Copperas Cove, Texas
City of Five Hills
"The City Built for Family Living"
|Counties||Coryell, Lampasas, Bell|
|Founded||March 25, 1879|
|• City Council|
|• City Manager||Ryan Haverlah|
|• Total||18.04 sq mi (46.71 km2)|
|• Land||18.03 sq mi (46.71 km2)|
|• Water||0.00 sq mi (0.00 km2)|
|Elevation||1,093 ft (333 m)|
| • Estimate |
|• Density||1,842.91/sq mi (711.56/km2)|
|Time zone||UTC-6 (Central (CST))|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC-5 (CDT)|
|GNIS feature ID||1354974|
Copperas Cove // is a city located in central Texas at the southern corner of Coryell County with smaller portions in Lampasas and Bell counties. Founded in 1879 as a small ranching and farming community, today the city is the largest in Coryell County, with 32,032 residents as of the 2010 census and an estimated 33,235 residents in 2019. The city's economy is closely linked to nearby Fort Cavazos (formerly known as Fort Hood), making it part of the Killeen-Temple-Fort Hood Metropolitan Statistical Area. Locals usually refer to the town as just "Cove".
The first evidence of human habitation in the Five Hills area dates back to at least 4,000 BCE. Artifacts, such as skeletal remains, arrowheads, and other stone tools, have been found along local creek beds and valley floors. These first residents were nomadic hunters, traveling in small groups following migrating buffalo herds. When the Spanish came to Texas, a small Plains tribe known as the Tonkawa inhabited the area. The powerful Comanche controlled a vast stretch of land to the north and west, making Coryell County a hostile battleground as settlers moved into the area.
In 1825, Mexico provided Stephen F. Austin with a land grant encompassing a large area including present-day Copperas Cove. Starting in the 1830s, the first white settlers came into the Five Hills region; however, the area lacked stability until after the Civil War. Substantial settlement did not arrive until the development of the cattle industry during the 1870s, when a feeder route of the Chisholm Trail was cut through the region. Settlement centered around a local general store about two miles southwest of present-day downtown. In 1878, residents applied for a post office under the name "Cove", so chosen for the site's sheltered location. However "Cove" was already taken by a nearby community (now called Evant). Inspired by the taste of nearby spring water, residents amended the name to "Copperas Cove" (officially in 1901). The post office was established in March 1879, with Marsden Ogletree as the town's first postmaster. The original building remains today and is the site of the Ogletree Gap Heritage Festival.
Copperas Cove's fortunes were greatly improved when, in 1882, the Gulf, Colorado and Santa Fe Railway expanded into the region. Local resident Jesse M. Clements lobbied to obtain train service and provided the railroad company with the necessary right-of-way about two miles northeast of town. Residents soon moved to a new set of streets laid out by the company's engineer, E.F. Batte. The train depot at Copperas Cove served as the shipping point for farmers and ranchers in the area between Cowhouse Creek and the Lampasas River. Businesses opened to provide services for these area residents, including a steam gristmill-cotton gin, three hotels, a barber shop, and an opera house. Many of the town's early buildings remain to this day, focusing around the block of Avenue D between Main Street and 1st Street. By 1900, the population had reached 475, and residents voted to form their own school district. A private bank opened in 1906, and residents elected Jouett Allin their first mayor in 1913. The town continued to prosper over the coming years, depending largely on local agriculture, of which cotton played a dominant role. Copperas Cove reached a then-peak population of 600 in 1929, but entered a state of decline with the onset of the Great Depression. During the 1930s, the local bank failed, several businesses closed, and many people left to look for work in other areas. By 1940, only 356 people remained.
