Corfu (city)

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Corfu
Κέρκυρα
Corfu, as seen from the New Fortress
Corfu, as seen from the New Fortress
Corfu is located in Greece
Corfu
Corfu
Location within the regional unit
DE Kerkyreon.svg
Coordinates: 39°37′N 19°55′E / 39.617°N 19.917°E / 39.617; 19.917Coordinates: 39°37′N 19°55′E / 39.617°N 19.917°E / 39.617; 19.917
CountryGreece
Administrative regionIonian Islands
Regional unitCorfu
MunicipalityCorfu
 • Municipal unit41.905 km2 (16.180 sq mi)
Population (2011)[1]
 • Municipal unit39,674
 • Municipal unit density950/km2 (2,500/sq mi)
Community[1]
 • Population32,095 (2011)
Time zoneUTC+2 (EET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+3 (EEST)
Postal code49100
Area code(s)26610
Vehicle registrationΚΥ
Websitewww.corfu.gr
UNESCO World Heritage site
Official nameOld Town of Corfu
CriteriaCultural: (iv)
Reference978
Inscription2007 (31st Session)
Area70 ha (170 acres)
Buffer zone162 ha (400 acres)

Corfu or Kerkyra (/kɔːrˈf, -fj/; Greek: Κέρκυρα, Kérkyra [ˈcercira]; Ancient Greek: Κόρκυρα, translit. Kórkyra; Latin: Corcyra; Italian: Corfù; Albanian: Korfuzi) is a city and a former municipality on the island of Corfu, Ionian Islands, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform, it is part of the municipality of Corfu island.[2] It is the capital of the island and of the Corfu regional unit. The city also serves as a capital for the region of the Ionian Islands. The city (population 24,838 in 2011) is a major tourist attraction, and has played an important role since antiquity. The ancient city of Corfu, known as Korkyra, took part in the Battle of Sybota which was a catalyst for the Peloponnesian War, and, according to Thucydides, the largest naval battle between Greek city states until that time. Thucydides also reports that Korkyra was one of the three great naval powers of fifth century BC Greece, along with Athens and Corinth.[3] Medieval castles punctuating strategic locations across the city are a legacy of struggles in the Middle Ages against invasions by pirates and the Ottomans. The city has become known since the Middle Ages as Kastropolis (Castle City) because of its two castles.[4] In 2007, the old town of the city was inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List.[5][6][7] The municipal unit of Corfu city has a land area of 41.905 km2 (16.180 sq mi)[8] and a total population of 39,674 inhabitants. Besides the city of Corfu/Kérkyra, its largest other towns are Kanáli (population 4,086), Potamós (3,840), Kontokáli (1,660), Alepoú (3,149), and Gouviá (838).

Architecture[edit]

Map of the "Old Fortress" of Corfu, 1573.
Typical houses of Corfu city.

The old fortifications of the town, formerly so extensive as to require a force of from 10,000 to 20,000 troops to man them, were in great part thrown down by the British in the 19th century.[citation needed] In several parts of the town may be found houses of the Venetian time, with some traces of past splendour. The Palace of St. Michael and St. George, built in 1815 by Sir Thomas Maitland (1759–1824; Lord High Commissioner of the Ionian Islands) is a large structure of white Maltese stone. Near Gasturi stands the Pompeian style Achilleion, the palace built for the Empress Elizabeth of Austria, and purchased in 1907 by the German emperor, William II.

Of the thirty-seven Greek churches the most important are the cathedral, dedicated to Our Lady of the Cave; St. Spiridon's, with the tomb of the patron saint of the island; and the suburban church of St Jason and St Sosipater, reputedly the oldest in the island.[citation needed] The city is the seat of a Greek and a Roman Catholic archbishop; and it possesses a gymnasium, a theatre, an agricultural and industrial society, and a library and museum preserved in the buildings formerly devoted to the university, which was founded by Frederick North, 5th Earl of Guilford (1766–1827, himself the first chancellor in 1824) in 1823, but disestablished on the cessation of the British protectorate.

Based on the ICOMOS evaluation of the old town of Corfu,[6] it was inscribed on the World Heritage List. The ICOMOS experts have noted that "about 70% of the pre-20th century buildings date from the British period" and that "whole blocks were destroyed" in the Old Town by the German World War II blitzes; these were "replaced by new constructions in the 1960s and 1970s". The urban fabric was classified as being predominantly of the Neoclassical period "without special architectural features for which it could be distinguished".[6]

Layout[edit]

