Cook Partisan Voting Index

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The Cook Partisan Voting Index, abbreviated Cook PVI, CPVI, or PVI, is a measurement of how strongly a United States congressional district or U.S. state leans toward the Democratic or Republican Party, compared to the nation as a whole, based on how that district or state voted in the previous two presidential elections.[1][2]

The index is updated after each presidential election cycle, as well as after congressional redistricting. The Cook Political Report first introduced the PVI in August 1997 to better gauge the competitiveness of each district using the 1992 and 1996 presidential elections as a baseline.[3] The most recent iteration is the 2022 Cook Partisan Voting Index, which was released with an updated formula for calculating PVI values.[4]

Calculation and format[edit]

The Cook PVI is displayed as a letter, a plus sign, and a number. The letter (either a D for Democratic or an R for Republican) reflects the major party toward which the district (or state) leans. The number reflects the strength of that partisan preference in rounded percentage points. A district or state that "performed within half a point of the national average in either direction" is designated as "Even".[3]

PVIs are calculated by comparing the lead candidate's average share of the two-party presidential vote in the past two presidential elections to the party's national average two-party share for those elections. In 2022, it was updated to weigh the most recent presidential election more heavily than the prior election.[4]

By congressional district[edit]

The PVIs for congressional districts are calculated based on the 2016 and 2020 presidential elections.[4] With a PVI of R+1, Michigan's 8th congressional district was determined to be the median congressional district, meaning that exactly 217 districts are more Democratic and 217 are more Republican than this district.[4] As of 2022, in the House, there are 222 districts more Republican than the national average, and 206 districts more Democratic than the national average. The number of swing seats, defined as those between D+5 and R+5, is 82.[4]

