Cornelia (gens)

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House of Cornelius Rufus, Pompeii

The gens Cornelia was one of the greatest patrician houses at Rome. For more than seven hundred years, from the early decades of the Republic to the third century AD, the Cornelii produced more eminent statesmen and generals than any other gens. At least seventy-five consuls under the Republic were members of this family, beginning with Servius Cornelius Maluginensis in 485 BC. Together with the Aemilii, Claudii, Fabii, Manlii, and Valerii, the Cornelii were almost certainly numbered among the gentes maiores, the most important and powerful families of Rome, who for centuries dominated the Republican magistracies. All of the major branches of the Cornelian gens were patrician, but there were also plebeian Cornelii, at least some of whom were descended from freedmen.[1]

Origin[edit]

The origin of the Cornelii is lost to history, but the nomen Cornelius may be formed from the hypothetical cognomen Corneus, meaning "horny", that is, having thick or callused skin. The existence of such a cognomen in early times may be inferred from its diminutive, Corneolus. Such a derivation implies a Latin origin for the Cornelii, and there is no evidence to contradict this, but beyond this no traditions survive relating to the family's beginning.[2]

Praenomina[edit]

The Cornelii employed a wide variety of praenomina, although individual families tended to favor certain names and avoid others. Servius, Lucius, Publius, and Gnaeus were common to most branches, while other names were used by individual stirpes; Marcus primarily by the Cornelii Maluginenses and the Cethegi, Gaius by the Cethegi, and Aulus by the Cossi. Other names occur infrequently; Tiberius appears once amongst the Lentuli, who later revived the old surname Cossus as a praenomen, while the Cornelii Sullae made use of Faustus.

Branches and cognomina[edit]

Entrance to the Tomb of the Scipios at Rome.

The Cornelian gens included both patricians and plebeians, but all of its major families were patrician. The surnames Arvina, Blasio, Cethegus, Cinna, Cossus, Dolabella, Lentulus, Maluginensis, Mammula, Merenda, Merula, Rufinus, Scapula, Scipio, Sisenna, and Sulla belonged to patrician Cornelii, while the plebeian cognomina included Balbus and Gallus. Other surnames are known from freedmen, including Chrysogonus, Culleolus, Phagita, and others. A number of plebeian Cornelii had no cognomen.[1]

The first of the Cornelii to appear in history bore the surname Maluginensis. This family seems to have divided into two stirpes in the 430s, the senior line retaining Maluginensis, while the younger branches assumed Cossus. From their filiations, the first of the Cornelii Cossi would seem to have been younger sons of Marcus Cornelius Maluginensis, a member of the Second Decemvirate in 450 BC. Both families produced a number of consuls and consular tribunes during the fourth and fifth centuries BC. The Maluginenses disappeared before the period of the Samnite Wars, although the Cornelii Scipiones appear to have been descended from this family, while the surname Cossus appears as late as the beginning of the third century; members of the latter family also bore the cognomina Rutilus, "reddish", and Arvina. Cossus itself seems to belong to a class of surnames derived from objects or animals, referring to the larva of certain beetles that burrow under the bark of trees. The Cornelii Lentuli subsequently revived Cossus as a surname.[3][4]

The Cornelii Scipiones derived their surname from a legend in which the first of the family served as a staff (scipio) for his blind father. Since the first of the Scipiones seems to have borne the cognomen Maluginensis, he would seem to have been the son of Publius Cornelius Maluginensis, one of the consular tribunes in 404 BC. The Scipiones produced numerous consuls and several prominent generals, of whom the most celebrated were Lucius Cornelius Scipio Barbatus and Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus. Members of this family held the highest offices of the Roman state from the beginning of the fourth century BC down to the second century of the Empire, a span of nearly six hundred years. Its members bore a large number of additional surnames, including Barbatus, "bearded", Scapula, "shoulder blade", Asina, "she-ass", Calvus, "bald", Hispallus, "little Spaniard", Nasica, "nosed", and Corculum, "little heart", in addition to those derived from their military exploits: Africanus and Asiaticus. The last generations of this great family were originally adopted from the Salvidieni, and so bore the additional names of Salvidienus Orfitus. The Scipiones had a large family sepulchre at Rome, which still exists, having been rediscovered in 1780.[5][6][7]

