Mediterranean rainbow wrasse

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Mediterranean rainbow wrasse
Coris julis 24-05-07 male.jpg
Secondary-phase male near Livorno, Italy (Mediterranean population)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Perciformes
Family: Labridae
Genus: Coris
Species: C. julis
Binomial name
Coris julis
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Synonyms

Several, see text

The Mediterranean rainbow wrasse (Coris julis) is a small, colourful fish in the family Labridae. It can be found in the Mediterranean Sea and in the northeast Atlantic Ocean from Sweden to Senegal (though it is a rare wanderer to the southern British Isles).[2][3] Records of this species south from Senegal and the Cape Verde Islands are actually the closely related Coris atlantica.[3]

It feeds on amphipods, isopods, sea urchins, polychaete, shrimps, and small gastropods.[3]

Description[edit]

A secondary-phase male with two smaller initial-phase individuals in the background in Croatia (Mediterranean population)

Like many wrasses, C. julis is a sequential hermaphrodite: All start in the smaller initial phase. These initial-phase individuals (both females and males) can turn into the larger secondary-phase males.[4] At a length of about 18 cm (7.1 in), all individuals are secondary-phase males.[3] The maximum length for the species is 25 cm (9.8 in). There is a marked difference in the appearance of the two phases. In the Mediterranean Sea, the secondary-phase male is green, blue, or brown, with white belly, a dark blue spot over the ventral fin, and a bright orange band on the side, while the smaller primary-phase females and males are brown with yellowish sides and white bellies.[5] Populations in the Atlantic differ in colour and genetics from the Mediterranean population, but are maintained in a single species at present.[1][4] If found to be separate, the scientific name Coris festiva (at present considered a synonym of C. julis) is available for the Atlantic population.

Habitat[edit]

It is typically found near the shore in places with seagrass or rocks. It is usually found at depths of 0–60 m (0–197 ft), but occurs as deep as 120 m (390 ft).[3]

Synonyms[edit]

The following specific names are considered junior synonyms of C. julis:[3]

  • Labrus julis Linnaeus, 1758
  • Julis julis (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Labrus paroticus Linnaeus, 1758
  • Labrus perdica Forsskål, 1775
  • Labrus infuscus Walbaum, 1792
  • Labrus subfuscus Bloch & J. G. Schneider, 1801
  • Labrus keslik Lacépède, 1801
  • Labrus cettii Rafinesque, 1810
  • Labrus giofredi A. Risso, 1810
  • Julis mediterranea A. Risso, 1827
  • Julis speciosa A. Risso, 1827
  • Coris speciosa (A. Risso, 1827)
  • Julis vulgaris J. Fleming, 1828
  • Julis melanura R. T. Lowe, 1839
  • Julis festiva Valenciennes, 1839
  • Coris festiva (Valenciennes, 1839)
  • Julis vulgaris Valenciennes, 1839
  • Coris taeniatus Steindachner, 1863
  • Julis azorensis Fowler, 1919

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Pollard, D. & Afonso, P. 2010. Coris julis. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. <www.iucnredlist.org Archived June 27, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.>. Downloaded on 06 November 2013.
  2. ^ Dr Amanda Young. "Wrasse (British Seas)". British Marine Life Study Society. Retrieved 2 February 2017. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Coris julis" in FishBase. July 2013 version.
  4. ^ a b Aurelle, D., Guillemaud, T., Afonso, P., Morato, T., Wirtz, P., Santos, R.S.S., and Cancela, M.L. (2003). Genetic study of Coris julis (Osteichthyes, Perciformes, Labridae) evolutionary history and dispersal abilities. Comptes Rendus Biologies 326(8): 771-785.
  5. ^ Egidio Patrick Louisy Trainito, ed. (2006). Guida all'identificazione dei pesci marini d'Europa e del Mediterraneo. Milan: Il Castello. ISBN 88-8039-472-X.