District PVI
Alabama 1 R+16
Alabama 2 R+17
Alabama 3 R+19
Alabama 4 R+33
Alabama 5 R+17
Alabama 6 R+18
Alabama 7 D+14
Alaska at-large R+8
Arizona 1 R+2
Arizona 2 R+6
Arizona 3 D+24
Arizona 4 D+2
Arizona 5 R+11
Arizona 6 R+3
Arizona 7 D+15
Arizona 8 R+10
Arizona 9 R+16
Arkansas 1 R+22
Arkansas 2 R+9
Arkansas 3 R+15
Arkansas 4 R+20
California 1 R+12
California 2 D+23
California 3 R+4
California 4 D+17
California 5 R+9
California 6 D+7
California 7 D+17
California 8 D+26
California 9 D+5
California 10 D+18
California 11 D+37
California 12 D+40
California 13 D+4
California 14 D+22
California 15 D+28
California 16 D+26
California 17 D+23
California 18 D+21
California 19 D+18
California 20 R+16
California 21 D+9
California 22 D+5
California 23 R+8
California 24 D+13
California 25 D+6
California 26 D+8
California 27 D+4
California 28 D+16
California 29 D+26
California 30 D+23
California 31 D+15
California 32 D+20
California 33 D+12
California 34 D+32
California 35 D+13
California 36 D+21
California 37 D+37
California 38 D+14
California 39 D+12
California 40 R+2
California 41 R+3
California 42 D+22
California 43 D+32
California 44 D+24
California 45 D+2
California 46 D+15
California 47 D+3
California 48 R+9
California 49 D+3
California 50 D+14
California 51 D+12
California 52 D+18
Colorado 1 D+29
Colorado 2 D+17
Colorado 3 R+7
Colorado 4 R+13
Colorado 5 R+9
Colorado 6 D+9
Colorado 7 D+4
Colorado 8 EVEN
Connecticut 1 D+12
Connecticut 2 D+3
Connecticut 3 D+7
Connecticut 4 D+13
Connecticut 5 D+3
Delaware at-large D+7
Florida 1 R+19
Florida 2 R+8
Florida 3 R+9
Florida 4 R+6
Florida 5 R+11
Florida 6 R+14
Florida 7 R+5
Florida 8 R+11
Florida 9 D+8
Florida 10 D+14
Florida 11 R+8
Florida 12 R+17
Florida 13 R+6
Florida 14 D+8
Florida 15 R+4
Florida 16 R+7
Florida 17 R+10
Florida 18 R+13
Florida 19 R+13
Florida 20 D+25
Florida 21 R+7
Florida 22 D+7
Florida 23 D+5
Florida 24 D+25
Florida 25 D+9
Florida 26 R+8
Florida 27 EVEN
Florida 28 R+2
Georgia 1 R+9
Georgia 2 D+3
Georgia 3 R+18
Georgia 4 D+27
Georgia 5 D+32
Georgia 6 R+11
Georgia 7 D+10
Georgia 8 R+16
Georgia 9 R+22
Georgia 10 R+15
Georgia 11 R+11
Georgia 12 R+8
Georgia 13 D+28
Georgia 14 R+22
Hawaii 1 D+14
Hawaii 2 D+14
Idaho 1 R+22
Idaho 2 R+14
Illinois 1 D+20
Illinois 2 D+19
Illinois 3 D+20
Illinois 4 D+22
Illinois 5 D+18
Illinois 6 D+3
Illinois 7 D+36
Illinois 8 D+6
Illinois 9 D+19
Illinois 10 D+11
Illinois 11 D+5
Illinois 12 R+24
Illinois 13 D+3
Illinois 14 D+4
Illinois 15 R+22
Illinois 16 R+13
Illinois 17 D+2
Indiana 1 D+3
Indiana 2 R+14
Indiana 3 R+18
Indiana 4 R+18
Indiana 5 R+11
Indiana 6 R+19
Indiana 7 D+19
Indiana 8 R+19
Indiana 9 R+16
Iowa 1 R+3
Iowa 2 R+4
Iowa 3 R+3
Iowa 4 R+16
Kansas 1 R+18
Kansas 2 R+11
Kansas 3 R+1
Kansas 4 R+14
Kentucky 1 R+24
Kentucky 2 R+21
Kentucky 3 D+9
Kentucky 4 R+19
Kentucky 5 R+32
Kentucky 6 R+9
Louisiana 1 R+23
Louisiana 2 D+25
Louisiana 3 R+21
Louisiana 4 R+14
Louisiana 5 R+17
Louisiana 6 R+19
Maine 1 D+9
Maine 2 R+6
Maryland 1 R+11
Maryland 2 D+7
Maryland 3 D+10
Maryland 4 D+40
Maryland 5 D+15
Maryland 6 D+2
Maryland 7 D+30
Maryland 8 D+29
Massachusetts 1 D+9
Massachusetts 2 D+13
Massachusetts 3 D+11
Massachusetts 4 D+12
Massachusetts 5 D+23
Massachusetts 6 D+11
Massachusetts 7 D+35
Massachusetts 8 D+15
Massachusetts 9 D+6
Michigan 1 R+13
Michigan 2 R+16
Michigan 3 D+1
Michigan 4 R+5
Michigan 5 R+15
Michigan 6 D+11
Michigan 7 R+2
Michigan 8 R+1
Michigan 9 R+18
Michigan 10 R+3
Michigan 11 D+7
Michigan 12 D+23
Michigan 13 D+23
Minnesota 1 R+7
Minnesota 2 D+1
Minnesota 3 D+8
Minnesota 4 D+17
Minnesota 5 D+30
Minnesota 6 R+12
Minnesota 7 R+19