The cognomen Lentulus probably belongs to a class of surnames deriving from the habits or qualities of the persons to whom they were first applied; the adjective lentulus means "rather slow". An alternative explanation is that the name is a diminutive of lens, a lentil, and so belongs to the same class of surnames as Cicero, a chickpea, and Caepio, an onion.[8][9] The Cornelii Lentuli were famed for their pride and haughtiness, so that Cicero uses Lentulitas, "Lentulusness", to describe the most aristocratic of the patricians.[10] The Lentuli appear in history from the time of the Samnite Wars to the first century of the Empire, a period of about four hundred years. Their origin is uncertain. According to Livy, early in the Second Samnite War, Lucius Cornelius Lentulus described his father as the only man who, during the Gallic sack of Rome in 390 BC, had opposed paying a ransom to ensure the departure of the Gauls from the city.[11] The filiations of other early Lentuli suggest that their ancestors used the name Gnaeus, suggesting that they could have been descendants of the Cornelii Cossi.

The Lentuli used a number of additional surnames, including Caudinus, apparently referring to the Battle of the Caudine Forks, crus, a leg, or the shin, Gaetulicus, bestowed upon the conqueror of the Gaetuli, Lupus, a wolf, Niger, black, Spinther, a bracelet, and Sura, the calf. The Lentuli also revived several old cognomina that had belonged to other stirpes of the Cornelii: Maluginensis, Cossus, Rufinus, and Scipio. At least two of this family bore surnames derived from other gentes; Clodianus was borne by a Lentulus who had been adopted from the Clodii, while Marcellinus belonged to a member of the family who was adopted from the Claudii Marcelli.[9][12][13]

The Cornelii Rufini appear in the latter half of the fourth century BC, beginning with Publius Cornelius Rufinus, dictator in 334 BC. From the surname Rufinus, meaning "reddish", one may infer that the first of this family had red hair.[7] A descendant of this family was the first to assume the cognomen Sulla, about the time of the Second Punic War. The name is probably a diminutive of Sura, a cognomen found in several gentes, including among the Cornelii Lentuli, and probably referred to someone with prominent calves.[7] Plutarch, who erroneously believed that the dictator Sulla was the first to bear the name, thought it must have referred to a blotchy, reddish complexion, while Macrobius derives it from Sibylla, an etymology that is rejected by Quintilian.[14][15][16][17] The dictator Sulla adopted the agnomen Felix, meaning "fortunate" or "happy", and this name was passed on to some of his descendants.[18] The Sullae continued in the highest offices of the state well into imperial times. The last appearing in history fell victim to Elagabalus, early in the third century AD.[14]

The Dolabellae first came to prominence at the beginning of the third century BC, and so remained until the reign of Vitellius. Several of the Dolabellae achieved high office, and one was Rex Sacrorum, but many of this family were notorious for their pride, extravagance, and disregard for the law. Their surname, Dolabella, is a diminutive of dolabra, a mattock or pickaxe, and belongs to a common class of surnames derived from everyday objects.[4][19]

Several lesser patrician stirpes flourished during the late Republic and early years of the Empire. The Cornelii Blasiones flourished for about a century, beginning in the early third century BC. The surname Blasio was originally given to one who stammers.[7] Cethegus is a cognomen whose original meaning and significance have been lost. The Cornelii Cethegi first appear in the latter half of the third century BC, and were described by Quintus Horatius Flaccus as cinctuti Cethegi, for their old-fashioned practice of wearing their arms bare. They remained prominent for the next two centuries.[20][21] The Cornelii Mammulae held several praetorships, beginning at the time of the Second Punic War, but they never attained the consulship, and disappeared after about fifty years. Their surname is a diminutive of mamma, a breast.[22][7] Merula refers to an ouzel, or blackbird. The family that bore this surname rose from obscurity at the beginning of the second century BC, and continued for the next century.[23] The Cornelii Cinnae flourished from the late second century BC to the early decades of the Empire.[24]

Balbus, which like Blasio signifies a stammerer,[7] was not originally a surname of the Cornelia gens, but was adopted by a native of Gades, who was granted Roman citizenship by Gnaeius Pompeius Magnus, as a reward for military service during the War against Sertorius. He probably took the nomen Cornelius after Gnaeus Cornelius Lentulus, who ratified the act making Balbus a citizen in 72 BC. He eventually attained the consulship, but the family, which was plebeian, disappeared from history in the early years of the Empire.[25] Another plebeian surname of the Cornelii was Gallus, known from Gaius Cornelius Gallus, the poet, who came to Rome from Forum Julii as a young man. His surname signified his Gallic origin.[26][27]

Members[edit]

Monument of Gaius Cornelius Calvus, and his brother, Lucius.
This list includes abbreviated praenomina. For an explanation of this practice, see filiation.

