Blue vitriol (pentahydrate)
Bonattite (trihydrate mineral)
Boothite (heptahydrate mineral)
Chalcanthite (pentahydrate mineral)
|Jmol 3D model||Interactive image|
|RTECS number||GL8800000 (anhydrous)
|Molar mass||159.609 g/mol (anhydrous)
249.685 g/mol (pentahydrate)
|Density||3.60 g/cm3 (anhydrous)
2.286 g/cm3 (pentahydrate)
|Melting point||110 °C (230 °F; 383 K) decomposes (·5H2O)
<560 °C decomposes
|1.055 molal (10 °C)
1.26 molal (20 °C)
1.502 molal (30 °C)
insoluble in ethanol
soluble in methanol
10.4 g/L (18 °C)
insoluble in ethanol
Refractive index (nD)
|Orthorhombic (anhydrous, chalcocyanite), space group Pnma, oP24, a = 0.839 nm, b = 0.669 nm, c = 0.483 nm.
Triclinic (pentahydrate), space group P1, aP22, a = 0.5986 nm, b = 0.6141 nm, c = 1.0736 nm, α = 77.333°, β = 82.267°, γ = 72.567°
|5 J K−1 mol−1|
Std enthalpy of
|Safety data sheet||anhydrous
EU classification (DSD)
Dangerous for the environment (N)
|R-phrases||R22, R36/38, R50/53|
|S-phrases||(S2), S22, S60, S61|
|Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):|
LD50 (median dose)
|300 mg/kg (oral, rat)|
|US health exposure limits (NIOSH):|
|TWA 1 mg/m3 (as Cu)|
|TWA 1 mg/m3 (as Cu)|
IDLH (Immediate danger)
|TWA 100 mg/m3 (as Cu)|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|what is ?)(|
This salt exists as a series of compounds that differ in their degree of hydration. The anhydrous salt is a white powder in its pure form, whereas the pentahydrate (CuSO4·5H2O), the most commonly encountered salt, is bright blue. Copper (II) sulfate exothermically dissolves in water to give the aquo complex [Cu(H2O)6]2+, which has octahedral molecular geometry and is paramagnetic. Other names for copper(II) sulfate are "blue vitriol" and "bluestone".
- 1 Preparation and occurrence
- 2 Chemical properties
- 3 Uses
- 4 Toxicological effects
- 5 References
- 6 Bibliography
- 7 External links
Preparation and occurrence
Copper sulfate is produced industrially by treating copper metal with hot concentrated sulfuric acid or its oxides with dilute sulfuric acid. For laboratory use, copper sulfate is usually purchased. Copper sulfate can also be produced by slowly leaching low grade copper ore in air; bacteria may be used to hasten the process.
Commercial copper sulfate is usually about 98% pure copper sulfate, and may contain traces of water. Anhydrous Copper sulfate is 39.81 percent copper and 60.19 percent sulfate by mass, and in its blue, hydrous form, it is 25.47% copper, 38.47% sulfate (12.82% sulfur) and 36.06% water by mass. Four types of crystal size are provided based on its usage: large crystals (10-40mm), small crystals (2–10 mm), snow crystals (less than 2 mm), and windswept powder (less than 0.15 mm).
The anhydrous form occurs as a rare mineral known as chalcocyanite. The hydrated copper sulfate occurs in nature as chalcanthite (pentahydrate), and two more rare ones: bonattite (trihydrate) and boothite (heptahydrate).
Copper (II) sulfate pentahydrate decomposes before melting. It loses two water molecules upon heating at 63 °C (145 °F), followed by two more at 109 °C (228 °F) and the final water molecule at 200 °C (392 °F). Dehydration proceeds by decomposition of the tetraaquacopper(2+) moiety, two opposing aqua groups are lost to give a diaquacopper(2+) moiety. The second dehydration step occurs with the final two aqua groups are lost. Complete dehydration occurs when the only unbound water molecule is lost. At 650 °C (1,202 °F), copper (II) sulfate decomposes into copper (II) oxide (CuO) and sulfur trioxide (SO3).
