Coolangatta

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Coolangatta, Queensland)
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Map all coordinates using: OpenStreetMap 
Download coordinates as: KML
Coolangatta
Gold CoastQueensland
Gold Coast 3.jpg
Coolangatta in 2003
Coolangatta is located in Queensland
Coolangatta
Coolangatta
Coordinates28°10′15″S 153°32′01″E / 28.1708°S 153.5336°E / -28.1708; 153.5336 (Coolangatta (centre of suburb))
Population5,948 (2016 census)[1]
 • Density3,300/km2 (8,560/sq mi)
Established1883
Postcode(s)4225
Area1.8 km2 (0.7 sq mi)
Time zoneAEST (UTC+10:00)
Location
LGA(s)City of Gold Coast
State electorate(s)Currumbin
Federal Division(s)McPherson
Suburbs around Coolangatta:
Bilinga Coral Sea Coral Sea
Bilinga Coolangatta Coral Sea
Tweed Heads West (NSW) Tweed Heads (NSW) Tweed Heads (NSW)

Coolangatta is a coastal suburb in the City of Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia.[2] It is the Gold Coast's southernmost suburb and it borders New South Wales.[3] In the 2016 census, Coolangatta had a population of 5,948 people.[1]

Geography[edit]

Coolangatta and its immediate neighbouring "Twin Town" Tweed Heads in New South Wales have a shared economy. The Tweed River supports a thriving fishing fleet, and the seafood is a local specialty offered in the restaurants and clubs of the holiday and retirement region on both sides of the state border.

There are three hills in Coolangatta:

Point Danger is a headland on the Queensland/New South Wales border (28°09′51″S 153°33′06″E / 28.1641°S 153.5516°E / -28.1641; 153.5516 (Point Danger)).[7] It was widely believed to be named by Lieutenant James Cook on his 1770 exploration of the eastern Australia coastline in the HMS Endeavour, but this is only partially correct. Cook did create the name, but he applied it to another headland further south (now known as Fingal Head). This was confirmed in the 1823 map produced by explorer John Oxley. However a map published in 1831 based on the 1828 survey conducted on HMS Rainbow applied the name Point Danger to the headland north of the Tweed River. So while Cook created the name, he did not assign it to the current location.[8]

Rainbow Bay is offshore from the south-east of the suburb (28°09′50″S 153°32′49″E / 28.1638°S 153.5470°E / -28.1638; 153.5470 (Rainbow Bay)). It was originally called Shark/Sharks Bay until 1926 when the Coolangatta Town Council decided to rename it after HMS Rainbow, a sixth-rate frigate, commanded by Captain Henry John Rous, used in surveys of the area in 1828.[9][10]

There are three neighbourhoods within Coolangatta:

Point Danger Lighthouse is located on the Point Danger headland (28°09′54″S 153°33′03″E / 28.1650°S 153.5507°E / -28.1650; 153.5507 (Point Danger Lighthouse)).[14]

There are three beaches in the suburb, from west to east:

There is a breakwater extending from Kirra Hill in the ocean which protects Coolangatta Beach from erosion (28°09′55″S 153°32′11″E / 28.1652°S 153.5363°E / -28.1652; 153.5363 (breakwater)).[18]

The Gold Coast Airport, formerly known as Coolangatta Airport, is not located within the present suburb boundaries but within neighbouring Bilinga with part of the runway extendind across the border into Tweed Heads in New South Wales.[3]

History[edit]

Yugambeh language (also known as Yugumbir, Jugambel, Jugambeir, Jugumbir, Jukam, Jukamba) is one of the Australian Aboriginal languages in areas that include the Beenleigh, Beaudesert, Gold Coast, Logan, Scenic Rim, Albert River, Coolangatta, Coomera, Logan River, Pimpama, Tamborine and Tweed River Valley, within the local government boundaries of the City of Gold Coast, City of Logan, Scenic Rim Regional Council and the Tweed River Valley.[19]

Early settlement[edit]

Estate map of the town of Coolangatta, Queensland, 1885

Coolangatta was one of the earliest settlements on the Gold Coast. Once again focused on a steep headland at Point Danger the area was occupied by Europeans from at least 1828 by a convict station and red cedar getters soon followed.

Wreck of the Coolangatta[edit]

On Wednesday 18 August 1846 the schooner Coolangatta was wrecked on Kirra / Bilinga Beach adjacent to a creek during a storm .

Anchor from Coolangatta wreck site memorial; creek at right

A topsail schooner of 83 feet (25 m) in length and 88 long tons (89 t), Coolangatta was built by John Blinksell in 1843 for Alexander Berry whose property, Coolangatta Estate, adjoined Coolangatta mountain located on the northern bank of the Shoalhaven River, New South Wales.

On 6 July 1846 the ship sailed under Captain Steele from Brisbane, carrying two convict prisoners (George Craig in irons, and William George Lewis), to load red cedar logs at the Tweed River for Sydney. Steele found the river entrance closed by silt forming a bar, so he anchored in the lee of Point Danger off Kirra Beach. Red cedar logs were then hauled overland from Terranora Inlet and rafted from the beach, but in six weeks less than half of the contracted 70,000 feet of red cedar had been loaded. Meanwhile, five ships loaded with red cedar were bar-bound inside the river.

On 18 August 1846, while Steel was ashore, a south-east gale blew up. Steele's boat was damaged while getting through the surf and he watched from the beach as the gale intensified. Eventually, the prisoners were freed and all hands abandoned ship and swam for shore as the anchors dragged. The ship parted its anchors and washed ashore near what was later called Coolangatta Creek.

The survivors walked 70 miles (110 km) north to Amity Point in six days, fed each night by different groups of friendly indigenous Australians, and were taken into Brisbane on board the Tamar.

Township develops[edit]

Selectors followed in the 1860s and a small settlement was established.

In 1883 a township was surveyed. A map of the town in 1885[20] shows the results of a recent land sale where several town lots were sold.[21] Government surveyor Henry Schneider named the area Coolangatta after the shipwreck while surveying in 1883 for the land auction in March 1884.

Border Gates between Coolangatta and Tweed Heads, 1943
Aerial view looking towards Point Danger, Coolangatta, ca. 1952. Tweed Heads (New South Wales) is to the left. The main road running inland from the headland is Boundary Street, which marks the state border.
Border marker between two states, dividing the "Twin Towns"
Snapper Rocks, a popular surfing and sea-bathing area in Coolangatta

As a border town Coolangatta included a customs office, boatshed and government wharf.

Twentieth century[edit]

The South Coast railway was extended from Nerang railway station to Tweed Heads in New South Wales and opened on 10 August 1903.[22] Coolangatta railway station was located to the south of the intersection of Griffith and Dutton Streets (28°10′07″S 153°32′12″E / 28.1685°S 153.5367°E / -28.1685; 153.5367 (Coolangatta railway station (former))). The terminus Tweed Heads railway station was in Tweed Heads near Thomson Street (28°10′19″S 153°32′26″E / 28.1720°S 153.5405°E / -28.1720; 153.5405 (Tweed Heads railway station (former))).[23][24] The railway guaranteed the success of Coolangatta as a holiday township and it flourished from that time forward.

The Tweed Heads Surf and Life Saving Club was established on Friday 26 January 1909.[25] Tweed Heads and Coolangatta Surf Life Saving Club building opened on 13 September 1911.[26] Guesthouses and hotels were erected and a commercial centre soon followed.

Land was advertised for sale in December 1912, being allotments in sections 3, 14, 25, [16 & 17], town of Coolangatta and portion 44 (special lease) parish of Tallebudgera,[27] with 7 allotments facing either Marine Parade or Griffith Street. A further 35 allotments immediately south of Coolangatta railway station and 2 further allotments facing McLean Street were also advertised for sale.[28]

Prior to 1914, Coolangatta was administered by the Nerang Divisional Board, which became the Shire of Nerang in 1903. In 1914, Coolangatta had its own local government, the Town of Coolangatta, but in 1949 it was amalgamated into the Town of South Coast, which later became City of Gold Coast.[29]

The Coolangatta Star newspaper was published from 1916 to 1927. In May 1927, the Tweed Heads and Coolangatta star amalgamated with the Coolangatta Chronicle to become the Border Star.[30] The Border Star newspaper ceased publication in 1942.[31]

In January 1919 the border between Queensland and New South Wales was closed to all traffic in response to the 1918 flu pandemic in an attempt to stop the spread of the disease north into Queensland.[32] People found themselves stranded on the one side of the border unable to return to their homes or employment on the other side.[33] Quarantine stations and camps were established to house travelers and stranded residents. One impact on the border closure was the need to duplicate services across the twin towns on the Queensland side of the border, as at 1 February 1919, Coolangatta had no doctor, no pharmacist, no milkman, no butcher and no undertaker. Nor did Coolangatta have a school nor a post office.[34] The border remained closed until May 1919.[35]