Cornelii Maluginenses[edit]

Cornelii Cossi[edit]

Cornelii Scipiones[edit]

Cornelii Lentuli[edit]

Cornelii Rufini et Sullae[edit]

Cornelii Dolabellae[edit]

Cornelii Blasiones[edit]

  • Gnaeus Cornelius L. f. Cn. n. Blasio, consul in 270 and 257 BC, and censor in 265.
  • Gnaeus Cornelius Blasio, praetor in Sicily in 194 BC.[139]
  • Publius Cornelius Blasio, ambassador to the Carni, Istri, and Iapydes in 170 BC, and special commissioner in 168.[140]
  • Gnaeus Cornelius Cn. f. Blasio, triumvir monetalis circa 112 BC.[141]

Cornelii Cethegi[edit]

Cornelii Mammulae[edit]

  • Aulus Cornelius Mammula, praetor at the beginning of the Second Punic War in 217 BC. As propraetor in Sardinia the following year, he unsuccessfully petitioned the Senate for money and supplies for his soldiers.[151][152]
  • Aulus Cornelius Mammula, praetor in 191 BC, subsequently received the province of Bruttium.[153][45]
  • Publius Cornelius Mammula, praetor in 180 BC, received the province of Sicily.[154][45]
  • Marcus Cornelius Mammula, one of four ambassadors sent to Perseus of Macedon and Ptolemy VI of Egypt in 173 BC.[155]

Cornelii Merulae[edit]

Cornelii Sisennae[edit]

  • Publius Cornelius Sisenna, praetor urbanus in 183 BC.[158][159]
  • Gnaeus Cornelius Sisenna, praetor in Macedonia in 119 BC, then proconsul the following year.[160][161]
  • Gnaeus Cornelius L. f. Sisenna, triumvir monetalis between 118 and 107 BC.[162]
  • Lucius Cornelius Sisenna, praetor urbanus and peregrinus in 78 BC, then perhaps governor of Sicily; he was a supporter of Verres. Legate under Gnaeus Pompeius in 67, during the war against the pirates, he was sent to command the army based in Crete, but died soon after his arrival. Sisenna was a historian, whose work was greatly praised by Cicero and Sallust.[163][164]
  • Cornelius Sisenna, legate in Syria in 57 BC, serving under his father-in-law, Aulus Gabinius, the consul of the previous year.[ii] when Gabinius was prosecuted for bribery by Gaius Memmius, Sisenna pleaded with Memmius on Gabinius' behalf, but to no avail.[165][166][167]

Cornelii Cinnae[edit]

Cornelii Balbi[edit]

Other Cornelii during the Republic[edit]

  • Publius Cornelius Calussa, elected pontifex maximus circa 330 BC, without having first held any of the curule magistracies.[174]
  • Servius Cornelius P. f. Ser. n. Merenda, consul in 274 BC.
  • Publius Cornelius Merenda, failed candidate to consulship 217 BC.
  • Gnaeus Cornelius, installed as flamen dialis in 174 BC.[175]
  • Gaius Cornelius M. f., a senator in 129 BC. He was possibly a son of Marcus Cornelius Cethegus, consul in 160, as the Cethegi were the only Cornelii to use the praenomen Gaius at this time.[176]
  • Lucius Cornelius M. f., a senator in 129 BC. Despite having the same filiation, the two senators of 129 were not directly related, as Lucius belonged to the tribus Romilia and Gaius was from Stellatina.[177]
  • Cornelius, scriba in the dictatorship of Sulla, and quaestor during that of Caesar.[178][179]
  • Cornelius Phagita, captured Caesar when he was proscribed by Sulla in 82 BC.[180][181]
  • Lucius Cornelius Alexander Polyhistor, a freedman of Greek origin, was a scholar, tutor, and writer on history and geography during the first half of the first century BC.
  • Gaius Cornelius, a quaestor serving under Pompeius, was tribune of the plebs in 67 BC.
  • Publius Cornelius, tribunus plebis in 51 BC.[182]
  • Cornelius, a centurion in the army of Octavianus in 43 BC, sent to Rome to demand the consulship for their general.[183]
  • Gaius Cornelius Gallus, poet, and prefect of Egypt in 30 BC.