Minnesota 8 R+8
Mississippi 1 R+18
Mississippi 2 D+11
Mississippi 3 R+15
Mississippi 4 R+22
Missouri 1 D+27
Missouri 2 R+7
Missouri 3 R+16
Missouri 4 R+23
Missouri 5 D+11
Missouri 6 R+21
Missouri 7 R+24
Missouri 8 R+28
Montana 1 R+6
Montana 2 R+16
Nebraska 1 R+9
Nebraska 2 EVEN
Nebraska 3 R+29
Nevada 1 D+3
Nevada 2 R+8
Nevada 3 D+1
Nevada 4 D+3
New Hampshire 1 EVEN
New Hampshire 2 D+2
New Jersey 1 D+10
New Jersey 2 R+5
New Jersey 3 D+5
New Jersey 4 R+14
New Jersey 5 D+4
New Jersey 6 D+8
New Jersey 7 R+1
New Jersey 8 D+22
New Jersey 9 D+8
New Jersey 10 D+30
New Jersey 11 D+6
New Jersey 12 D+12
New Mexico 1 D+5
New Mexico 2 D+1
New Mexico 3 D+4
New York 1 R+3
New York 2 R+3
New York 3 D+2
New York 4 D+5
New York 5 D+30
New York 6 D+15
New York 7 D+31
New York 8 D+26
New York 9 D+25
New York 10 D+35
New York 11 R+6
New York 12 D+34
New York 13 D+38
New York 14 D+28
New York 15 D+35
New York 16 D+20
New York 17 D+3
New York 18 D+1
New York 19 EVEN
New York 20 D+7
New York 21 R+9
New York 22 D+1
New York 23 R+12
New York 24 R+11
New York 25 D+7
New York 26 D+9
North Carolina 1 D+2
North Carolina 2 D+12
North Carolina 3 R+15
North Carolina 4 D+16
North Carolina 5 R+13
North Carolina 6 D+4
North Carolina 7 R+8
North Carolina 8 R+20
North Carolina 9 R+6
North Carolina 10 R+22
North Carolina 11 R+8
North Carolina 12 D+13
North Carolina 13 R+2
North Carolina 14 D+6
North Dakota at-large R+20
Ohio 1 D+2
Ohio 2 R+25
Ohio 3 D+20
Ohio 4 R+20
Ohio 5 R+15
Ohio 6 R+16
Ohio 7 R+7
Ohio 8 R+14
Ohio 9 R+3
Ohio 10 R+4
Ohio 11 D+28
Ohio 12 R+18
Ohio 13 R+1
Ohio 14 R+9
Ohio 15 R+6
Oklahoma 1 R+14
Oklahoma 2 R+29
Oklahoma 3 R+24
Oklahoma 4 R+19
Oklahoma 5 R+12
Oregon 1 D+18
Oregon 2 R+15
Oregon 3 D+22
Oregon 4 D+4
Oregon 5 D+2
Oregon 6 D+4
Pennsylvania 1 EVEN
Pennsylvania 2 D+20
Pennsylvania 3 D+39
Pennsylvania 4 D+7
Pennsylvania 5 D+14
Pennsylvania 6 D+5
Pennsylvania 7 R+2
Pennsylvania 8 R+4
Pennsylvania 9 R+21
Pennsylvania 10 R+5
Pennsylvania 11 R+13
Pennsylvania 12 D+8
Pennsylvania 13 R+25
Pennsylvania 14 R+18
Pennsylvania 15 R+21
Pennsylvania 16 R+13
Pennsylvania 17 EVEN
Rhode Island 1 D+12
Rhode Island 2 D+4
South Carolina 1 R+7
South Carolina 2 R+8
South Carolina 3 R+21
South Carolina 4 R+12
South Carolina 5 R+12
South Carolina 6 D+14
South Carolina 7 R+11
South Dakota at-large R+16
Tennessee 1 R+30
Tennessee 2 R+18
Tennessee 3 R+19
Tennessee 4 R+22
Tennessee 5 R+9
Tennessee 6 R+17
Tennessee 7 R+10
Tennessee 8 R+21
Tennessee 9 D+22
Texas 1 R+26
Texas 2 R+15
Texas 3 R+11
Texas 4 R+16
Texas 5 R+14
Texas 6 R+15
Texas 7 D+13
Texas 8 R+16
Texas 9 D+26
Texas 10 R+13
Texas 11 R+23
Texas 12 R+12
Texas 13 R+26
Texas 14 R+17
Texas 15 R+1
Texas 16 D+17
Texas 17 R+14
Texas 18 D+23
Texas 19 R+26
Texas 20 D+15
Texas 21 R+13
Texas 22 R+11
Texas 23 R+5
Texas 24 R+10
Texas 25 R+19
Texas 26 R+13
Texas 27 R+13
Texas 28 D+3
Texas 29 D+18
Texas 30 D+27
Texas 31 R+14
Texas 32 D+14
Texas 33 D+24
Texas 34 D+9
Texas 35 D+21
Texas 36 R+18
Texas 37 D+24
Texas 38 R+12
Utah 1 R+12
Utah 2 R+11
Utah 3 R+13
Utah 4 R+16
Vermont at-large D+16
Virginia 1 R+6
Virginia 2 R+2
Virginia 3 D+17
Virginia 4 D+16
Virginia 5 R+7
Virginia 6 R+14
Virginia 7 D+1
Virginia 8 D+26
Virginia 9 R+23
Virginia 10 D+6
Virginia 11 D+18
Washington 1 D+13
Washington 2 D+9
Washington 3 R+5
Washington 4 R+11
Washington 5 R+8
Washington 6 D+6
Washington 7 D+36
Washington 8 D+1
Washington 9 D+21
Washington 10 D+7
West Virginia 1 R+23
West Virginia 2 R+22
Wisconsin 1 R+3
Wisconsin 2 D+19
Wisconsin 3 R+4
Wisconsin 4 D+25
Wisconsin 5 R+14
Wisconsin 6 R+10
Wisconsin 7 R+12
Wisconsin 8 R+10
Wyoming at-large R+25

