Cornish wrestling

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Cornish wrestling
Gerry and Ashley Cawley wrestling at Pendennis Castle, 6 May 2002
Country of originCornwall
CreatorCornish people
Olympic sportNo

Cornish wrestling (Cornish: Omdowl Kernewek[1]) is a form of wrestling that has been established in Cornwall for many centuries and possibly longer. It is similar to the Breton Gouren wrestling style. It is colloquially known as "wrasslin’"[2][3] in the Cornish dialect of English; historically, this usage is attested by Chaucer,[4] Shakespeare[5] and Drayton.[6]

The referee is known as a 'stickler',[7] and it is claimed that the popular meaning of the word as a 'pedant' originates from this usage.[8]

Cornish wrestling is a national sport of Cornwall, which spread throughout the British Isles and then, along with the Cornish diaspora, to such places as the United States, Australia, Mexico, New Zealand and South Africa.

Introduction to the rules of competition[edit]

The objective of Cornish wrestling is to throw one's opponent and cause them to land as flat as possible on their back. Each of the wrestlers wears a ‘jacket’ of tough make and material, enabling them to better grip their opponent. Grabbing of the opponent's or your own arms, wrists or fingers is forbidden as well as holding below the waist. All holds are to be taken upon the jacket, although the flat of the hand is allowed to be used to push or deflect an opponent.[9][10] No fending is permitted. No force on the throat is permitted. Three sticklers watch and control each bout, keeping score of points.[11]

Four pins are located on the back of a wrestler, two at the shoulders and two just above the buttocks. A wrestler scores points by throwing their opponent onto their back, the number of pins hitting the floor being the number of points scored. If a wrestler manages to score with three or four pins this is called a ‘Back’ and the bout is then finished, with the throwing wrestler as the winner.[12] The sticklers each raise their sticks when they perceive a Back has been achieved. A Back may be awarded by majority, i.e. by two out of the three stickers. If a Back is not awarded, the winner is the wrestler with the most accumulated points within the time limit.[11]


John Cawley throwing Chris French at Demonstration at Robby Richards Museum Opening - CWA Event 13–14 May 2006.

Cornish wrestling has a long history, with Geoffrey of Monmouth in Historia Regum Britanniae (c. 1139) describing Corineus, the legendary founder of Cornwall, as a man "of great courage and boldness, who, in an encounter with any person, even of gigantic stature, would immediately overthrow him, as if he were a child", and later tells the story of how Corineus wrestled a Cornish giant, Gogmagog or Goemagot upon the cliff top known as Lamm Goemagot.

Thomas Hoby writes that, in 1551 at Chastenbriant, the French king showed my Lord Marquess of Northampton "great pleasure and disport...sometime with his great boisterlie Bretons wrastling with my lordes yemen of Cornwall, who had much to do to gete the upper hande of them."[13]

Some of the earliest written evidence for wrestling in the West Country comes from a 1612 poem entitled "Poly-Olbion" by Michael Drayton, which gives the names of some Cornish Wrestling throws. Drayton also published a poem in 1627 called The Battle of Agincourt, which concerns the 1415 battle. The poem states that the Cornish men who accompanied Henry V into battle held a banner of two Cornish wrestlers.

Cornish, Devon and Breton wrestlers have long taken part in inter-Celtic matches since at least 1402 and these still occasionally continue. In early times Cornish and Devonian wrestlers often had matches against each other though the rules they followed were not the same. One of these was the notable match between Richard Parkyn and the Devonian John Jordan.

In 1654, Oliver Cromwell and many of his privy council were reported as watching 100 Cornishmen wrestling in Hyde Park, presenting "...great agility of body and most neat and exquisite wrestling at every meeting of one with the other, which was ordered with such dexterity, that it was to show more the strength, vigour and nimbleness of their bodies, than to endanger their persons."[14]

Wrastling is as full of manliness, more delightful and less dangerous (than hurling).... for you shall hardly find an assembly of boyes in Devon and Cornwall, where the most untowardly amongst them will not as readily give you a muster of this exercise as you are prone to require it.

