# Cork encoding

The Cork (also known as T1 or EC) encoding is a character encoding used for encoding glyphs in fonts.[1] It is named after the city of Cork in Ireland, where during a TeX Users Group (TUG) conference in 1990 a new encoding was introduced for LaTeX.[1] It contains 256 characters supporting most west and east-European languages with the Latin alphabet.[2]

## Details

In 8-bit TeX engines the font encoding has to match the encoding of hyphenation patterns where this encoding is most commonly used.[3] In LaTeX one can switch to this encoding with `\usepackage[T1]{fontenc}`, while in ConTeXt MkII this is the default encoding already. In modern engines such as XeTeX and LuaTeX Unicode is fully supported and the 8-bit font encodings are obsolete.

## Character set

 Cork encoding 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F 0x ` ´ ˆ ˜ ¨ ˝ ˚ ˇ ˘ ¯ ˙ ¸ ˛ ‚ ‹ › 1x “ ” „ « » – — ZWSP ₀[a] ı[b] ȷ[b] ﬀ ﬁ ﬂ ﬃ ﬄ 2x ! " # \$ % & ’ ( ) * + , - . / 3x 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ; < = > ? 4x @ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O 5x P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [ \ ] ^ _ 6x ‘ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o 7x p q r s t u v w x y z { | } ~ SHY[c] 8x Ă Ą Ć Č Ď Ě Ę Ğ Ĺ Ľ Ł Ń Ň Ŋ Ő Ŕ 9x Ř Ś Š Ș Ť Ț Ű Ů Ÿ Ź Ž Ż Ĳ İ đ § Ax ă ą ć č ď ě ę ğ ĺ ľ ł ń ň ŋ ő ŕ Bx ř ś š ș ť ț ű ů ÿ ź ž ż ĳ ¡ ¿ £ Cx À Á Â Ã Ä Å Æ Ç È É Ê Ë Ì Í Î Ï Dx Ð[d] Ñ Ò Ó Ô Õ Ö Œ Ø Ù Ú Û Ü Ý Þ SS[e] Ex à á â ã ä å æ ç è é ê ë ì í î ï Fx ð ñ ò ó ô õ ö œ ø ù ú û ü ý þ ß

## Notes

• Hexadecimal values under the characters in the table are the Unicode character codes.
• The first 12 characters are often used as combining characters.
1. ^ 0x18 is just a "trailing zero", used to compose or (or arbitrary smaller quantities) out of percent sign (%).
2. ^ a b Dotless i and dotless j may be used to compose accented variants like i with macron (ī).
3. ^ 0x7F is the hyphenation character (not really a soft hyphen).
4. ^ 0xD0 is used both as Eth (Ð, U+00D0) and as D with stroke (Đ, U+0110) which might be a problem at some occasions (like copying text from PDF, hyphenation, ...)
5. ^ 0xDF contains SS (two letters S). It allows TeX to automatically convert the German lowercase ß into the uppercase form.

## Supported languages

The encoding supports most European languages written in Latin alphabet. Notable exceptions are:

Languages with slightly suboptimal support include:

## References

1. ^ a b Petrlik, Lukas (1996-06-19). "The Czech and Slovak Character Encoding Mess Explained". cs-encodings-faq. 1.10. Archived from the original on 2016-06-21. Retrieved 2016-06-21.
2. ^ Ferguson, Michael (1990), "Report on Multilingual Activities" (PDF), TUGboat, 11 (4): 514–516
3. ^