Copper sulfate reacts with concentrated hydrochloric acid to give tetrachlorocuprate(II):
- Cu2+ + 4 Cl− → CuCl2−
It also reacts with more reducing metals to give copper metal and the corresponding oxidized metal, e.g.
As a pesticide
Copper sulfate pentahydrate is a fungicide. However, some fungi are capable of adapting to elevated levels of copper ions. By mixing a water solution of copper sulfate and a suspension of slaked lime one obtains the Bordeaux mixture, a suspension of copper(II) hydroxide Cu(OH)2 and calcium sulphate, which is used to control fungus on grapes, melons, and other berries.
Another application is Cheshunt compound, a mixture of copper sulfate and ammonium carbonate used in horticulture to prevent damping off in seedlings. Its use as a herbicide is not agricultural, but instead to control invasive aquatic plants and the roots of plants that may be situated near pipes containing water. It is used in swimming pools as an algicide. A dilute solution of copper sulfate is used to treat aquarium fishes for parasitic infections, and is also used to remove snails from aquariums. Copper ions are highly toxic to fish, so care must be taken with the dosage. Most species of algae can be controlled with very low concentrations of copper sulfate. Copper sulfate inhibits growth of bacteria such as Escherichia coli.
Copper(II) sulfate has attracted many niche applications over the centuries. In industry copper sulfate has multiple applications. In printing it is an additive to book binding pastes and glues to protect paper from insect bites; in building it is an additive to concrete to provide water resistance and to make it antiseptic. Copper sulfate can be used as a coloring ingredient in artworks, especially glasses and potteries. Copper sulfate is also used in firework manufacture as a blue coloring agent, but it is not safe to mix copper sulfate with chlorates when mixing firework powders.
Several chemical tests utilize copper sulfate. It is used in Fehling's solution and Benedict's solution to test for reducing sugars, which reduce the soluble blue copper(II) sulfate to insoluble red copper(I) oxide. Copper(II) sulfate is also used in the Biuret reagent to test for proteins.
Copper sulfate is used to test blood for anemia. The blood is tested by dropping it into a solution of copper sulfate of known specific gravity – blood which contains sufficient hemoglobin sinks rapidly due to its density, whereas blood which does not sink or sinks slowly has insufficient amount of hemoglobin.
Copper sulfate is employed at a limited level in organic synthesis. The anhydrous salt is used as a dehydrating agent for forming and manipulating acetal groups. The hydrated salt can be intimately mingled with potassium permanganate to give an oxidant for the conversion of primary alcohols.
Copper sulfate is commonly included in children's chemistry sets. It is often used to grow crystals in schools and in copper plating experiments, despite its toxicity. Copper sulfate is often used to demonstrate an exothermic reaction, in which steel wool or magnesium ribbon is placed in an aqueous solution of CuSO4. It is used to demonstrate the principle of mineral hydration. The pentahydrate form, which is blue, is heated, turning the copper sulfate into the anhydrous form which is white, while the water that was present in the pentahydrate form evaporates. When water is then added to the anhydrous compound, it turns back into the pentahydrate form, regaining its blue color, and is known as blue vitriol. Copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate can easily be produced by crystallization from solution as copper(II) sulfate is quite hygroscopic.
In an illustration of a "single metal replacement reaction", iron is submerged in a solution of copper sulfate. Upon standing, iron reacts, producing iron(II) sulfate, and copper precipitates.
- Fe + CuSO4 → FeSO4 + Cu
In high school and general chemistry education, copper sulfate is used as electrolyte for galvanic cells, usually as a cathode solution. For example, in a zinc/copper cell, copper ion in copper sulfate solution absorbs electron from zinc and forms metallic copper.
- Cu2+ + 2e- → Cu (cathode) E°cell=0.34V
Medical and public health
Copper sulfate was used in the past as an emetic. It is now considered too toxic for this use. It is still listed as an antidote in the World Health Organization's Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. Copper sulfate was once used to fight malaria. For example, during the 1940s in Trinidad, a malaria epidemic was caused by an increase of mosquito habitat in bromeliads growing on newly imported immortelle (Erythrina micropteryx) trees. The epidemic was controlled by spraying dilute copper sulfate solution into these epiphytes, killing them and removing the mosquito breeding grounds. Copper sulfate is used as a molluscicide to treat bilharzia in tropical countries. Cupric sulfate is also used to assist with the treatment of cutaneous phosphorus burns; however, it is not recommended for this purpose due to its toxicity.
