# Cork encoding

The Cork (also known as T1 or EC) encoding is a character encoding used for encoding glyphs in fonts.[1] It is named after the city of Cork in Ireland, where during a TeX Users Group (TUG) conference in 1990 a new encoding was introduced for LaTeX.[1] It contains 256 characters supporting most west and east-European languages with the Latin alphabet.[2]

## Details

In 8-bit TeX engines the font encoding has to match the encoding of hyphenation patterns where this encoding is most commonly used.[3] In LaTeX one can switch to this encoding with `\usepackage[T1]{fontenc}`, while in ConTeXt MkII this is the default encoding already. In modern engines such as XeTeX and LuaTeX Unicode is fully supported and the 8-bit font encodings are obsolete.

## Character set

 Cork encoding 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F 0x `0060 ´00B4 ˆ02C6 ˜02DC ¨00A8 ˝02DD ˚02DA ˇ02C7 ˘02D8 ¯00AF ˙02D9 ¸00B8 ˛02DB ‚201A ‹2039 ›203A 1x “201C ”201D „201E «00AB »00BB –2013 —2014 ZWSP ₀[a]2080 ı[b]0131 ȷ[b]0237 ﬀFB00 ﬁFB01 ﬂFB02 ﬃFB03 ﬄFB04 2x ! " # \$ % & ’2019 ( ) * + , - . / 3x 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ; < = > ? 4x @ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O 5x P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [ \ ] ^ _ 6x ‘2018 a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o 7x p q r s t u v w x y z { | } ~ SHY[c] 8x Ă0102 Ą0104 Ć0106 Č010C Ď010E Ě011A Ę0118 Ğ011E Ĺ0139 Ľ013D Ł0141 Ń0143 Ň0147 Ŋ014A Ő0150 Ŕ0154 9x Ř0158 Ś015A Š0160 Ș0218 Ť0164 Ț021A Ű0170 Ů016E Ÿ0178 Ź0179 Ž017D Ż017B Ĳ0132 İ0130 đ0111 §00A7 Ax ă0103 ą0105 ć0107 č010D ď010F ě011B ę0119 ğ011F ĺ013A ľ013E ł0142 ń0144 ň0148 ŋ014B ő0151 ŕ0155 Bx ř0159 ś015B š0161 ș0219 ť0165 ț021B ű0171 ů016F ÿ00FF ź017A ž017E ż017C ĳ0133 ¡00A1 ¿00BF £00A3 Cx À Á Â Ã Ä Å Æ Ç È É Ê Ë Ì Í Î Ï Dx Ð[d] Ñ Ò Ó Ô Õ Ö Œ0152 Ø Ù Ú Û Ü Ý Þ SS[e]1E9E Ex à á â ã ä å æ ç è é ê ë ì í î ï Fx ð ñ ò ó ô õ ö œ0153 ø ù ú û ü ý þ ß00DF

## Notes

• Hexadecimal values under the characters in the table are the Unicode character codes.
• The first 12 characters are often used as combining characters.
1. ^ 0x18 is just a "trailing zero", used to compose or (or arbitrary smaller quantities) out of percent sign (%).
2. ^ a b Dotless i and dotless j may be used to compose accented variants like i with macron (ī).
3. ^ 0x7F is the hyphenation character (not really a soft hyphen).
4. ^ 0xD0 is used both as Eth (Ð, U+00D0) and as D with stroke (Đ, U+0110) which might be a problem at some occasions (like copying text from PDF, hyphenation, ...)
5. ^ 0xDF contains SS (two letters S). It allows TeX to automatically convert the German lowercase ß into the uppercase form.

## Supported languages

The encoding supports most European languages written in Latin alphabet. Notable exceptions are:

Languages with slightly suboptimal support include:

## References

1. ^ a b Petrlik, Lukas (1996-06-19). "The Czech and Slovak Character Encoding Mess Explained". cs-encodings-faq. 1.10. Archived from the original on 2016-06-21. Retrieved 2016-06-21.
2. ^ Ferguson, Michael (1990), "Report on Multilingual Activities" (PDF), TUGboat, 11 (4): 514–516
3. ^