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Copper(I) sulphate; Cuprous sulfate; Dicopper sulfate
3D model (JSmol)
|Molar mass||223.15 g mol−1|
|Density||3.6 g cm−3|
|Melting point||110 °C|
|US health exposure limits (NIOSH):|
|TWA 1 mg/m3 (as Cu)|
|TWA 1 mg/m3 (as Cu)|
IDLH (Immediate danger)
|TWA 100 mg/m3 (as Cu)|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Copper(I) sulfate, also known as cuprous sulfate and dicopper sulfate, is the chemical compound with the chemical formula Cu2SO4 and a molar mass of 223.15 g mol−1. It is an unstable compound as copper(I) compounds are generally unstable and is more commonly found in the CuSO4 state. It is light green in color at room temperature and is water-soluble. Due to the low-stability of the compound there are currently not many applications to date.
The material is fairly stable in dry air at room temperature but decomposes rapidly in presence of moisture or on heating. Due to its instability the material starts to decompose when heated or if water is present to CuSO4 and follows the formula:
Around temperatures of 300 °C it is not likely for any Cu2SO4 to be present as the structure is just not stable enough.
It can also be prepared by reducing copper(II) sulfate solution with a reducing agent like solution sodium bisulfite or sodium thiosulfate to reduce Cu2+ to Cu+. This is visibly noticeable as the blue CuSO4 will begin to turn colorless when the cuprous ion is formed.
Cu2SO4 crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Fddd with cubic closest pack cell unit properties a = 474.8, b = 1396, and c = 1086 pm, Z = 8, Dx = 4.12 g cm−3. The structure is formed by the tendency of Cu(I) to form two collinear sp bonds to oxygen atoms which result in short O–Cu–O groups with the O–Cu bond length being approximately 196vpm. Due to the bonding properties of the Cu(I) metal the structure is built of layers of composition Cu2SO4. Due to the loss of only one electron and the bonding properties of copper(I) the structure is built up from four oxygen atoms of each sulfate group bonding to four other sulfate groups of the same layer via symmetrical O–Cu–O bridging. The layer structure of Cu2SO4 is built as a consequence of the formation of unsymmetrical O–H–O hydrogen bridges. Due to its unstable nature it is difficult to obtain an accurate 3D structure, but was first successfully done in 1987 by Berthold, Born, and Wartchow.
No current common uses due to stability issues. However, its more common copper(II) sulfate form has various current uses from production of fungicides and insecticides, growth stimulation in agriculture, soil sterilization, disinfection, preservatives, antiseptics, pharmaceuticals, disease prevention, mold protection, gas purification and coloring, textiles, public health and medicine, agriculture, and chemistry.
- NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. "#0150". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
- Vo Van, Kim; Habashi, Faith (1972). "Identification and Thermal Stability of Copper(I) Sulfate". Can. J. Chem. 50 (23): 3872–3875. doi:10.1139/v72-610.
- Berthold, H. J.; Born, J.; Wartchow, R. (1988). "The crystal structure of copper(I)sulfate Cu2SO4 – The first structure of a simple cuprous oxo-salt". Z. Kristallogr. Cryst. Mater. 183: 309–318. doi:10.1524/zkri.1918.104.22.1689.