Platia Dimarchiu.jpg
View of the old town

The town of Corfu stands on the broad part of a peninsula, whose termination in the Venetian citadel (Greek: Παλαιό Φρούριο) is cut off from it by an artificial fosse formed in a natural gully, with a salt-water ditch at the bottom, that serves also as a kind of marina known as Contra-Fossa. The old city having grown up within fortifications, where every metre of ground was precious, is a labyrinth of narrow streets paved with cobblestones, sometimes tortuous but mostly pleasant, colourful and sparkling clean.[citation needed] These streets are called "kantounia" (καντούνια) and the older ones sometimes follow the gentle irregularities of the ground while many of them are too narrow for vehicular traffic. There is promenade by the seashore towards the bay of Garitsa (Γαρίτσα), and also an esplanade between the town and the citadel called Liston [it] (Λιστόν) where upscale restaurants and European style bistros abound. The origin of the name Liston has several explanations: many former Venetian cities have a square of that name, coming from a Venetian word meaning evening promenade, but it can also refer to the closed-list aspect of an up-scale area reserved to the nobility registered in the Libro d'Oro.

The citadel was depicted on the reverse of the Greek 500 drachmas banknote of 1983-2001.[9]

Panoramic view of the old town

Culture[edit]

The city of Corfu has a long tradition in the fine arts. The Philharmonic Society of Corfu is part of that tradition. The Museum of the Philharmonic Society of Corfu presents in detail the musical heritage of the island.

Sports[edit]

Corfu is the only place in Greece where cricket is popular. It was imported into the island during British rule. The Hellenic Cricket Federation is based in Corfu and it is the only Greek sport federation that is based outside Athens.[10] The most Greek cricket clubs are based in Corfu and they star in the Greek Championship. Notable cricket clubs of Corfu are Kerkyraikos Gymnastikos Syllogos (KGS), founded in 1893, GSK Vyron, founded in 1925 and AO Phaeax founded in 1976.

In other sports, Corfu has two teams with presence in higher divisions. The football club AOK Kerkyra, founded in 1969 originally as "AO Kerkyra", that plays in A Ethniki and the water polo club NO Kerkyra founded in 1935, with earlier presence in A1 Ethniki Polo.

Sport clubs based in Ampelokipoi
Club Founded Sports Achievements
Kerkyraikos G.S. 1893 Basketball, Cricket, Track and Field Panhellenic titles in Cricket, earlier presence in Beta Ethniki Basketball
GSK Byron 1925 Cricket Panhellenic titles in Cricket,
NO Kerkyra 1935 Water Polo , Swimming Earlier presence in A1 Ethniki Water Polo
AOK Kerkyra (originally as AO Kerkyra) 1969 Football Presence in A Ethniki
AO Phaeax 1976 Basketball, Cricket Panhellenic titles in Cricket

Climate[edit]

Corfu city has a Mediterranean climate. The summers are hot, rainless but humid with temperatures reaching 33 °C (91 °F). The winters are mild and wet, temperatures around on or above 10 °C (50 °F).

Climate data for Corfu
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 20.5
(68.9)
22.4
(72.3)
26.0
(78.8)
28.0
(82.4)
33.8
(92.8)
35.6
(96.1)
42.4
(108.3)
40.0
(104)
37.4
(99.3)
31.0
(87.8)
25.0
(77)
22.0
(71.6)
42.4
(108.3)
Average high °C (°F) 13.9
(57)
14.2
(57.6)
16.0
(60.8)
19.0
(66.2)
23.8
(74.8)
28.0
(82.4)
30.9
(87.6)
31.3
(88.3)
27.6
(81.7)
23.2
(73.8)
18.7
(65.7)
15.3
(59.5)
21.8
(71.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) 9.7
(49.5)
10.3
(50.5)
12.0
(53.6)
14.9
(58.8)
19.6
(67.3)
23.9
(75)
26.4
(79.5)
26.3
(79.3)
22.7
(72.9)
18.4
(65.1)
14.3
(57.7)
11.1
(52)
17.5
(63.5)
Average low °C (°F) 5.1
(41.2)
5.7
(42.3)
6.8
(44.2)
9.2
(48.6)
12.9
(55.2)
16.4
(61.5)
18.4
(65.1)
18.8
(65.8)
16.5
(61.7)
13.4
(56.1)
9.9
(49.8)
6.8
(44.2)
11.7
(53.1)
Record low °C (°F) −4.5
(23.9)
−4.2
(24.4)
−4.4
(24.1)
0.0
(32)
4.6
(40.3)
8.7
(47.7)
10.0
(50)
11.3
(52.3)
7.2
(45)
2.8
(37)
−2.2
(28)
−2.0
(28.4)
−4.5
(23.9)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 136.6
(5.378)
124.6
(4.906)
98.1
(3.862)
66.7
(2.626)
37.0
(1.457)
14.1
(0.555)
9.2
(0.362)
19.0
(0.748)
81.3
(3.201)
137.7
(5.421)
187.4
(7.378)
185.6
(7.307)
1,097.3
(43.201)
Average rainy days 16.1 14.6 14.5 12.9 8.0 4.9 2.3 3.4 7.0 11.8 15.7 17.5 128.7
Average relative humidity (%) 75.4 74.3 73.4 72.8 69.5 63.4 60.0 62.2 70.4 74.6 77.5 77.2 70.7
Mean monthly sunshine hours 117.7 116.8 116.0 206.5 276.8 324.2 364.5 332.8 257.1 188.9 133.5 110.9 2,545.7
Source #1: Hellenic National Meteorological Service[11]
Source #2: NOAA (extremes and sun 1961−1990)[12]