One of the services that required duplication was a school for 56 children living in Coolangatta but attending school in Tweed Heads.[36] Previously on 28 June 1918 the Queensland Department of Public Instruction had indicated their intention to establish a school at Coolangatta but no progress had been made. When the Coolangatta children were unable to return to their Tweed Heads school in February 1919, the Coolangatta Town Council made a meeting room available in their council chambers for use as a temporary school room and the Queensland Department of Public Instruction sent school furniture and one teacher from Brisbane, and Coolangatta Provisional School commenced operation on 10 February 1919. The next task was to construct a school building with two classrooms on the school reserve at 1 Garrick Street (corner of Powell Street, 28°10′03″S 153°32′02″E / 28.1675°S 153.5338°E / -28.1675; 153.5338 (Coolangatta State School (former))) on Kirra Hill.[37] Although expected to be completed in six months, it was not until the start of the 1920 school year that the new Coolangatta State School opened with 67 students under headmaster Claude de Jersey and another teacher.[38] It was officially opened on 2 October 1920 by Queensland Governor Matthew Nathan.[38][39] Growth in the school over the decades subsequently led to its relocation to Stapylton Street, officially opening there on 26 November 1977. The old school bell from Kirra Hill was relocated to the Stapylton Street where it remains in daily use.[40]

On Monday 31 April 1925 Archbishop James Duhig laid the foundation stone of St Augustine's Catholic Church.[41] On Sunday 19 December 1926 Duhig returned to officially open and bless the church.[42]

St Augustine's Catholic School was established in 1926 by the Daughters of Our Lady of the Sacred Heart. From 1950 the school was operated by Missionary Franciscan Sisters of the Immaculate Conception. On 27 January 1987 the school relocated to a new site in Currumbin Waters. In 1992 the sisters ended their association with the school which is now under lay administration.[43][44]

The foundation stone of St Peter's Anglican Church at 34 Lanham Street (corner of Dutton Street, 28°10′09″S 153°32′10″E / 28.1693°S 153.5362°E / -28.1693; 153.5362 (St Peter's Anglican Church (former))) was laid on 31 October 1937 by Archbishop William Wand.[45] It was dedicated in 1938 by Wand. Its closure circa 2013 was approved by Archbishop Philip Aspinall.[46][47]

There was a stump-capping ceremony held for the Coolangatta Methodist Memorial Church on Sunday 8 June 1924.[48] The church was officially opened at 26-28 Lanham Street (28°10′09″S 153°32′08″E / 28.1693°S 153.5356°E / -28.1693; 153.5356 (Coolangatta Methodist Church)) on Sunday 27 September 1924 by Rev. Dr. G.E. Rowe.[49] Following the Methodist Church joining into the Uniting Church in Australia in 1977, the church became Coolangatta Uniting Church. In June 1988 the Uniting Church in Coolangatta and Tweed Heads merged to form the Twin Towns Uniting Church.[50]

An unnamed cyclone crossed the coast at Coolangatta on the night of 20 February 1954.[51] The storm quickly cleared from Queensland skies but moved south, causing widespread loss of life and flooding in New South Wales.

The railway line closed in 1961 due to the rising use of cars.

Little remains of the earliest structures at Coolangatta but some evidence remains of subsequent development in the early years of the twentieth century including the Coolangatta Hotel, Kirra Beach Hotel and St Augustine's Catholic Church (Coolangatta). In addition to the former Coolangatta State School, the Anzac Memorial (Coolangatta), Jazzland Coolangatta, the Kirra Beach Pavilion, Kirra Beach Shelter Shed and the remains of Jack Evans Porpoise Pool are on the Gold Coast Local Heritage Register.[52]

The border fence and gates that until recently were a characteristic of the area have now been removed but the sense of the border remains at Boundary Street running along the ridge of the headland between Queensland and New South Wales. The headland itself is an important landmark and tourist destination and is the site of the Point Danger Lighthouse. Coolangatta symbolises the terminus of the Gold Coast and the long strip of beach that begins at Main Beach forty kilometres to the north.

Coolangatta and its surrounds were the home of two early tourist attractions on the Gold Coast. Jack Evans Porpoise Pool which was built at Snapper Rocks in 1957[53][54] and Gilltraps Auto Museum which was established at Kirra in 1959.[55]

Coolangatta Special School opened on 1 January 1979 on the Kirra Hill site vacated by the Coolangatta State School.[38] On 1 July 2006 the school was relocated to Currumbin Waters and renamed Currumbin Community Special School.[40][43][56][57] Following local agitation from the "Save Kirra Hill" group, the school buildings at the Kirra Hill site were transferred to the Gold Coast City Council in 2008 for community purposes. The Council spent $3 million in restoration and refurbishment before officially opeing the site as the Kirra Hill Cultural and Community Centre in October 2011.[40] The Kirra Hill site is listed on the Gold Coast Local Heritage Register.[58]

To commemorate the centenary of Coolangatta, in 1984 a stone from the Coolangatta Estate homestead was donated by the citizens of Coolangatta near Berry, New South Wales and was mounted on a plinth of granite from Aberdeen, Scotland, the birthplace of Alexander Berry.