In 2008, the artist Roger Hiorns filled an abandoned waterproofed council flat in London with 75,000 liters of copper sulfate solution. The solution was left to crystallize for several weeks before the flat was drained, leaving crystal-covered walls, floors and ceilings. The work is titled Seizure. Since 2011, it has been on exhibition at the Yorkshire Sculpture Park.
Copper sulfate is an irritant. The usual routes by which humans can receive toxic exposure to copper sulfate are through eye or skin contact, as well as by inhaling powders and dusts. Skin contact may result in itching or eczema. Eye contact with copper sulfate can cause conjunctivitis, inflammation of the eyelid lining, ulceration, and clouding of the cornea.
Upon oral exposure, copper sulfate is moderately toxic. According to studies, the lowest dose of copper sulfate that had a toxic impact on humans is 11 mg/kg. Because of its irritating effect on the gastrointestinal tract, vomiting is automatically triggered in case of the ingestion of copper sulfate. However, if copper sulfate is retained in the stomach, the symptoms can be severe. After 1–12 grams of copper sulfate are swallowed, such poisoning signs may occur as a metallic taste in the mouth, burning pain in the chest, nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, headache, discontinued urination, which leads to yellowing of the skin. In cases of copper sulfate poisoning, injury to the brain, stomach, liver, or kidneys may also occur.
Copper sulfate is highly soluble in water and therefore is easy to distribute in the environment. Copper in the soil may be from industry, motor vehicle and architectural materials. According to studies, copper sulfate exists mainly in the surface soil and tends to bind organic matter. The more acidic the soil is, the less binding occurs.
- Haynes, p. 4.62
- Haynes, p. 5.199
- Anthony, John W.; Bideaux, Richard A.; Bladh, Kenneth W.; Nichols, Monte C., eds. (2003). "Chalcocyanite". Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF). V. Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates. Chantilly, VA, US: Mineralogical Society of America. ISBN 0962209740.
- Haynes, p. 10.240
- Kokkoros, P. A.; Rentzeperis, P. J. (1958). "The crystal structure of the anhydrous sulphates of copper and zinc". Acta Crystallographica. 11 (5): 361–364. doi:10.1107/S0365110X58000955.
- Bacon, G. E.; Titterton, D. H. (1975). "Neutron-diffraction studies of CuSO4 · 5H2O and CuSO4 · 5D2O". Z. Kristallogr. 141 (5–6): 330–341. doi:10.1524/zkri.1975.141.5-6.330.
- "NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards #0150". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
- Cupric sulfate. US National Institutes of Health
- "Copper (II) sulfate MSDS". Oxford University. Retrieved 2007-12-31.
- "Uses of Copper Compounds: Copper Sulphate". copper.org. Copper Development Association Inc. Retrieved 10 May 2015.
- Andrew Knox Galwey; Michael E. Brown (1999). Thermal decomposition of ionic solids. Elsevier. pp. 228–229. ISBN 0-444-82437-5.
- Wiberg, Egon; Nils Wiberg; Arnold Frederick Holleman (2001). Inorganic chemistry. Academic Press. p. 1263. ISBN 0-12-352651-5.
- Johnson, George Fiske (1935). "The Early History of Copper Fungicides". Agricultural History. 9 (2): 67–79. JSTOR 3739659.
- Parry, K. E.; Wood, R. K. S. (1958). "The adaption of fungi to fungicides: Adaption to copper and mercury salts". Annals of Applied Biology. 46 (3): 446. doi:10.1111/j.1744-7348.1958.tb02225.x.
- "Uses of Copper Compounds: Copper Sulfate's Role in Agriculture". Copper.org. doi:10.1111/j.1744-7348.1933.tb07770.x. Retrieved 2007-12-31.