In 1942, Copperas Cove received new life when the US government located Camp Hood next to the struggling community. By the time the cantonment was upgraded to Fort Hood in 1950, the town had over a thousand residents. The population continued to increase rapidly, reaching almost 5,000 in 1960 and more than doubling each of the next two decades, eventually coming to the present count of 32,032 at the 2010 census. During this period, the city limits greatly expanded, encompassing acres of newly built tract housing with upgraded roads and services. The establishment of the fort drastically altered the character of the city. Soldiers from across the country bring their families and settle in Copperas Cove, often remaining after concluding their military service. In addition to diversifying the ethnic and religious composition of the city, Fort Hood altered the local economy. Since much of the area farmland was acquired by the federal government, businesses within Copperas Cove now largely provide services for Fort Hood soldiers and their families. In 2023, Fort Hood was renamed Fort Cavazos.
Geography and climate
Copperas Cove is located in the Limestone Cut Plains of central Texas, within an agglomeration of hills situated between the Lampasas River and Cowhouse Creek valleys, known as the "Five Hills" area. Copperas Cove's climate is humid subtropical with hot summers, cool winters, and rainy springs. The average high in August is 96 °F (36 °C), and the average low in January is 35 °F (2 °C). May is the rainiest month. The city lies within Tornado Alley, and twisters have been known to touch down in the area. Rainfall averages 33 inches (840 mm) per year, making the land suitable for agriculture without irrigation, though the region is prone to drought.
The area's thin layer of topsoil tends to be a light, crumbly caliche—capable of sustaining many agricultural plants, but susceptible to depletion and erosion. Before ranchers and farmers began altering the landscape, the area was once part of a vast grassland. Bison, deer, and pronghorn grazed on tall native grasses. However, because of overgrazing, land clearing, and the suppression of wildfires, these native grasses have been mostly replaced by invasive weeds and tough, woody trees, including Texas live oak, Texas red oak, red juniper (red cedar), and mesquite.
Copperas Cove has a suburban cityscape typical among American small towns developed in the post-World War II era. The majority of commercial activity occurs along the main thoroughfare, US Highway 190. Since most of Copperas Cove has been built after 1950, the extent of the town's walkable, historic downtown is considerably smaller than nearby, less populated communities, such as Lampasas or Gatesville. Most residential neighborhoods are low-density, single-family homes. Because of changing economic conditions in recent decades, intensive farming and ranching has largely left the area, making land fairly cheap to develop. After a brief slowdown of development during the 1980s, new subdivisions resumed expansion into the surrounding countryside.
|Climate data for Copperas Cove, Texas|
|Average high °F (°C)||58
|Average low °F (°C)||36
|Average precipitation inches (mm)||1.7
The major thoroughfare through town is Interstate 14/U.S. Highway 190, connecting Cove to Interstate 35 in Belton, 28 miles (45 km) to the east, and to U.S. Highway 281 in Lampasas, 19 miles (31 km) to the west. FM 116 runs north through town, connecting the city to Gatesville 26 miles (42 km) to the north.
Public transportation is provided within the city by HOP, whose buses can be recognized by their teal and purple color. The region is served by the Killeen–Fort Hood Regional Airport (GRK) located a few miles outside of town.
|U.S. Decennial Census|
|Black or African American (NH)||6,431||17.54%|
|Native American or Alaska Native (NH)||172||0.47%|
|Pacific Islander (NH)||793||2.16%|
|Some Other Race (NH)||258||0.7%|
|Hispanic or Latino||7,284||19.86%|
As of the 2020 United States census, there were 36,670 people, 12,632 households, and 8,911 families residing in the city.
As of the 2000 census, 29,592 people, 10,273 households, and 8,023 families resided in the city. The population density was 2,124.9 inhabitants per square mile (820.4/km2). The 11,120 housing units averaged 798.5 per square mile (308.2/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 65.36% White, 20.43% African American, 0.87% Native American, 2.70% Asian, 0.58% Pacific Islander, 4.98% from other races, and 5.09% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 11.69% of the population.
Of the 10,273 households, 47.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.2% were married couples living together, 12.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 21.9% were not families. About 16.7% of all households were made up of individuals, and 3.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.85 and the average family size was 3.19.
