Cooper test

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The Cooper test is a test of physical fitness. It was designed by Kenneth H. Cooper in 1968 for US military use.[1][2][3] In its original form, the point of the test is to run as far as possible within 12 minutes. Pacing is important, as the participant will not cover a maximal distance if they begin with a pace too close to an all out sprint. The outcome is based on the distance the test person ran, their age and their sex.The results can be correlated with VO2 Max.

Formula:

where d12 is distance (in metres) covered in 12 minutes, alternatively

where d(miles)12 is distance (in miles) covered in 12 minutes.

It is an easy test to perform in larger groups. For athletes, the length of the run is considered to be that of a long distance run, since everything above 3 km is rated "long distance"—which means the runner will primarily use his/her "red", slow oxidative muscle cells.

For comparison the 2 miles (3,218.7 meters) outdoor world record is 7:58.61 by Daniel Komen, the 5000 meters world record outdoor of Joshua Cheptegei is 12:35.36.[4] The 2 miles outdoor world record for women is Meseret Defar with 8:58.58 and Tirunesh Dibaba time for the outdoor 5000 m is 14:11.15.[5][6][7][8]

Interpretation of results[edit]

The following is an example of the many tables that exist for the test:

Cooper Test
Age M/F Excellent Good Average Bad Very Bad
13-14 M > 2700 m 2400 - 2700 m 2200 - 2399 m 2100 - 2199 m < 2100 m
F > 2000 m 1900 - 2000 m 1600 - 1899 m 1500 - 1599 m < 1500 m
15-16 M > 2800 m 2500 - 2800 m 2300 - 2499 m 2200 - 2299 m < 2200 m
F > 2100 m 2000 - 2100 m 1700 - 1999 m 1600 - 1699 m < 1600 m
17-19 M > 3000 m 2700 - 3000 m 2500 - 2699 m 2300 - 2499 m < 2300 m
F > 2300 m 2100 - 2300 m 1800 - 2099 m 1700 - 1799 m < 1700 m
20-29 M > 2800 m 2400 - 2800 m 2200 - 2399 m 1600 - 2199 m < 1600 m
F > 2700 m 2200 - 2700 m 1800 - 2199 m 1500 - 1799 m < 1500 m
30-39 M > 2700 m 2300 - 2700 m 1900 - 2299 m 1500 - 1899 m < 1500 m
F > 2500 m 2000 - 2500 m 1700 - 1999 m 1400 - 1699 m < 1400 m
40-49 M > 2500 m 2100 - 2500 m 1700 - 2099 m 1400 - 1699 m < 1400 m
F > 2300 m 1900 - 2300 m 1500 - 1899 m 1200 - 1499 m < 1200 m
50+ M > 2400 m 2000 - 2400 m 1600 - 1999 m 1300 - 1599 m < 1300 m
F > 2200 m 1700 - 2200 m 1400 - 1699 m 1100 - 1399 m < 1100 m
Cooper test (Experienced athletes)
Gender Excellent Good Average Bad Terrible
Male > 3700 m 3400 - 3700 m 3100 - 3399 m 2800 - 3099 m < 2800 m
Female > 3000 m 2700 - 3000 m 2400 - 2699 m 2100 - 2399 m < 2100 m

Practical use[edit]

For practical use, precise monitoring presents a challenge. Not all military bases have a running track, and tracking soldiers' laps and positions after 12 minutes is difficult. Testing is easier to administer when the distance is fixed and the finishing time measured. In his original book, Cooper also provided an alternate version of the test, based on the time to complete a 1.5 mile run.[1]

Most armies and police agencies of the world use a fixed distance. This is not exactly a Cooper test but a reasonable practical compromise as long as the distance is of sufficient length to put a continuous load on the cardiovascular system for 10+ minutes. For example, the British Army uses 1.5 miles, the Australian Army uses 2.4 kilometers, the US Army uses 2 miles and the US Marine Corps 3 miles. For each base the course is measured and local corrections (elevation, conditions, etc.) applied. Soldiers are sent off in waves, and timed over the finish line by some PTIs with a stopwatch.

For personal trainers, the Cooper Test, when carried out on a treadmill, is a reliable and repeatable method for measuring a client's progress.

As a standard test this test should to be performed only under standard conditions:

  • Between 50 and 75° F (10 to 25°C) with 75% maximum humidity.
  • On a standard 400 m Tartan track or similar.
  • The candidate should not suffer from respiratory problems.

The test is not considered to be useful for untrained pupils at all.[9]

Football referees[edit]

The Cooper test was one of the most commonly used fitness tests to measure the fitness levels of both amateur and professional football referees, including referees from the FA (English Football Association). More recently, many countries have decided to stop relying on the Cooper Test, claiming that the Cooper test does not correlate well to a real football match, where players run short sprints rather than at a regular pace. Thus it may not truly indicate if a referee will be able to perform well in a football match. All FIFA referees are now required to pass the HI Intensity Fitness Test. Many countries are gradually requiring some of their top National officials to do the HI Intensity Fitness Test also. Lower level referees are often given a choice to either perform the HI Intensity Fitness Test or the Cooper Test. Nevertheless, the recent trend seems to indicate that the Cooper Test is slowly being phased out.[10][11][12]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Cooper, Kenneth H. (January 1969). Aerobics. Bantam Books. ISBN 978-0-553-14490-1.
  2. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-10-11. Retrieved 2010-06-19.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  3. ^ "Cooper Test: A 12-Minute Run to Check Aerobic Fitness".
  4. ^ "World Athletics". www.worldathletics.org.
  5. ^ "Tirunesh DIBABA | Profile | iaaf.org". www.iaaf.org. Retrieved 2019-06-24.
  6. ^ "Kenenisa BEKELE | Profile | iaaf.org". www.iaaf.org. Retrieved 2019-06-24.
  7. ^ "Record-breaking Defar wins car, can't drive". Reuters. 2007-09-14. Retrieved 2019-06-24.
  8. ^ Gambaccini, Peter (2014-09-08). "Daniel Komen to Auction Spikes from 3000-Meter World Record". Runner's World. Retrieved 2019-06-24.
  9. ^ Library of the Heidelberg University: Evaluation of the COOPER-Tests from a performance-physiological perspective Retrieved 3 July 2014
  10. ^ Bartha, C. et, al. (Jan 2009). "Fitness test results of Hungarian and international-level soccer referees and assistants". The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 23 (1): 121–6. doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e31818ebb84. PMID 19125100.
  11. ^ Park, Madison (4 June 2010). "World Cup referees outrun players". CNN.com. Archived from the original on 19 August 2012. Retrieved 27 July 2012.
  12. ^ Morrison, Jim (22 June 2010). "How to Train a World Cup Referee". Smithsonian.com. Retrieved 27 July 2012.