Government[edit]

Statue of Ioannis Kapodistrias with the Ionian Academy in the background.
View of the Palace of St. Michael and St. George with the statue of Sir Frederick Adam.

Mayors[edit]

Up until 1866, Corfu had no mayors. This list starts from 1866 and on.[13]

  • Nikolaos V. Manesis (1866–1870)
  • Christodoulos M. Kiriakis (1870–1879)
  • Georgios Theotokis (1879–1885)
  • Ioannis Padovas (1885-1887)[14]
  • Michael Theotokis [el] (1887–1895)
  • Angelos Psoroulas [el] (1895–1899)
  • Dimitrios Kollas (1899–1911)
  • Ioannis Mavrogiannis (1914–1925)
  • Spiridon Kollas (1925–1951)
  • Stamatios Desyllas (1951–1955)[15]
  • Maria Desylla-Kapodistria (1956–1959), first female mayor in Greece.[15]
  • Panagiotis Zafiropoulos (1959–1964)
  • Spyros Rath (1964–1967)
  • Konstantinos Alexopoulos (1974–1975)
  • Spyros Rath (1975–1978)
  • Ioannis Kourkoulos (1979–1990)
  • Chrisanthos Sarlis (1991–2002)
  • Alexandros Mastoras (2003–2006)
  • Sotirios Micallef (2007–2010)
  • Ioannis Trepeklis (2011–2014)
  • Kostas Nikolouzos (2014–)[16]

Twin cities[edit]

Corfu is twinned with:[17][18]

Quarters[edit]

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  •  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Corfu". Encyclopædia Britannica. 7 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 145–146.
  1. ^ a b "Απογραφή Πληθυσμού - Κατοικιών 2011. ΜΟΝΙΜΟΣ Πληθυσμός" (in Greek). Hellenic Statistical Authority.
  2. ^ Kallikratis law Greece Ministry of Interior (in Greek)
  3. ^ Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian War 1.36.3
  4. ^ "Home Page". Municipality of Corfu. Retrieved 2010-03-23.
  5. ^ BBC news on UNESCO World Heritage list
  6. ^ a b c UNESCO Advisory Body (ICOMOS) report on Corfu History retrieved 3 July 2007
  7. ^ Old Town of Corfu on UNESCO website retrieved 3 July 2007
  8. ^ "Population & housing census 2001 (incl. area and average elevation)" (PDF) (in Greek). National Statistical Service of Greece. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-09-21.
  9. ^ Bank of Greece Archived March 28, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.. Drachma Banknotes & Coins: 500 drachmas Archived 2007-10-05 at the Wayback Machine.. – Retrieved on 27 March 2009.
  10. ^ "History". cricket.gr. Retrieved 17 April 2015.
  11. ^ "Mean Corfu Climatic Averages". Hellenic National Meteorological Service. Retrieved 1 March 2015.
  12. ^ "Kekira Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 1 March 2015.
  13. ^ "History of City Councils from the Municipality of Corfu". Municipality of Corfu. 2005-09-20. Archived from the original on April 9, 2005. Retrieved 2007-03-30.
  14. ^ "Municipal council of Corfu, 5th period (1883-1887)". Retrieved 17 September 2014.
  15. ^ a b Municipality of Corfu from the Internet archive Quote:In the elections of 1954 Stamatios Desillas was elected Mayor for a second term and remained in office until his death, Christmas Day 1955. Soon after a bye-election took place in Corfu in which the widow of the deceased Maria Desilla - Kapodistria, was elected Mayor with 5,365 votes in a total of 10,207. Maria Desilla became Mayor of Corfu on 15 April 1956 until 9 May 1959. She was the first female Mayor in Greece.
  16. ^ "Mayor of Corfu". corfu.gr.
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "AllCorfu.Com: Corfu's Twin Cities". allcorfu.com. Retrieved 25 February 2010.
  18. ^ "Twinned Cities". Municipality of Corfu. www.corfu.gr. 2005-09-20. Archived from the original on April 9, 2005. Retrieved 2007-03-30.
  19. ^ "Bratimljenje Beograda i Krfa". B92. Retrieved 2010-02-25.
  20. ^ "Bethlehem welcomes Corfu, fourth sister city". The Morning Call. March 22, 2013.

External links[edit]