Copper(II) oxide

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Copper(II) oxide
CopperIIoxide.jpg
Copper(II)-oxide-unit-cell-3D-balls.png
Copper(II)-oxide-3D-balls.png
Names
IUPAC name
Copper(II) oxide
Other names
Cupric oxide
Identifiers
1317-38-0 YesY
ChEMBL ChEMBL1909057 N
ChemSpider 144499 YesY
Jmol-3D images Image
Image
PubChem 14829
RTECS number GL7900000
UNII V1XJQ704R4 YesY
Properties
CuO
Molar mass 79.545 g/mol
Appearance black to brown powder
Density 6.315 g/cm3
Melting point 1,326 °C (2,419 °F; 1,599 K)
Boiling point 2,000 °C (3,630 °F; 2,270 K)
insoluble
Solubility soluble in ammonium chloride, potassium cyanide
insoluble in alcohol, ammonium hydroxide, ammonium carbonate
Band gap 1.2 eV
2.63
Structure
monoclinic, mS8[1]
C2/c, #15
a = 4.6837, b = 3.4226, c = 5.1288
α = 90°, β = 99.54°, γ = 90°
Thermochemistry
43 J·mol−1·K−1
−156 kJ·mol−1
Hazards
Safety data sheet Fischer Scientific
EU classification Harmful (Xn)
Dangerous for the environment (N)
NFPA 704
Flammability code 0: Will not burn. E.g., water Health code 2: Intense or continued but not chronic exposure could cause temporary incapacitation or possible residual injury. E.g., chloroform Reactivity code 1: Normally stable, but can become unstable at elevated temperatures and pressures. E.g., calcium Special hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
Flash point Non-flammable
US health exposure limits (NIOSH):
TWA 0.1 mg/m3[2]
Related compounds
Other anions
Copper(II) sulfide
Other cations
Nickel(II) oxide
Zinc oxide
Related compounds
Copper(I) oxide
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
 N verify (what isYesY/N?)
Infobox references

Copper(II) oxide or cupric oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula CuO. A black solid, it is one of the two stable oxides of copper, the other being Cu2O. As a mineral, it is known as tenorite and paramelaconite. It is a product of copper mining and the precursor to many other copper-containing products and chemical compounds.[3]

Production[edit]

It is produced on a large scale by pyrometallurgy used to extract copper from ores. The ores are treated with an aqueous mixture of ammonium carbonate, ammonia, and oxygen to give copper(I) and copper(II) ammine complexes, which are extracted from the solids. These complexes are decomposed with steam to give CuO.

It can be formed by heating copper in air at around 300 - 800°C:

2 Cu + O2 → 2 CuO

For laboratory uses, pure copper(II) oxide is better prepared by heating copper(II) nitrate, copper(II) hydroxide or copper(II) carbonate:

2 Cu(NO3)2 → 2 CuO + 4 NO2 + O2
Cu(OH)2 (s) → CuO (s) + H2O (l)
CuCO3 → CuO + CO2


Reactions[edit]

Copper(II) oxide is an amphoteric oxide, so it dissolves in mineral acids such as hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid or nitric acid to give the corresponding copper(II) salts:

CuO + 2 HNO3 → Cu(NO3)2 + H2O
CuO + 2 HCl → CuCl2 + H2O
CuO + H2SO4 → CuSO4 + H2O

It reacts with concentrated alkali to form the corresponding cuprate salts:

2 MOH + CuO + H2O → M2[Cu(OH)4]

It can also be reduced to copper metal using hydrogen, carbon monoxide, or carbon:

CuO + H2 → Cu + H2O
CuO + CO → Cu + CO2
2CuO + C → 2Cu + CO2

When cupric oxide is substituted for iron oxide in thermite the resulting mixture is a low explosive, not an incendiary.

Structure and physical properties[edit]

Copper(II) oxide belongs to the monoclinic crystal system. The copper atom is coordinated by 4 oxygen atoms in an approximately square planar configuration.[1]

The work function of bulk CuO is 5.3eV[4]

Copper(II) oxide is a p-type semiconductor, with a narrow band gap of 1.2 eV. Cupric oxide can be used to produce dry cell batteries. It could also been used in wet cell batteries as the cathode, with lithium as an anode, and dioxalane mixed with lithium perchlorate as the electrolyte.

Uses[edit]

As a significant product of copper mining, copper(II) oxide is the starting point for the production of other copper salts. For example, many wood preservatives are produced from copper oxide.[3]

Cupric oxide is used as a pigment in ceramics to produce blue, red, and green, and sometimes gray, pink, or black glazes.

It is also used as a dietary supplement in animals.[5]

It is also used when welding with copper alloys.[6]

Use in disposal[edit]

Cupric oxide can be used to safely dispose of hazardous materials such as cyanide, hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons and dioxins, through oxidation.[7]

The decomposition of phenol and pentachlorophenol follow these pathways:

C6H5OH + 14CuO → 6CO2 + 3H2O + 14Cu
C6Cl5OH + 2H2O + 9CuO → 6CO2 + 5HCl + 9Cu

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b The effect of hydrostatic pressure on the ambient temperature structure of CuO, Forsyth J.B., Hull S., J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 3 (1991) 5257-5261 , doi:10.1088/0953-8984/3/28/001. Crystallographic point group: 2/m or C2h. Space group: C2/c. Lattice parameters: a = 4.6837(5), b = 3.4226(5), c = 5.1288(6), α = 90°, β = 99.54(1)°, γ = 90°.
  2. ^ "NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards #0151". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). 
  3. ^ a b H. Wayne Richardson "Copper Compounds in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry 2002, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. doi:10.1002/14356007.a07_567
  4. ^ F. P. Koffyberg and F. A. Benko (1982). "A photoelectrochemical determination of the position of the conduction and valence band edges of p-type CuO". J. Appl. Phys. 53 (2): 1173. doi:10.1063/1.330567. 
  5. ^ "Uses of Copper Compounds: Other Copper Compounds". Copper Development Association. 2007. Retrieved 2007-01-27. 
  6. ^ "Cupric Oxide Data Sheet". Hummel Croton Inc. 2006-04-21. Retrieved 2007-02-01. 
  7. ^ Kenney, Charlie W.; Uchida, Laura A. (April 1986). "Use of copper (II) oxide as source of oxygen for oxidation reactions". Retrieved 2007-06-29. 

External links[edit]