government, followed by 50 dollar notes as part of a new series of notes in 1992. The notes all bear images of items, events, and panorama relevant to native Polynesian culture.
In June 1995, the government of the Cook Islands began exchanging all of the larger banknotes for New Zealand currency, but the 3-dollar note and all coins remain in use. Cook Islanders are showing a preference for New Zealand's banknotes, however Cooks Islands notes can be acquired at any national bank branch upon request.
- Linzmayer, Owen (2012). "Cook Islands". The Banknote Book. San Francisco, CA: www.BanknoteNews.com.
- Krause, Chester L.; Clifford Mishler (1991). Standard Catalog of World Coins: 1801–1991 (18th ed.). Krause Publications. ISBN 0873411501.
- Pick, Albert (1994). Standard Catalog of World Paper Money: General Issues. Colin R. Bruce II and Neil Shafer (editors) (7th ed.). Krause Publications. ISBN 0-87341-207-9.