Cornelis de Witt
Cornelis de Witt
Cornelis de Witt
15 June 1623
|Died||20 August 1672 (aged 49)|
|Other names||Cornelius de Witt|
|Occupation||Regent / Mayor, Governor and Landlord|
|Political party||States Faction|
|Spouse||Maria van Berckel|
|Relatives||Johan de Witt (brother)|
Andries de Witt (uncle)
Cornelis de Witt (pronunciation (help·info); 15 June 1623 – 20 August 1672) was a Dutch politician and naval commendant[clarification needed] of the Golden Age. During the First Stadtholderless Period De Witt was an influential member of the Dutch States Party, and was in opposition to the House of Orange. In the Rampjaar of 1672 he was lynched together with his brother Johan de Witt by a crowd incited by Orange partisans.
De Witt family
Cornelis de Witt was a member of the old Dutch patrician family De Witt. His father was Jacob de Witt, an influential regent and burgher from the patrician class in the city of Dordrecht, which in the 17th century was one of the most important cities of the dominating province of Holland. De Witt's mother was Anna van den Corput (1599–1645), niece of Johannes Corputius, an influential Dutch military leader and cartographer. He had a younger brother, the famous Johan de Witt, Grand Pensionary of Holand. His uncle Andries de Witt held the position of Grand Pensionary of Holland between 1619 and 1621. Through the marriage of one of his other uncles to Margaretha of Nassau, daughter of Anna Johanna of Nassau-Siegen, De Witt was a distant relative of the later Dutch governor and English King William III of Orange-Nassau. Another relationship led him to the Tromps, Maarten and his son Cornelis Tromp, both admirals of the Netherlands.
In 1648 Cornelis de Witt became a schepen (councillor) of Dordrecht. He was afterwards appointed to the important post of ruwaard, who combined the functions of chief of police and prosecuting attorney, of Putten and bailiff of Beierland.
De Witt associated himself closely with his younger brother, the Raadpensionaris of Holland ("Grand Pensionary") Johan de Witt, and supported him throughout his career with great ability and vigour. Johan relied on his older brother for many matters of state. Johan is considered a strategist in their collaboration and Cornelis as a creative person.
Cornelis de Witt was mayor of Dordrecht in 1666 and 1667, and several times deputy of his city in the States of Holland. Between 1663–65 and 1669–71 De Witt was Committed Council of the Zuiderkwartier. In 1667 he was appointed curator of the Leiden University by the States of Holland. In 1665 the States General appointed him deputy in the field in the war with the Bishop of Munster. He acted in the same capacity in 1668, when troops were being gathered for the war between Spain and France.
In 1667 De Witt was the deputy chosen by the States of Holland to accompany Lieutenant-Admiral Michiel de Ruyter in his famous raid on the Medway. Cornelis de Witt on this occasion distinguished himself greatly by his coolness and intrepidity. He again accompanied De Ruyter in 1672 and took an honorable part in the great battle of Solebay against the united English and French fleets. Compelled by illness to leave the fleet, he found on his return to Dordrecht that the Orange party were in the ascendant, and he and his brother were the objects of popular suspicion and hatred. He was arrested on false accusations of treason, but did not confess despite heavy torture and was ultimately unlawfully condemned to be banished. He was assassinated by the same carefully organised lynch mob that killed his brother on the day he was to be released, victim of a conspiracy by the Orangists Johan Kievit and Lieutenant-Admiral Cornelis Tromp. Both their bodies were mutilated and their hearts were carved out to be exhibited as trophies. The scene was painted by Jan de Baen, the same painter who had twice painted his portrait, in The Corpses of the De Witt Brothers.
Cornelis de Witt married Maria van Berckel (1632–1706) in 1650. The couple had five children:
- Jacob de Witt (1653–1675). Six days after his father's murder, he set out on a journey to Germany, Geneva, Italy (where he received his doctorate in Padua in 1675) and Austria. He was unmarried and died in Vienna the same year, where he is buried.
- Johan de Witt (1660–1681); he was enrolled at the University of Leiden
- Anna de Witt (b 1667)
- Maria de Witt (b 1669), married to Arend Muys van Holy, mayor of Dordrecht
- Wilhelmina de Witt (1671–1702). She married her first cousin (the son of Johan de Witt) Johan de Witt Jr. (1662–1701), secretary of Dordrecht
In popular culture
- Cornelis de Witt and his role in Dutch politics was depicted in the 2015 film Michiel de Ruyter.
- Both brothers play important roles in the novel The Black Tulip by Alexandre Dumas.
- Johann de Witt, p 1, by N. Japikse, 2012 (german)
- Herbert H. Rowen: John de Witt. Statesman of the "True Freedom." 1986, p 47.
- "Met onoprechte deelneming van neef Cornelis Tromp" (dutch)
- Biography of Cornelis de Witt at DBNL (dutch)
- Chisholm 1911.
- Serge ter Braake: De deductie van Johan de Witt, p 10 (2009)
- Biography of Cornelis de Witt at Nieuw Nederlandsch biografisch woordenboek. Deel 3(1914)–P.J. Blok, P.C. Molhuysen
- Biography of Cornelis de Witt, "Biographisch woordenboek der Nederlanden. Deel 20 (1877), by S.J. van der Aa
- IMDb Der Admiral - Kampf um Europa (Originaltitel: Michiel de Ruyter)
- The Black Tulip full text at Google Books
- public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "De Witt, Cornelius". Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 8 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 140. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the
- Media related to Cornelis de Witt at Wikimedia Commons