A corkscrew is a tool for drawing corks from wine bottles and other household bottles that may be sealed with corks. In its traditional form, a corkscrew simply consists of a pointed metallic helix (often called the "worm") attached to a handle, which the user screws into the cork and pulls to extract it. Corkscrews are necessary because corks themselves, being small and smooth, are difficult to grip and remove, particularly when inserted fully into an inflexible glass bottle. More recent styles of corkscrew incorporate various systems of levers that further increase the amount of force that can be applied outwards upon the cork, making easier the extraction of difficult corks.
The corkscrew is possibly an English invention, due to the tradition of beer and cider, and Treatise on Cider by John Worlidge in 1676 describes "binning of tightly corked cider bottles on their sides", although the earliest reference to a corkscrew is, "steel worm used for the drawing of Corks out of Bottles" from 1681.
In 1795, the first corkscrew patent was granted to the Reverend Samuell Henshall, in England. The clergyman affixed a simple disk, now known as the Henshall Button, between the worm and the shank. The disk prevents the worm from going too deep into the cork, forces the cork to turn with the turning of the crosspiece, and thus breaks the adhesion between the cork and the neck of the bottle. The disk is designed and manufactured slightly concave on the underside, which compresses the top of the cork and helps keep it from breaking apart.
In its traditional form, a corkscrew is simply a steel screw attached to a perpendicular handle, made of wood or some other material. The user grips the handle and screws the metal point into the cork, until the helix is firmly embedded, then a vertical pull on the corkscrew extracts the cork from the bottle. The handle of the corkscrew allows for a commanding grip to ease removal of the cork.
In 1880, William Burton Baker was issued British Patent No. 2950 for his double lever corkscrew, with both levers articulated onto the upper end of the shank. The first American patent was in 1930 granted to the Italian Domenick Rosati who emigrated to Chicago, Illinois, to work as bartender before the prohibition. Such design was adapted by other brands as the wine-market grew in popularity.
The winged owl version, with a rack and pinion mechanism, was first designed and manufactured in 1932 by the Spanish industrial designer David Olañeta for his brand BOJ (and later adapted by other brands).
The wing corkscrew, sometimes called cork-extactor, a butterfly corkscrew, owl corkscrew or angel corkscrew, has two levers, one on either side of the worm. As the worm is twisted into the cork, the levers are raised. Pushing down the levers draws the cork from the bottle in one smooth motion. The most common design has a rack and pinion connecting the levers to the body. The head of the central shaft is frequently modified to form a bottle opener, increasing the utility of the device. Corkscrews of this design are particularly popular in household use.
A sommelier knife, waiter's friend or wine key is a corkscrew in a folding body similar to a pocket knife. It was conceived by the German Karl Wienke in 1882 and patented in Germany, England, and America.
An arm extends to brace against the lip of the bottle for leverage when removing the cork. Some sommelier knives have two steps on the lever, and often also a bottle opener. A small hinged knife blade is housed in the handle end to be used in cutting the foil wrapping the neck of many wine bottles. A corkscrew of this type can be used more quickly (and with more "show" or panache) than a wing-type corkscrew.
The term "wine key" came into existence due to the German inventor's last name, Wienke, which is difficult for English speakers to pronounce. When ordering the product from catalogs, the meaning and origins of the new Wienke Corkscrew gradually became lost and it was simply referred to as a "Winekey" or wine key. Patent number 283,731, August 21, 1883, simply refers to it as "C.F.A. WIENKE LEVER CORKSCREW."
Twin-prong cork puller
Also known as butler's friend or "Ah-So" (from the German ach so!, meaning now I understand!), the twin-prong cork puller can extract a stopper without damaging it, to allow for sampling the wine before re-inserting the stopper. The stopper is removed by pushing the prongs between the cork and the neck of the bottle, and twisting the stopper out of the bottle. Replacing the stopper involves taking it between the two prongs, then twisting it into the bottle and pulling out the prongs. It can also extract a stopper in bad condition.
The lever or "rabbit" corkscrew is operated using a pair of handles which are used to grip the neck of the bottle, and a lever which is simply pressed down to twist the screw into the cork, then lifted to extract the cork. Expelling the cork from the device is done with a similar press/lift action. This style of corkscrew is much bulkier, and typically much more expensive, than other styles, but is much faster.
These were invented in the late 1800s for use in homes, hotel bars and restaurants in an era where all bottles were stopped with corks. They are screwed or clamped to counters or walls. When beer began to be sold in bottles, bars required a speedy way to open them. Most early mounted corkscrew were designed to open beer bottles with short corks. Modern ones are made for longer wine corks.
In 1979, Herbert Allen introduced the "Screwpull" corkscrew. The device was meant to make opening wine bottles fool-proof.
The Screwpull wraps around the top of the bottle, with a plastic screw that simply needs to be turned to remove the cork, without effort. The spiral is coated with Teflon, which reduces friction as it twists into the cork, ensuring it is removed intact without pulling.
The Screwpull is part of The Museum of Modern Art’s permanent collection.
The company was sold to Le Creuset in 1992.
There are many other styles of corkscrew which are not widely used in consumer settings, such as high-priced elaborate devices for specialists, and for industrial uses.
- winepros.com.au. The Oxford Companion to Wine. "corkscrew". Archived from the original on 2009-02-27. Retrieved 2008-11-26.
- "Direct Pull; The Henshall Button". Corkscrew.com. Archived from the original on 2012-07-28. Retrieved 2007-12-10.
- Quarterly Worme (2000 to present), newsletter of the Canadian Corkscrew Collectors Club, p. 2
- "Heeley A-1 Lemoine Champagne The Weekly Screw and The Occasional Screw and The Daily Screw from The Virtual Corkscrew Museum". www.bullworks.net. Retrieved 2019-05-31.
- "Espacenet – Original document". worldwide.espacenet.com. Retrieved 2018-09-28.
- "Who Made That Corkscrew?". Retrieved 2018-09-29.
- "Corkscrew Put Leverage on Stubborn Stoppers." Popular Science, May 1939, p. 71.
- Primo, Carlos (2018-01-04). "Fotos: 13 objetos inventados por españoles que tienes en casa y no sabes que son obras maestras". El País (in Spanish). ISSN 1134-6582. Retrieved 2018-05-09.
- Youtube user "Wine Enthusiast" (2009-01-20). "How to Use a Rabbit Corkscrew (Lever Style)". Youtube. Retrieved 2015-02-04.
- Meadows, Wayne. Compendium of Bar Corkscrews, Vancouver, 2001
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-12-25. Retrieved 2013-12-25.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Corkscrew (tool).|