Corallorhiza trifida

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Corallorhiza trifida
Corallorrhiza trifida 05 mg-k.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Monocots
Order: Asparagales
Family: Orchidaceae
Subfamily: Epidendroideae
Genus: Corallorhiza
Species: C. trifida
Binomial name
Corallorhiza trifida
  • Corallorhiza anandae Malhotra & Balodi
  • Corallorhiza corallorhiza (L.) H.Karst.
  • Corallorhiza dentata Host
  • Corallorhiza ericetorum Drejer
  • Corallorhiza halleri Rich.
  • Corallorhiza innata R.Br.
  • Corallorhiza innata subsp. ericetorum (Drejer) Nyman
  • Corallorhiza innata var. virescens (Drejer) Farr
  • Corallorhiza integra Châtel.
  • Corallorhiza jacquemontii Decne.
  • Corallorhiza nemoralis Sw. ex Nyman
  • Corallorhiza neottia Scop.
  • Corallorhiza occidentalis Bach.Pyl.
  • Corallorhiza verna Nutt.
  • Corallorhiza virescens Drejer
  • Corallorhiza wyomingensis Hellm. & K.Hellm.
  • Cymbidium corallorhiza (L.) Sw.
  • Epidendrum corallorhizon (L.) Poir.
  • Epipactis corallorhiza (L.) Crantz
  • Helleborine corallorhiza (L.) F.W.Schmidt
  • Neottia corallorhiza (L.) Kuntze
  • Ophrys corallorhiza L.

Corallorhiza trifida, commonly known as early coralroot, northern coralroot, or yellow coralroot, is a coralroot orchid native to North America and Eurasia, with a circumboreal distribution. The species has been reported from the United States, Canada, Russia, China, Japan, Korea, India, Nepal, Kashmir, Greenland, Pakistan, and almost every country in Europe.[2][3][3][4][5][6][7][8][9]


Corallorhiza trifida is yellowish green in color, leafless, and partially myco-heterotrophic, deriving some, but not all of its nutrients from association with fungi of genus Tomentella.[10] It also contains chlorophyll, with which it supplies some of its own carbon nutrition via autotrophy.[10]

Closeup of a flower


  1. ^ The Plant List
  2. ^ Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
  3. ^ a b Gleason, H. A. & A.J. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of the Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada (ed. 2) i–910. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx.
  4. ^ Flora of North America v 26 p 636
  5. ^ Flora of China v 25 p 253 珊瑚兰 shan hu lan
  6. ^ Böcher, T. W. 1978. Greenlands Flora 326 pp.
  7. ^ Porsild, A. E. & W. Cody. 1980. Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Northwest Territories Canada i–viii, 1–607. National Museum of Natural Sciences, Ottawa.
  8. ^ Tolmatchev, A. I. 1963. Arkticheskaia Flora SSSR 4: 1–96.
  9. ^ Flora Italiana, Corallorhiza trifida Chatel.
  10. ^ a b Zimmer, K., et al. (2008). The ectomycorrhizal specialist orchid Corallorhiza trifida is a partial myco-heterotroph. New Phytologist 178:2 395-400.

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