In the city, the population was distributed as 32.0% under the age of 18, 14.2% from 18 to 24, 33.3% from 25 to 44, 15.4% from 45 to 64, and 5.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 27 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.3 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $37,869, and for a family was $40,517. Males had a median income of $26,406 versus $22,270 for females. The per capita income for the city was $15,995. About 8.1% of families and 9.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.8% of those under age 18 and 5.9% of those age 65 or over.
Copperas Cove has a council–manager municipal government. Residents elect a mayor and seven council members to three-year terms, with a two-term limit. The city council appoints a city manager, who handles the administrative functions of the municipal government. The current mayor is Dan Yancey. Elected On November 2, 2021, Inaugurated On November 16, 2021.
According to the city's 2009 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report Fund Financial Statements, the city's various funds had $16.8 million in revenues, $26.7 million in expenditures, $15.8 million in total assets, $2.7 million in total liabilities, and $20.0 million in investments.
The structure of the management and coordination of city services is:
|City Manager||Ryan Haverlah|
|City Attorney||Denton, Navarro, Rocha & Bernal|
|City Secretary||Lisa Wilson|
|City Judge||F.W. "Bill" Price|
|Police Chief||Eddie Wilson|
|Financial Services||Velia Key|
|Fire Chief||Michael Neujahr|
|Public Works||Scott Osburn|
|Human Resources||Roy "Jeff" Davis|
|Public Information Officer||Kevin Keller|
|Information Systems||Scot Mullican|
At the county level, Copperas Cove votes for Coryell County Commissioner seats 1, 2, 3, and 4, which are currently held by Jack Wall, Daren Moore, Don Jones, Wyllis Ament, respectively. The County Judge is John E. Firth. Parts of Copperas Cove fall into Lampasas and Bell counties, and are represented by those county officials.
The city votes overwhelmingly Republican in both state and federal elections. Most of Copperas Cove falls within the 59th District of the Texas House of Representatives, which is currently represented by Republican Sid Miller. Brian Birdwell of the 22nd District holds the State Senate seat that represents Coryell County.
At the federal level, most of Copperas Cove is part of Texas' 31st District, which is currently represented by Republican John Carter. The two U.S. senators from Texas are Republicans John Cornyn and Ted Cruz.
Public school districts
Copperas Cove is served by the Copperas Cove Independent School District, including seven elementary schools, two junior highs, one high school, and an alternative learning center. Among these are:
- Elementary: Clements/Hollie Parsons, Fairview/Miss Jewell, Hettie Halstead, House Creek, J.L. Williams/Lovett Ledger, Mae Stevens, Martin Walker
- Junior High: Copperas Cove JH, S.C Lee Junior High
- High School: Copperas Cove High School
- Alternative Education: Crossroads High School
Public high schools
Copperas Cove High School's athletic teams are known as the Bulldawgs (Lady Bulldawgs for women's teams). The school's mascot is "Sparky". In recent years, Copperas Cove has produced many professional athletes, including T.J. Hollowell (NFL New York Jets and Denver Broncos), Vontez Duff (NFL New York Giants), Charles Tillman (NFL Carolina Panthers), Sherika Wright (WNBA Phoenix Mercury) and 2011 Heisman Trophy winner Robert Griffin III, backup quarterback for the Baltimore Ravens.
According to the city's 2020 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the top employers in the city are:
|#||Employer||# of Employees|
|1||Fort Cavazos – Military||36,739|
|2||Fort Cavazos – Civilian||14,445|
|3||Copperas Cove Independent School District||1,300|
|5||HEB Grocery Store||333|
|7||City of Copperas Cove||294|
|8||Copperas Cove Nursing and Rehabilitation||112|
|9||Hill Country Rehabilitation and Nursing Center||80|
Annual events and festivals
Rabbit Fest is a four-day arts and crafts festival held on the third weekend of May each year. Festivities include a carnival, midway, parade, chili cook-off, and many other activities.