Twenty-first century[edit]

The Coolangatta library opened in 2013.[59]

In the 2016 census, Coolangatta had a population of 5,948 people.[1]

Demographics[edit]

According to the 2016 census of Population, there were 5,948 people in Coolangatta.

  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people made up 2.2% of the population.
  • The median age of people in Coolangatta was 50 years.
  • 67.6% of people were born in Australia. The next most common countries of birth were New Zealand 4.3% and England 4.0%.
  • 80.2% of people spoke only English at home. Other languages spoken at home included Portuguese at 1.7%.
  • The most common responses for religion were No Religion 32.3, Catholic 21.9% and Anglican 15.4%.[1]

Climate[edit]

Coolangatta has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa) with warm, wet summers and cool, moist winters. Although there is four times as much rainfall in March as there is in September, Coolangatta is still considered to have no dry season because there is more than a tenth of the rainfall of the wettest month in the driest month of the year.

Climate data for Coolangatta
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 28.6
(83.5)
28.4
(83.1)
27.4
(81.3)
25.5
(77.9)
23.3
(73.9)
21.1
(70.0)
20.8
(69.4)
21.7
(71.1)
23.5
(74.3)
24.7
(76.5)
26.2
(79.2)
27.5
(81.5)
24.9
(76.8)
Average low °C (°F) 21.1
(70.0)
21.0
(69.8)
19.8
(67.6)
17.1
(62.8)
13.8
(56.8)
11.5
(52.7)
10.0
(50.0)
10.5
(50.9)
13.4
(56.1)
15.9
(60.6)
18.2
(64.8)
19.8
(67.6)
16.0
(60.8)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 145.2
(5.72)
168.1
(6.62)
175.5
(6.91)
171.3
(6.74)
149.9
(5.90)
130.5
(5.14)
75.2
(2.96)
55.2
(2.17)
42.4
(1.67)
87.9
(3.46)
139.6
(5.50)
140.7
(5.54)
1,490.2
(58.67)
Source: Bureau of Meteorology[60]

Education[edit]

Coolangatta State School is a government primary (Prep-6) school for boys and girls at Stapylton Street (28°10′19″S 153°31′43″E / 28.1720°S 153.5287°E / -28.1720; 153.5287 (Coolangatta State School)).[61][62] In 2018, the school had an enrolment of 184 students with 19 teachers (14 full-time equivalent) and 11 non-teaching staff (8 full-time equivalent).[63]

There is no secondary school in Coolangatta. The nearest secondary school is Palm Beach Currumbin State High School in Palm Beach to the north-west.[3]

The Coolangatta campus of TAFE Queensland is a technical college at 5 Scott Street (28°10′14″S 153°32′24″E / 28.1705°S 153.5399°E / -28.1705; 153.5399 (Coolangatta TAFE)).[64]

Facilities[edit]

Rainbow Bay seen from Greenmount Hill, Coolangatta

Coolangatta Magistrates Court is at 136 Musgrave Street (28°10′08″S 153°32′05″E / 28.1689°S 153.5346°E / -28.1689; 153.5346 (Coolangatta Magistrates Court)).[65]

Coolangatta Police Station is on the corner of Musgrave and Mclean Streets (28°10′08″S 153°32′04″E / 28.1689°S 153.5345°E / -28.1689; 153.5345 (Coolangatta police station)).[66]

Amenities[edit]

The Gold Coast City Council operate a public library (28°10′03″S 153°32′16″E / 28.1675°S 153.5378°E / -28.1675; 153.5378 (Coolangatta library)) on Level 1 of the Strand Shopping Centre (between Marine Parade and Griffith Street, 28°10′04″S 153°32′17″E / 28.1677°S 153.5381°E / -28.1677; 153.5381 (Strand Shopping Centre)).[67]

Coolangatta Post Office is at (28°10′06″S 153°32′08″E / 28.1683°S 153.5356°E / -28.1683; 153.5356 (Coolangatta Post Office)).[65]

There are four surf life saving clubs:

The Coolangatta branch of the Queensland Country Women's Association meets at their hall at 169 Griffith Street (28°10′05″S 153°32′35″E / 28.1680°S 153.5431°E / -28.1680; 153.5431 (Coolangatta QCWA branch)).[68]

St Augustine's Catholic Church is on the corner of Mclean and Tweed Streets (28°10′15″S 153°32′06″E / 28.1708°S 153.5351°E / -28.1708; 153.5351 (St Augustine's Catholic Church)).[69]

Twin Towns Uniting Church is at 26-28 Lanham Street (28°10′09″S 153°32′08″E / 28.1693°S 153.5356°E / -28.1693; 153.5356 (Twin Towns Uniting Church)).[70]

Sport[edit]

Coolangatta has many sports teams.

Coolangatta Tweed Heads Australian Football Club is a Gold Coast based club competing in the AFL Queensland Australian rules football competition.

The Coolangatta Tweed Barbarians compete in the Gold Coast and District Rugby Union.

The Coolangatta Surf Life Saving Club compete in the Winter Swimming Association of Australia Championships.[71]

Coolangatta Bowls Club is on the corner of Scott and Warner Streets (28°10′11″S 153°32′20″E / 28.1698°S 153.5390°E / -28.1698; 153.5390 (Coolangatta Bowls Club)).[72]

Coolangatta Croquet Club is at 42 Lanham Street (28°10′11″S 153°32′14″E / 28.1696°S 153.5372°E / -28.1696; 153.5372 (Coolangatta Croquet Club)).[73]

The Coolangatta & Tweed Heads Golf Club is at Soorley Street in Tweed Heads South.[74]

Events[edit]

Coolangatta hosts a number of sporting events: The Coolangatta Gold (surf life saving), Quiksilver Pro Gold Coast (surfing), Roxy Pro Gold Coast (surfing), and Beach Cricket Tri-Nations series (beach cricket).

Each June, Coolangatta hosts the Cooly Rocks On Festival, a two-week 1950s and 1960s nostalgia festival with free entertainment and attractions, including hot rods, restored cars and revival bands playing music of the era.[75]

Attractions[edit]

The beaches are major attractions of Coolangatta. Popular lookouts and viewpoints include:

Heritage listings[edit]

Lighthouse at Point Danger, Coolangatta, Queensland – a heritage-listed memorial to Lieutenant James Cook of HM Bark Endeavour who named the Point and described the area during the voyage of 1770.

There are a number of heritage sites in Coolangatta, including:

In popular culture[edit]

Coolangatta is featured in the song It's Hot in Brisbane but it's Coolangatta, recorded in 1953 by Gwen Ryan, Claude Carnell's Orchestra and additional vocals from Doug Roughton's Hokey Pokey Club.[94] Funded by 39 businesses, it is believed to be the first jingle written to promote an Australian tourist destination.[95] In 2008 the song was used as the theme for a Gold Coast Heritage exhibition about the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s on the Gold Coast, featuring oral histories and objects of Gold Coast residents.[96]

