Corinne was best friends with Edith Kermit Carow (1861—1848), her brother T.R.'s second wife and later the First Lady of the United States. Theodore Sr. was a supporter of the North during the Civil War, while her mother Mittie supported the South. Mittie's home state was Georgia and she had moved to New York only due to her marriage to Theodore. Mittie's brothers were members of the Confederate Navy. However, the conflict between Corinne's parents' political loyalties did not prevent her from experiencing a privileged childhood, including the best schools and regular travel, or the formal debut into society expected of the daughters of prominent families.
Robinson began writing at an early age, through the encouragement of her friends, in particular Edith Wharton who helped critique her poetry. In 1911, Robinson published her first poem, "The Call of Brotherhood", in Scribner's Magazine. Her first book of poems of the same title was published in 1912. This volume was quickly followed by One Woman to Another and Other Poems (1914) dedicated to her daughter, also named Corinne, commemorating the loss of Robinson's brother Elliott and son, Stewart. Other volumes of poetry by Robinson include Service and Sacrifice (1919) dedicated to her brother Theodore Roosevelt, The Poems of Corinne Roosevelt Robinson (1924), and Out of Nymph (1930) dedicated to Charles Scribner. She also wrote the prose memoir My Brother Theodore Roosevelt (1924). In 1920, Robinson became the first woman ever called upon to second the nomination of a national party convention candidate; speaking before a crowd of 14,000, she endorsed General Leonard Wood as the 1920 Republican candidate for President.
On April 29, 1882, Corinne Roosevelt married Douglas Robinson, Jr. (January 3, 1855 — September 12, 1918), son of Douglas Robinson, Sr. (March 24, 1824 — November 30, 1893) and Frances Monroe (April 14, 1824 — August 22, 1906). Frances was a grandniece of President James Monroe (1758—1831). Their marriage produced four children: