Cormack-Lehane classification system

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

The Cormack-Lehane system classifies views obtained by direct laryngoscopy based on the structures seen. It was initially described by R.S. Cormack and J. Lehane in 1984 as a way of simulating potential scenarios that trainee anaesthetists might face.[1] A modified version that subdivided Grade 2 was initially described in 1998.[2]

Modified Cormack-Lehane classification.[2][3]
Grade Description Approximate frequency Likelihood of difficult intubation
1 Full view of glottis 68-74% <1%
2a Partial view of glottis 21-24% 4.3-13.4%
2b Only posterior extremity of glottis seen or only arytenoid cartilages 3.3-6.5% 65-67.4%
3 Only epiglottis seen, none of glottis seen 1.2-1.6% 80-87.5%
4 Neither glottis nor epiglottis seen very rare very likely

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Cormack, R.S.; Lehane, J. (1984). "Difficult tracheal intubation in obstetrics". Anaesthesia. 39 (11): 1105–11. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2044.1984.tb08932.x. PMID 6507827.
  2. ^ a b Yentis, S.M.; Lee, D.J. (1998). "Evaluation of an improved scoring system for the grading of direct laryngoscopy". Anaesthesia. 53 (11): 1041–4. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2044.1998.00605.x. PMID 10023271.
  3. ^ Koh, L. K. D.; Kong, C. E.; Ip-Yam, P. C. (2002-02-01). "The modified Cormack-Lehane score for the grading of direct laryngoscopy: evaluation in the Asian population". Anaesthesia and Intensive Care. 30 (1): 48–51. ISSN 0310-057X. PMID 11939440.