The sport-romance film The Coolangatta Gold was set in the town. Coolangatta was also used as the fictitious town of Porpoise Spit in the 1994 film Muriel's Wedding.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Coolangatta (SSC)". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 20 October 2018. Edit this at Wikidata
  2. ^ "Coolangatta – suburb in City of Gold Coast (entry 46040)". Queensland Place Names. Queensland Government. Retrieved 22 November 2020.
  3. ^ a b c "Queensland Globe". State of Queensland. Retrieved 22 November 2020.
  4. ^ "Kirra Hill – hill in City of Gold Coast (entry 18306)". Queensland Place Names. Queensland Government. Retrieved 22 November 2020.
  5. ^ "Greenmount Hill – hill in City of Gold Coast (entry 14793)". Queensland Place Names. Queensland Government. Retrieved 22 November 2020.
  6. ^ "Murraba – hill in City of Gold Coast (entry 23593)". Queensland Place Names. Queensland Government. Retrieved 22 November 2020.
  7. ^ "Point Danger – point in City of Gold Coast (entry 9312)". Queensland Place Names. Queensland Government. Retrieved 22 November 2020.
  8. ^ Gerritsen, Rupert (June 2013). "A Dangerous Point: Fingal Head and Point Danger" (PDF). Placenames Australia: 1, 4–7. Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 November 2020.
  9. ^ "Bays - Queensland". Queensland Open Data. Queensland Government. 12 November 2020. Archived from the original on 25 November 2020. Retrieved 25 November 2020.
  10. ^ "Rainbow Bay – bay in Gold Coast City (entry 27920)". Queensland Place Names. Queensland Government. Retrieved 29 November 2020.
  11. ^ "Kirra – neighbourhood in City of Gold Coast (entry 18304)". Queensland Place Names. Queensland Government. Retrieved 22 November 2020.
  12. ^ "Greenmount – neighbourhood in City of Gold Coast (entry 14786)". Queensland Place Names. Queensland Government. Retrieved 22 November 2020.
  13. ^ "Rainbow Bay – neighbourhood in City of Gold Coast (entry 27921)". Queensland Place Names. Queensland Government. Retrieved 22 November 2020.
  14. ^ "Lighthouses - Queensland". Queensland Open Data. Queensland Government. 18 November 2020. Archived from the original on 21 November 2020. Retrieved 21 November 2020.
  15. ^ "Kirra Beach – beach in Gold Coast City (entry 18305)". Queensland Place Names. Queensland Government. Retrieved 22 November 2020.
  16. ^ "Coolangatta Beach – beach in City of Gold Coast (entry 8078)". Queensland Place Names. Queensland Government. Retrieved 22 November 2020.
  17. ^ "Greenmount Beach – beach in Gold Coast City (entry 14791)". Queensland Place Names. Queensland Government. Retrieved 22 November 2020.
  18. ^ "Breakwaters groynes and sea walls - Queensland". Queensland Open Data. Queensland Government. 18 November 2020. Archived from the original on 25 November 2020. Retrieved 25 November 2020.
  19. ^ CC-BY-icon-80x15.png This Wikipedia article incorporates CC-BY-4.0 licensed text from: "Yugembah". Queensland Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages map. State Library of Queensland. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
  20. ^ "Town of Coolangatta map". hdl:10462/deriv/18522. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  21. ^ "Government Land Sale. – The Queenslander (Brisbane, Qld. : 1866 – 1939) – 4 Jul 1885". Trove. Archived from the original on 22 November 2020. Retrieved 26 November 2019.
  22. ^ "VISITORS FROM NEW SOUTH WALES". The Brisbane Courier. 11 August 1903. p. 5. Archived from the original on 27 April 2020. Retrieved 16 September 2014 – via National Library of Australia.
  23. ^ "South Coast Rail Line". Archived from the original on 15 September 2014. Retrieved 15 September 2014.
  24. ^ "Tweed Heads" (Map). Queensland Government. 1943. Archived from the original on 5 April 2020. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  25. ^ "TWEED HEADS NEWS". The Brisbane Courier. LXV (15, 956). Queensland, Australia. 3 March 1909. p. 4. Retrieved 23 February 2021 – via National Library of Australia. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  26. ^ "Tweed Heads Life Saving Brigade". The Brisbane Courier. 16 September 1911. p. 4. Archived from the original on 22 November 2020. Retrieved 16 September 2014 – via National Library of Australia.
  27. ^ "Plan of allotments in sections 3, 14, 25, 16 & 17, town of Coolangatta ... and portion 44 (special lease ...) parish of Tallebudgera, county of Ward". rosettadel.slq.qld.gov.au. Archived from the original on 22 November 2020. Retrieved 26 November 2019.
  28. ^ "Advertising – The Brisbane Courier (Qld. : 1864 – 1933) – 4 Dec 1912". Trove. Archived from the original on 22 November 2020. Retrieved 26 November 2019.
  29. ^ "Agency ID 10376, Coolangatta Town Council". Queensland State Archives. Retrieved 7 September 2013.
  30. ^ "Tweed Heads & Coolangatta Star". Trove. Archived from the original on 22 November 2020. Retrieved 24 January 2018.