By state[edit]

The PVIs for states are calculated based on the results of the U.S. presidential elections in 2016 and 2020.[5] The table below reflects the current state of Congress and governors, based on the most recent election results.

State PVI Party of
governor
Party
in Senate
House
balance
Alabama R+15 Republican Republican 6R, 1D
Alaska R+8 Republican Republican 1D
Arizona R+2 Republican Democratic 5D, 4R
Arkansas R+16 Republican Republican 4R
California D+13 Democratic Democratic 42D, 11R
Colorado D+4 Democratic Democratic 4D, 3R
Connecticut D+7 Democratic Democratic 5D
Delaware D+7 Democratic Democratic 1D
Florida R+3 Republican Republican 16R, 11D
Georgia R+3 Republican Democratic 8R, 6D
Hawaii D+14 Democratic Democratic 2D
Idaho R+18 Republican Republican 2R
Illinois D+7 Democratic Democratic 13D, 5R
Indiana R+11 Republican Republican 7R, 2D
Iowa R+6 Republican Republican 3R, 1D
Kansas R+10 Democratic Republican 3R, 1D
Kentucky R+16 Democratic Republican 5R, 1D
Louisiana R+12 Democratic Republican 5R, 1D
Maine D+2 Democratic Both* 2D
Maryland D+14 Republican Democratic 7D, 1R
Massachusetts D+15 Republican Democratic 9D
Michigan R+1 Democratic Democratic 7D, 7R
Minnesota D+1 Democratic Democratic 4D, 4R
Mississippi R+11 Republican Republican 3R, 1D
Missouri R+10 Republican Republican 6R, 2D
Montana R+11 Republican Both 1R
Nebraska R+13 Republican Republican 3R
Nevada R+1 Democratic Democratic 3D, 1R
New Hampshire D+1 Republican Democratic 2D
New Jersey D+6 Democratic Democratic 10D, 2R
New Mexico D+3 Democratic Democratic 2D, 1R
New York D+10 Democratic Democratic 19D, 8R
North Carolina R+3 Democratic Republican 8R, 5D
North Dakota R+20 Republican Republican 1R
Ohio R+6 Republican Both 12R, 4D
Oklahoma R+20 Republican Republican 5R
Oregon D+6 Democratic Democratic 4D, 1R
Pennsylvania R+2 Democratic Both 9D, 9R
Rhode Island D+8 Democratic Democratic 2D
South Carolina R+8 Republican Republican 6R, 1D
South Dakota R+16 Republican Republican 1R
Tennessee R+14 Republican Republican 7R, 2D
Texas R+5 Republican Republican 24R, 12D
Utah R+13 Republican Republican 4R
Vermont D+16 Republican Democratic* 1D
Virginia D+3 Republican Democratic 7D, 4R
Washington D+8 Democratic Democratic 7D, 3R
West Virginia R+22 Republican Both 3R
Wisconsin R+2 Democratic Both 5R, 3D
Wyoming R+25 Republican Republican 1R
* Includes an independent senator who caucuses with the Democrats.

Extremes and trends[edit]

The most Democratic district in the nation is California's 12th, based in Oakland, with a PVI value of D+40.[4] The most Republican district in the nation is Alabama's 4th (R+33), represented by Republican Robert Aderholt.[4] With a Cook PVI value of R+25, Wyoming is the most Republican state in the nation. At D+16, Vermont is the most Democratic state, though Washington, D.C., is substantially more partisan with a PVI value of D+43.[4]

In the Senate, the most Republican-leaning state to have a Democratic senator is West Virginia (R+22 PVI), represented by Joe Manchin. The least Democratic-leaning state to have two Democratic senators is Georgia (R+3 PVI), represented by Jon Ossoff and Raphael Warnock. The most Democratic-leaning state to have a Republican senator is Maine (D+2 PVI), represented by Susan Collins. The least Republican-leaning states to have two Republican senators are Florida (R+3 PVI), represented by Marco Rubio and Rick Scott, and North Carolina (R+3 PVI), represented by Richard Burr and Thom Tillis.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Cillizza, Chris (March 14, 2018). "The differences between real grassroots and "Astroturf" matter". CNN. Retrieved November 29, 2020. Which brings me to the Cook Political Report's Partisan Voting Index or PVI. The goal of the PVI is to compare every congressional district to every other congressional district based on how it has performed in each of the last two presidential elections.
  2. ^ Benen, Steve (February 7, 2017). "There are 119 Republican House members who should be VERY nervous today". MSNBC. Retrieved November 29, 2020. To get a sense of a congressional district's political leanings, there's a helpful metric called the Partisan Voter Index, or PVI, created 20 years ago by the Cook Political Report.
  3. ^ a b "The Cook Partisan Voting Index (Cook PVI)". The Cook Political Report with Amy Walter. Retrieved July 13, 2022.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h Wasserman, David. "Introducing the 2022 Cook Partisan Voting Index (Cook PVI)". The Cook Political Report with Amy Walter. Retrieved July 13, 2022.
  5. ^ "2022 Cook PVI: State Map and List". The Cook Political Report with Amy Walter. Retrieved July 19, 2022.

External links[edit]