|Place of origin||Italy|
|Region or state||Ferrara|
|Main ingredients||flour, lard, malt, olive oil|
Coppia ferrarese [ˈkɔppja ferraˈreːze], also known as ciopa, ciupeta and pane ferrarese, is a type of sourdough bread made with flour, lard, malt, and olive oil, and has a twisted shape. It was first made around the thirteenth century in Ferrara, Italy. It has PGI status under European Law, which was obtained in 2001.
The first record of special regulations regarding bread making in Ferrara date from a statute in 1287. The first mention of a bread similar to current coppia ferrarese dates from 1536 when, according to Cristoforo da Messisbugo, the Duke of Este was offered a pane ritorto (woven bread) during the Carnival. The tradition of cooking this sort of bread remained throughout history until the unification of Italy. In 2001, the receipe gained PGI status under European Law.
Ingredients: 1 kilogram (2.2 lb) of "0" type soft wheat flour, 350 grams (12 oz) of water, 60 grams (2.1 oz) of pure pork lard, 30 or 40 grams (1.1 or 1.4 oz) of extra virgin olive oil, 100 grams (3.5 oz) of "mother" natural yeast, salt and malt.
Cooking: Mix the ingredients for between fifteen and twenty minutes to make a dough. The dough is stretched into a cylinder which is then cut into strips and wound. The resulting bread is placed on a wooden board, covered with a sheet and placed in a leavening room for between seventy and ninety minutes. The bread is cooked in fixed bowl ovens. When finished, it weighs between 80 and 250 grams (2.8 and 8.8 oz).
To meet the regulations, the bread much meet certain conditions, such as a maximum humidity of between 12 and 15% and be sold within twenty four hours.
Coppia ferrarese is a staple of the culture of the city of Ferrara, and has been named as one of the two most critical part of the cuisine (alongside a specialist salami). In 2008, Folco Quilici recounts how his family would quickly bring any conversation with strangers around to the bread. It is named the best bread in the world by Riccardo Bacchelli in Il mulino del Po while Corrado Govoni talks of "Il nostro Pane: orgoglio di noi ferraresi. Dono dell'aria, dell'acqua, dell'uomo. Offerta generosa di Ferrara al mondo” ("Our Bread: pride of us from Ferrara. Gift of air, water, of man. Generous gift of Ferrara to the world").
- "La coppia ferrarese - storia". Panificio Fabbri (in Italian). 25 February 2005. Archived from the original on 25 February 2005. Retrieved 22 February 2020.
- Tamisari, Alfredo (26 February 2019). La trama delle parole: abbecedario affettivo. p. 225. ISBN 9788831603478. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
- Zhou, Weibiao; Hui, Y. H. (2014). Bakery Products Science and Technology. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. p. 701. ISBN 9781118791936. Retrieved 16 October 2014.
- "Disciplinare di produzione della Indicazione Geografica Protetta "Coppia ferrarese"". coldiretti.it (in Italian). Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
- Ghetti, Luca; Pizzirani, Andrea; Poli, Andrea (2012). La città del però. Vizi e virtù di Ferrara e dei ferraresi (in Italian). Ferrara: Festina lente edizioni. p. 70.
- Quilici, Folco (16 November 2008). "L'avventura migliore? Il pane ferrarese". il Giornale. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
- Bacchelli, Riccardo (2015). Il mulino del Po (in Italian). Milan: Mondadori. p. 3.