  31. ^ The Border star, Canberra National Library of Australia, 1929, ISSN 2206-1746
  32. ^ "INFLUENZA EPIDEMIC". The Telegraph (14, 408) (SECOND ed.). Brisbane. 29 January 1919. p. 2. Archived from the original on 22 November 2020. Retrieved 14 May 2016 – via National Library of Australia.
  33. ^ "Border Quarantine". The Telegraph (14, 440). Brisbane. 7 March 1919. p. 5. Archived from the original on 22 November 2020. Retrieved 14 May 2016 – via National Library of Australia.
  34. ^ "POSITION AT THE BORDER". The Northern Miner. Queensland, Australia. 1 February 1919. p. 3. Archived from the original on 22 November 2020. Retrieved 13 September 2020 – via National Library of Australia.
  35. ^ "Opening the Border". The Telegraph (14, 500). Brisbane. 17 May 1919. p. 9. Archived from the original on 22 November 2020. Retrieved 14 May 2016 – via National Library of Australia.
  36. ^ "GOOLANGATTA SCHOOL". Daily Mail (5094). Brisbane. 7 March 1919. p. 4. Archived from the original on 22 November 2020. Retrieved 14 May 2016 – via National Library of Australia.
  37. ^ "Coolangatta School". The Daily Mail (5094). Queensland, Australia. 7 March 1919. p. 4. Archived from the original on 22 November 2020. Retrieved 13 September 2020 – via National Library of Australia.
  38. ^ a b c Whittington, Dot (13 September 2020). "History repeats with a global emergency". The Sunday Mail. p. 49.
  39. ^ "COOLANGATTA". The Daily Mail (6164). Queensland, Australia. 14 February 1922. p. 10. Archived from the original on 22 November 2020. Retrieved 13 September 2020 – via National Library of Australia.
  40. ^ a b c "History". Coolangatta State School. 6 February 2020. Archived from the original on 11 April 2020. Retrieved 12 September 2020.
  41. ^ "FOUNDATION STONE". The Daily Mail (7215). Queensland, Australia. 14 April 1925. p. 10. Archived from the original on 22 November 2020. Retrieved 22 November 2020 – via National Library of Australia.
  42. ^ "Coolangatta". The Catholic Press (1617). New South Wales, Australia. 6 January 1927. p. 42. Archived from the original on 22 November 2020. Retrieved 22 November 2020 – via National Library of Australia.
  43. ^ a b Queensland Family History Society (2010), Queensland schools past and present (Version 1.01 ed.), Queensland Family History Society, ISBN 978-1-921171-26-0
  44. ^ "Our History". St Augustine's Parish Primary School, Currumbin Waters. Archived from the original on 6 March 2020. Retrieved 6 March 2020.
  45. ^ "Archbishop Wand Lays Foundation Stone of Coolangatta Church". The Telegraph. Queensland, Australia. 1 November 1937. p. 9 (CITY FINAL LAST MINUTE NEWS). Archived from the original on 22 November 2020. Retrieved 22 November 2020 – via National Library of Australia.
  46. ^ Anglican Church of Southern Queensland. "Closed Churches". Archived from the original on 3 April 2019. Retrieved 3 April 2019.
  47. ^ "St Peter's Anglican Church - Former". Churches Australia. Archived from the original on 21 November 2020. Retrieved 21 November 2020.
  48. ^ "STUMP CAPPING". The Daily Mail (6952). Queensland, Australia. 9 June 1924. p. 9. Archived from the original on 22 November 2020. Retrieved 22 November 2020 – via National Library of Australia.
  49. ^ "The new Methodist Memorial Church at Coolangatta". The Brisbane Courier (20, 787). Queensland, Australia. 6 September 1924. p. 8. Archived from the original on 22 November 2020. Retrieved 22 November 2020 – via National Library of Australia.
  50. ^ "Our History". Twin Towns Uniting Church, Coolangatta. 6 August 2020. Archived from the original on 6 August 2020. Retrieved 22 November 2020.
  51. ^ Damien Larkins (20 February 2014). "The Great Gold Coast Cyclone – February 1954". ABC News. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Archived from the original on 26 January 2016. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
  52. ^ "Gold Coast Local Heritage Register" (PDF). City of Gold Coast. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 September 2016. Retrieved 29 May 2016.
  53. ^ "Girl with a dolphin". The Australian Women's Weekly. 32 (48). Australia. 28 April 1965. p. 14. Archived from the original on 22 November 2020. Retrieved 20 September 2020 – via National Library of Australia. 'The idea of the show came to Mr. Evans about ten years ago when he put two dolphins in a small aquarium at his swimming baths at Snapper Rocks, Tweed Heads.'
  54. ^ "TEENAGERS' PARADISE". The Australian Women's Weekly. 27 (37). Australia. 17 February 1960. p. 9 (Teenagers' Weekly). Retrieved 20 September 2020 – via National Library of Australia. 'One of the chief attractions on the border is Jack Evans' porpoise pool at Schnapper Rocks, beneath Point Danger.'
  55. ^ "Coolangatta". Queensland Places. Archived from the original on 24 June 2016. Retrieved 29 May 2016.