Other Cornelii of Imperial Times[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ The Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology gives his name as Servius Cornelius Cossus Maluginensis, with the implication that the surnames of Cossus and Maluginensis properly belonged to all of the Cornelii before the 430s, when the two branches of the family diverged. However, the authority for this supposition is unclear, as Servius is not given a surname in either Livy or Dionysius, and nowhere are the two surnames united in the Fasti Capitolini.
  2. ^ Sisenna is frequently misidentified as the son, rather than the son-in-law, of Gabinius.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. I, p. 855 ("Cornelia Gens").
  2. ^ Chase, p. 124.
  3. ^ Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. I, pp. 378 ("Arvina"), 865 ("Cossus"), vol. II, p. 909 ("Maluginensis").
  4. ^ a b Chase, pp. 112, 113.
  5. ^ Macrobius, i. 6.
  6. ^ Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. III, pp. 739–741 ("Scipio").
  7. ^ a b c d e f Chase, pp. 109, 110 (Barbatus, Scapula, Nasica, Calvus), 112, 113 (Asina, Scipio), 114 (Africanus, Hispallus).
  8. ^ Chase, pp. 110–113.
  9. ^ a b Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. II, pp. 728, 729 ("Lentulus).
  10. ^ Cicero, Epistulae ad Familiares iii. 7. § 5.
  11. ^ Livy, ix. 4.
  12. ^ Cicero, Epistulae ad Atticum i. 19. § 2.
  13. ^ Pliny the Elder, xviii. 3.
  14. ^ a b Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. III, pp. 933–944 ("Sulla").
  15. ^ Plutarch, "The Life of Sulla", 2.
  16. ^ Macrobius, Saturnalia, i. 17.
  17. ^ Quintilian, i. 4. § 25.
  18. ^ Chase, p. 111.
  19. ^ New College Latin & English Dictionary, s. v. dolabra.
  20. ^ Dictionary of Grek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. I, pp. 675, 676 ("Cethegus").
  21. ^ Horace, Ars Poëtica, 50.
  22. ^ Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. II, p. 913 ("Mammula").
  23. ^ Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. II, p. 1049 ("Merula").
  24. ^ Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. I, pp. 754, 755 ("Cornelius Cinna").
  25. ^ Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. I, pp. 455–457 ("Balbus", V, "Cornelii Balbi").
  26. ^ Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. II, pp. 226–227 ("C. Cornelius Gallus").
  27. ^ Chase, pp. 113, 114.
  28. ^ Livy, ii. 41.
  29. ^ Dionysius, viii. 77, 82.
  30. ^ Livy, iii. 35, 40, 41.
  31. ^ Dionysius, x. 58, xi. 15, 23.
  32. ^ Livy, vi. 6, 18, 22, 27, 36, 38.
  33. ^ Diodorus Siculus, xv. 71.
  34. ^ a b Livy, vi. 36, 42.
  35. ^ Diodorus Siculus, xii. 53.
  36. ^ Livy, iv. 23.
  37. ^ Livy, iv. 49.
  38. ^ Diodorus Siculus, xiii. 34.
  39. ^ Livy, iv. 56.
  40. ^ Diodorus Siculus, xiii. 104.
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  42. ^ Broughton, vol. I, pp. 145, 166.
  43. ^ Münzer, Roman Aristocratic Parties and Families, p. 42.
  44. ^ Valerius Maximus, vi. 3. § 3.
  45. ^ a b c Münzer, Roman Aristocratic Parties and Families, p. 189.
  46. ^ a b c d e f g Fasti Capitolini.
  47. ^ Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. III, p. 748 ("Scipio", no. 19).
  48. ^ a b Münzer, Roman Aristocratic Parties and Families p. 282.
  49. ^ Suetonius, "The Life of Caesar", 59.