The Ogletree Gap Heritage Festival is held at the city's original town site, the Ogletree Gap Stagecoach and Post Office. It occurs annually on the third weekend of October. Food, arts and crafts, Civil War reenactments, a petting zoo, pony rides, and kids games are available.
The Krist Kindl Markt is held on the first weekend of December in downtown Copperas Cove. It is a German-inspired open air Christmas market sponsored by the Copperas Cove Chamber of Commerce and Visitor's Bureau. It typically hosts live music and performances by local groups. There is also a night-time Christmas parade.
Begun in 2000, the Copperas Cove Classic Road Race is held mid-January each year. The bike race covers 83 miles (134 km) of the city's hilly terrain.
- Robert Griffin III, Heisman Trophy-winner and NFL quarterback
- Shaye Haver, U.S. Army 1st Lieutenant; one of the first two women ever to complete the U.S. Army Ranger School, was born in Copperas Cove
- Suzanna Gratia Hupp, survivor of the Luby's massacre, former Texas HOR for District 54, and pro-gun activist, lived in the city for sometime between 1987 and 2000. She now lives in nearby Kempner, Texas
- Rashard Odomes (born 1996), basketball player in the Israeli Basketball Premier League
- Chester M. Ovnand, was one of the two American soldiers first killed in South Vietnam by the Viet Cong
- Michael Stipe, R.E.M. frontman; lived in Copperas Cove when his family returned to the US from Germany in 1972 He and his two sisters attended Copperas Cove High. In 1995, a Texas newspaper tracked down Stipe's seventh-grade math teacher. "He was a good student," said Mary Shipley. "He did really well in class. I wish I had kept his old papers. Now I ask all of my students for their autographs because you never know, there might be a future Michael Stipe in one of my classes." Shipley died in 2010. Stipe left a message in the guestbook: "Thank you for being a straight talker to your students and for trusting and not judging us; my thoughts are with you and with those you left behind."
- Charles Tillman, retired Chicago Bears and Carolina Panthers cornerback
- "2019 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved August 7, 2020.
- "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". United States Census Bureau. May 24, 2020. Retrieved May 27, 2020.
- "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
- "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. October 25, 2007. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
- "Geographic Identifiers: 2010 Census Summary File 1 (G001): Copperas Cove city, Texas". U.S. Census Bureau, American Factfinder. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved August 5, 2015.
- "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved May 21, 2020.
- McLaughlin, Patrick D. and Jerry K. Smith. Copperas Cove City of Five Hills: A Centennial History. Burnet, TX: Eakin Press, 1980.
- "Monthly Averages for Copperas Cove, TX". The Weather Channel.
- "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
- "Explore Census Data". data.census.gov. Retrieved May 20, 2022.
- http://www.census.gov[not specific enough to verify]
- "About the Hispanic Population and its Origin". www.census.gov. Retrieved May 18, 2022.
- City of Copperas Cove 2009 CAFR Archived April 13, 2014, at the Wayback Machine Retrieved November 9, 2010
- City of Copperas Cove 2010-11 Approved Budget Archived July 22, 2014, at the Wayback Machine Retrieved November 9, 2010
- "2020 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report" (PDF). City of Copperas Cove, Texas. Retrieved April 12, 2021.
- "Copperas Cove Chamber of Commerce - Rabbit Fest!". Archived from the original on May 5, 2009. Retrieved June 3, 2009.
- "ogletreegap.net". Archived from the original on January 6, 2014. Retrieved January 13, 2016.
- "downtowncopperascove.org". Archived from the original on August 20, 2008. Retrieved January 13, 2016.
- "Error". Archived from the original on July 7, 2011. Retrieved June 3, 2009.
- Lamothe, Dan (August 18, 2015). "These are the Army's first female Ranger School graduates". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 21, 2015.
- "Heights winner of 'Cake Wars' latest Central Texans to experience fame" - Killeen Daily Herald, February 3, 2017
- "Mary Carolyn Junek Shipley" - Scanio-Harper Funeral Home, Temple, TX
- "Read the guestbook"