  56. ^ "History". Currumbin Community Special School. 1 June 2019. Archived from the original on 6 March 2020. Retrieved 6 March 2020.
  57. ^ "Agency ID 5670, Currumbin Community Special School". Queensland State Archives. Retrieved 13 September 2020.
  58. ^ "Gold Coast Local Heritage Register" (PDF). City of Gold Coast. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 September 2016. Retrieved 29 May 2016.
  59. ^ "Public Libraries Statistical Bulletin 2016–17" (PDF). Public Libraries Connect. State Library of Queensland. November 2017. p. 13. Archived (PDF) from the original on 30 January 2018. Retrieved 30 January 2018.
  60. ^ "Coolangatta AWS". Climate statistics for Australian locations. Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved 9 May 2009.
  61. ^ "State and non-state school details". Queensland Government. 9 July 2018. Archived from the original on 21 November 2018. Retrieved 21 November 2018.
  62. ^ "Coolangatta State School". Archived from the original on 1 April 2020. Retrieved 21 November 2018.
  63. ^ "ACARA School Profile 2018". Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority. Archived from the original on 27 August 2020. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
  64. ^ "Landmark Areas - Queensland". Queensland Open Data. Queensland Government. 18 November 2020. Archived from the original on 21 November 2020. Retrieved 21 October 2020.
  65. ^ a b c d e f "Community facilities - Queensland". Queensland Open Data. Queensland Government. 22 October 2020. Archived from the original on 23 October 2020. Retrieved 23 October 2020.
  66. ^ "Emergency services facilities - Queensland". Queensland Open Data. Queensland Government. 12 November 2020. Archived from the original on 15 November 2020. Retrieved 12 November 2020.
  67. ^ "Coolangatta Library". Gold Coast City Council. Archived from the original on 30 January 2018. Retrieved 30 January 2018.
  68. ^ "Branch Locations". Queensland Country Women's Association. Archived from the original on 26 December 2018. Retrieved 26 December 2018.
  69. ^ "St Augustine's Church, Coolangatta". Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Brisbane. Archived from the original on 1 December 2020. Retrieved 22 November 2020.
  70. ^ "Find a church". Uniting Church in Australia, Queensland Synod. Archived from the original on 12 March 2018. Retrieved 22 November 2020.
  71. ^ "Welcome to Australian Winter Swimming". Archived from the original on 4 February 2015. Retrieved 4 February 2015.
  72. ^ "COOLY BOWLS CLUB". COOLY BOWLS CLUB. Archived from the original on 22 November 2020. Retrieved 22 November 2020.
  73. ^ "Coolangatta Croquet Club". Croquet Queensland. Archived from the original on 22 November 2020. Retrieved 22 November 2020.
  74. ^ "Home". Coolangatta & Tweed Heads Golf Club. Archived from the original on 22 November 2020. Retrieved 22 November 2020.
  75. ^ "Cooly Rocks On". Archived from the original on 17 June 2016. Retrieved 19 June 2016.
  76. ^ "Snapper Rocks – rock in Gold Coast City (entry 31326)". Queensland Place Names. Queensland Government. Retrieved 29 November 2020.
  77. ^ a b c "Tourist points - Queensland". Queensland Open Data. Queensland Government. 18 November 2020. Archived from the original on 21 November 2020. Retrieved 21 November 2020.
  78. ^ Gold Coast Local Heritage Register - A to M, pp. 19-20
  79. ^ Gold Coast Local Heritage Register - A to M, pp. 39-40
  80. ^ Gold Coast Local Heritage Register - N to Z, pp. 99-100
  81. ^ Gold Coast Local Heritage Register - A to M, pp. 25-26
  82. ^ "Coolangatta War Memorial" (PDF). Gold Coast Local Heritage Register. 5 June 2018. Archived from the original on 27 August 2020. Retrieved 28 August 2020.
  83. ^ Gold Coast Local Heritage Register - A to M, pp. 63-64
  84. ^ Gold Coast Local Heritage Register - A to M, pp. 65-66
  85. ^ Gold Coast Local Heritage Register - A to M, pp. 1-2
  86. ^ Gold Coast Local Heritage Register - N to Z, pp. 151-152
  87. ^ Gold Coast Local Heritage Register - N to Z, pp. 87-88
  88. ^ Gold Coast Local Heritage Register - N to Z, pp. 151-153
  89. ^ Gold Coast Local Heritage Register - N to Z, pp. 141-142
  90. ^ Gold Coast Local Heritage Register - A to M, pp. 59-60
  91. ^ Gold Coast Local Heritage Register - N to Z, pp. 107-108
  92. ^ Gold Coast Local Heritage Register - N to Z, pp. 117-118
  93. ^ Gold Coast Local Heritage Register - N to Z, pp. 103-104
  94. ^ National Film and Sound Archive: Does your town have its own song? Archived 19 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine
  95. ^ Mortimer, Luke. "It's hot in Brisbane but it's Coolangatta". My Daily News. Retrieved 9 August 2013.
  96. ^ "It's Hot in Brisbane but it's Coolangatta!". Gold Coast City City Council. Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 9 August 2013.

Sources[edit]

External links[edit]