  50. ^ Plutarch, "The Life of Caesar", 52.
  51. ^ Cassius Dio, xlii. 58.
  52. ^ Pliny the Elder, vii. 12, xxx. 2.
  53. ^ Tacitus, Annales, xii. 41, xvi. 12; Historiae, iv. 42.
  54. ^ Pliny the Elder, ii. 31.
  55. ^ Reynolds, Inscriptions of Roman Tripolitania, 341.
  56. ^ Tacitus, Annales, xi. 2, 4, xii. 53, xiii. 25.
  57. ^ Pliny the Elder, vii. 12, s. 14.
  58. ^ PIR ² C 1440
  59. ^ Suetonius, "The Life of Domitian", 10.
  60. ^ Gallivan, "The Fasti for A. D. 70-96", p. 211.
  61. ^ Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. III, p. 43 ("Orfitus", no. 5).
  62. ^ Julius Capitolinus, "The Life of Antoninus Pius", 8.
  63. ^ Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. III, p. 44 ("Orfitus", no. 6).
  64. ^ Alföldy, Konsulat und Senatorenstand, p. 287.
  65. ^ CIL VIII, 24.
  66. ^ Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. III, p. 44 ("Orfitus", no. 7).
  67. ^ Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. III, p. 44 ("Orfitus", no. 10).
  68. ^ Alföldy, Konsulat und Senatorenstand, pp. 191, 312.
  69. ^ CIL VI, 1980, CIL VI, 1981.
  70. ^ Livy, ix. 4.
  71. ^ Livy, x. 1.
  72. ^ Livy, xxvii. 21.
  73. ^ Livy, xxviii. 10, xxix. 2.
  74. ^ Livy, xxxii. 2.
  75. ^ Broughton, vol. I, pp. 319, 322 (note 1), 329.
  76. ^ Livy, xlii. 37, 47, 49, 56, xliii. 15.
  77. ^ Livy, xlii. 37, 47, 49, 56.
  78. ^ Livy, xlv. 1.
  79. ^ Frontinus, De Aquaeductu, 7.
  80. ^ Florus, iii. 19, 7.
  81. ^ Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. II, p. 730 ("Lentulus", no. 19).
  82. ^ Cicero, Brutus, 36.
  83. ^ Appian, Bella Mithridatica, 95.
  84. ^ Orelli, Onomasticon Tullianum, p. 177.
  85. ^ Cicero, Epistulae ad Quintum Fratrem.
  86. ^ Caesar, De Bello Civili, iii. 62-65.
  87. ^ Orosius, vi. 15.
  88. ^ Valerius Maximus, vi. 7. § 3.
  89. ^ Appian, Bellum Civile, iv. 39.
  90. ^ Cassius Dio, liv. 12.
  91. ^ Cassius Dio, liv. 12, Arg. liv.
  92. ^ Riccio, Monete Consolari, p. 52.
  93. ^ Cassius Dio.
  94. ^ Suetonius, "The Life of Galba", 4.
  95. ^ Tacitus, Annales, iii. 74.
  96. ^ Ehrenberg and Jones, Documents Illustrating the Reigns of Augustus & Tiberius, p. 42.
  97. ^ Ingemar König, Der römische Staat II, Die Kaiserzeit, Stuttgart 1997, p. 468
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  99. ^ Frontinus, De Aquaeductu, 102.
  100. ^ Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. II, p. 734 ("Lentulus", no. 43).
  101. ^ Münzer, Roman Aristocratic Parties and Families, p. 195.
  102. ^ Münzer, Roman Aristocratic Parties and Families, p. 110.
  103. ^ Broughton, vol. I, p. 268.
  104. ^ Livy, xxxix. 6, 8.
  105. ^ Livy, xlv. 17.
  106. ^ Münzer, Roman Aristocratic Parties and Families, p. 200.
  107. ^ Crawford, Roman Republican Coinage, pp. 249, 250.
  108. ^ Plutarch, "The Life of Sulla", 1.
  109. ^ Münzer, Roman Aristocratic Parties and Families, v. II.
  110. ^ Sallust, The Conspiracy of Catiline, 17.
  111. ^ Cassius Dio, xxxvi. 27.
  112. ^ Seneca the Younger, De Consolatione, 12.
  113. ^ Plutarch, "The Life of Sulla", 37.
  114. ^ Mika Kajava, Roman Female Praenomina: Studies in the Nomenclature of Roman Women (1994).
  115. ^ Sallust, The Conspiracy of Catiline, 17, 47.
  116. ^ Cicero, Pro Sulla, 2.
  117. ^ Cicero, Epistulae ad Familiares xv. 17; Pro Sulla 31.
  118. ^ Pliny the Elder, vii. 11. s. 13.