- "All About Copper Sulfate". National Fish Pharmaceuticals. Retrieved 2007-12-31.
- Copper Development Association. "Uses of Copper Compounds: Table A - Uses of Copper Sulphate". copper. Copper Development Association Inc. Retrieved 12 May 2015.
- Partin, Lee. "The Blues: Part 2". skylighter. Skylighter.Inc. Retrieved 12 May 2015.
- Estridge, Barbara H.; Anna P. Reynolds; Norma J. Walters (2000). Basic Medical Laboratory Techniques. Thomson Delmar Learning. p. 166. ISBN 0-7668-1206-5.
- Hoffman, R. V. (2001). Copper(II) Sulfate, in Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis. John Wiley & Sons. doi:10.1002/047084289X.rc247.
- Philip J. Kocienski (2005). Protecting Groups. Thieme. p. 58. ISBN 978-1-58890-376-1.
- Jefford, C. W.; Li, Y.; Wang, Y. "A Selective, Heterogeneous Oxidation using a Mixture of Potassium Permanganate and Cupric Sulfate: (3aS,7aR)-Hexahydro-(3S,6R)-Dimethyl-2(3H)-Benzofuranone". Org. Synth.; Coll. Vol., 9, p. 462
- "Process for the preparation of stable copper (II) sulfate monohydrate applicable as trace element additive in animal fodders". Retrieved 2009-07-07.
- Zumdahl, Steven; DeCoste, Donald (2013). Chemical Principles. Cengage Learning. pp. 506–507. ISBN 978-1-285-13370-6.
- Holtzmann, N. A.; Haslam, R. H. (July 1968). "Elevation of serum copper following copper sulfate as an emetic". Pediatrics. 42 (1): 189–93. PMID 4385403.
- Olson, Kent C. (2004). Poisoning & drug overdose. New York: Lange Medical Mooks/McGraw-Hill. p. 175. ISBN 0-8385-8172-2.
- V03AB20 (WHO)
- Despommier; Gwadz; Hotez; Knirsch (June 2005). Parasitic Disease (5 ed.). NY: Apple Tree Production L.L.C. pp. Section 4.2. ISBN 978-0970002778. Retrieved 12 May 2015.
- Barqouni, Loai; Abu Shaaban, Nafiz; Elessi, Khamis; Barqouni, Loai (2014). "Interventions for treating phosphorus burns". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (6): CD008805. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD008805.pub3.
- "Seizure homepage". Artangel.org.uk. Retrieved 2009-09-21.
- "Roger Hiorns: Seizure". Yorkshire Sculpture Park. Retrieved 2015-02-22.
- greenart.info, Bordeau etch, 2009-01-18, retrieved 2011-06-02.
- ndiprintmaking.ca, The Chemistry of using Copper Sulfate Mordant, 2009-04-12, retrieved 2011-06-02.
- http://mordent.com/etch-howto/, How to Electrolytically etch in copper, brass, steel, nickel silver or silver, retrieved 2015-05-2015.
- Windholz, M., ed. 1983. The Merck Index. Tenth edition. Rahway, NJ: Merck and Company.
- Guidance for reregistration of pesticide products containing copper sulfate. Fact sheet no. 100., Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, 1986
- TOXNET. 1975–1986. National library of medicine's toxicology data network. Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB). Public Health Service. National Institute of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Bethesda, MD: NLM.
- Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton, eds. 1981. Patty's industrial hygiene and toxicology. Third edition. Vol. 2, Part 6 Toxicology. NY: John Wiley and Sons. ISBN 0-471-01280-7
- National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). 1981–1986. Registry of toxic effects of chemical substances (RTECS). Cincinnati, OH: NIOSH.
- United State Environment Protection Agency. "Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) for Coppers" (PDF). www.epa.org. United State Environment Protection Agency. Retrieved 12 May 2015.
- Haynes, William M., ed. (2011). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (92nd ed.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. ISBN 1439855110.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Copper(II) sulfate.|
- International Chemical Safety Card 0751
- International Chemical Safety Card 1416
- National Pollutant Inventory – Copper and compounds fact sheet
|Salts and the ester of the sulfate ion|