  119. ^ Cassius Dio, index, lib. lv.
  120. ^ Cassius Dio, lviii. 20.
  121. ^ Tacitus, Annales, vi. 15.
  122. ^ Cassius Dio, lxxix. 4.
  123. ^ Livy, xxvii. 36, xl. 42.
  124. ^ Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. I, p. 1058 ("Dolabella", no. 5).
  125. ^ Fasti Triumphales.
  126. ^ Cicero, Pro Caecina, 8.
  127. ^ Valerius Maximus, viii. 1; Ambustae, § 2.
  128. ^ PIR, vol. I, no. 1092.
  129. ^ Camodeca: "I consoli des 55–56".
  130. ^ a b Tansey, "The Perils of Prosopography, p. 271
  131. ^ Tacitus, Historiae i. 88, ii. 63.
  132. ^ PIR, vol. I, no. 1090.
  133. ^ Gallivan, "The Fasti for A. D. 70-96", p. 190.
  134. ^ a b Fasti Ostienses, CIL XIV, 244.
  135. ^ PIR, vol. I, no. 1096.
  136. ^ PIR, vol. I, no. 1097.
  137. ^ PIR, vol. I, no. 1094.
  138. ^ PIR, vol. I, no. 1095.
  139. ^ Livy, xxxiv. 42, 43.
  140. ^ Livy, xliii. 7, xlv. 13.
  141. ^ Crawford, Roman Republican Coinage, p. 309–311.
  142. ^ Münzer, "Roman Aristocratic Parties and Families", p. 232.
  143. ^ Broughton, vol. I, pp. 263, 266, 267 (note 4), 273, 277 (note 3), 285, 305, 306.
  144. ^ Livy, xxxix. 32, 38, 39.
  145. ^ Livy, Epitome, 49.
  146. ^ Cicero, De Oratore, i. 52; Brutus, 23; Epistulae ad Atticum, xii. 5.
  147. ^ Sallust, Bellum Catilinae, 17, 28, 55.
  148. ^ Cicero, Pro Sulla, 2, 6, 18.
  149. ^ Ampelius, 19.
  150. ^ Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. III, p. 1379 ("Chronological Tables of Roman History").
  151. ^ Livy, xx. 21, xxxiii. 44.
  152. ^ Valerius Maximus, vii. 6. § 1.
  153. ^ Livy, xxxv. 24, xxxvi. 2, xxxvii. 2, 4.
  154. ^ Livy, xl. 35.
  155. ^ Livy, xlii. 6.
  156. ^ Münzer, Roman Aristocratic Parties and Families, p. 346.
  157. ^ Münzer, Roman Aristocratic Parties and Families, p. 444.
  158. ^ Livy, xxxix. 45.
  159. ^ Broughton, vol. I, p. 378.
  160. ^ SIG, 705.
  161. ^ Broughton, vol. I, p. 528 (note 2).
  162. ^ Crawford, Roman Republican Coinage, pp. 318, 319.
  163. ^ Cassius Dio, xxxvi. 18, 19.
  164. ^ Broughton, vol. II, pp. 86, 90, 148.
  165. ^ Valerius Maximus, viii. 1. § 3.
  166. ^ Cassius Dio, xxxix. 56.
  167. ^ Broughton, vol. II, p. 204.
  168. ^ Fasti Siculi.
  169. ^ Cicero, Philippicae x. 6.
  170. ^ Plutarch, "The Life of Brutus", 25.
  171. ^ Seneca the Younger, De Clementia, i. 9.
  172. ^ Cassius Dio, lv. 14, 22.
  173. ^ Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. I, p. 457 ("P. Cornelius Balbus").
  174. ^ Münzer, Roman Aristocratic Parties and Families, p. 171.
  175. ^ Münzer, Roman Aristocratic Parties and Families, p. 406.
  176. ^ Sherk, "Senatus Consultum De Agro Pergameno", p. 367.
  177. ^ Sherk, "Senatus Consultum De Agro Pergameno", p. 368.
  178. ^ Sallust, Historiae.
  179. ^ Cicero, De Officiis, ii. 8.
  180. ^ Suetonius, "The Life of Caesar", 74.
  181. ^ Plutarch, "The Life of Caesar", 1.
  182. ^ Cicero, Epistulae ad Familiares, viii. 8.
  183. ^ Suetonius, "The Life of Augustus", 26.
  184. ^ Cicero, In Verrem, iii. 28, iv. 13.
  185. ^ Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. III, p. 804 ("Cornelius Severus").
  186. ^ Seneca the Elder, Suasoriae, 2, sub fin.
  187. ^ Tacitus, Annales, vi. 29.
  188. ^ Pliny the Younger, Epistulae, vii. 9.
  189. ^ Tacitus, Annales, xv. 71, Historiae, iii. 70, 73.
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Bibliography[edit]