17th century historian Richard Carew, [15]

Charles II, along with "a world of lords" and many other spectators, watched a series of wrestling matches in St James' Park in 1669, with a purse of £1000, which saw the "Western men" win.[16]

His Highness York’s great Duke beheld the same
With other persons of renowned fame
Brave Cornishmen, you are to be commended
And will be so until the world is ended.[17]

Sir Thomas Parkyns (1664–1741), known as the Wrestling Baronet, was a devotee of wrestling and organised an annual wrestling match in Bunny Park (prize a gold-laced hat). These matches continued until 1810. His book on the subject The Inn-Play: or, the Cornish Hugg-Wrestler was published in 1713 and reprinted many times.[18]

A contest at Bodmin in 1811 attracted 4,000 spectators, but thereafter interest in the sport waned. James Gerry (of Linkinhorne) and Samuel Rundle (Plymouth) fought for a £20 purse and the championship of Cornwall in 1883 at Liskeard. Lasting just over an hour, the match ended in a draw in the 19th round following Rundle tearing leg muscles. Gerry was reported in The Cornishman newspaper to have vanquished all the best men in America as well as many men in Cornwall, Rundle had beaten nearly all the wrestling men in Devon and Cornwall.[19]

In 1927 William Tregoning Hooper (Bras y Golon) agreed with the Breton Dr. Cottonec of Quimperle that there should be annual wrestling tournaments in which both Cornish and Breton wrestlers would compete. In 1932, the Duke of Cornwall helped fund the competing Cornish wrestlers.[20]

In the 1970s Truro Cathedral School was teaching Cornish wrestling as part of its physical education programme and was the only school in Cornwall to do so.[21]


A very old custom was, on the Sunday following a wrestling match or tournament, to wear to church any prizes won. Alternatively they were hung on an inside pillar near the main church door. This custom was especially observed when the victory was within another parish.[22]

Some Cornish wrestling matches allowed shin-kicking. This was often referred to as "Cornish purring".[23]

There is an ancient custom whereby sticklers of a tournament would appear at church the following Sunday wearing "Christys" (silk top hats)[24] with streamers (silk ribbons).[25][24]

There are multiple stories of women being capable wrestlers, even more than 200 years ago. For example, Caroline Andrewartha who was taught wrestling by her father and in turn taught her son Joel Andrewartha, who went on to become one of the best wrestlers in Cornwall, including beating Polkinhorne.[26][27] Another example is Lizzie Taylor (1831-1887), known as "Happy Ned" or "Lizzie-poor-Dick", who threw John Lillywhite in a wrestling-bout at Clowance. She was a miner who dressed in men's clothes.[28][29][30][31]

During a match, wrestlers shake hands before every hitch.[32]

Prior to the mid-1800s, competitors had to renounce the use of magic before the start of a tournament.[33]

Traditionally wrestlers would challenge each other to wrestling matches by throwing their hat into the ring. The idiom may come from this practice.[32][34][35]

In Cornwall, youngsters used to play the game of "shuffle hats and wrastle", where they would throw their hats into a ring, with their owners wrestling off in accordance with the pairing of the hats.[36][37][38]

There had been a custom of "begging the ring" whereby old or injured wrestlers would walk around the ring begging for alms. This was replaced by a wrestlers' benevolent fund in 1926 and then by the welfare state.[39][37][40]

Wrestling matches were once played in churchyards, but in 1297 the Bishop of Exeter banned it from such places in Devon and Cornwall. [41]

At some tournaments there were prizes for those wresters appearing in the neatest costume.[42]

In late Victorian times women were briefly banned from matches, as men often wrestled in their long johns, which was not considered respectable.[41]

Gold laced hats were often used as first place prizes for Cornish wrestling tournaments. It was said that wearers of such hats were immune from the attentions of the press gang.[25]

Wrestlers who were knocked senseless in bouts would often be treated by being "bled" on site if there was a doctor at hand.[43][44]

In the mid-1800s though to the early 1900s, extra trains were laid on going to and from towns where Cornish wrestling tournaments were being held.[45][46] In the early 1900s this was extended to extra bus services.[47]

Until 1927 there was no time limit for Cornish wrestling matches and there are records of matches taking many hours and even having to be reconvened the next day.[48] Note that in 1927 the rule became best 2 falls in 20 minutes, but there was much resistance to this change as it was perceived that often the worse player won these matches.[49] This was changed to the current rules of two, ten minute, rounds with points being used to determine the winner if no back is scored.[50] However, his time limit lapsed in the 1940s, was proposed to be reinstated in 1956,[51] but was only reinstated in 1967.[52]

In the early 1800s there were two distinct styles of wrestling. Wrestlers who fought in the Western style included Parkyn and wrestlers who fought with the Eastern style included the Truscotts. This distinction had disappeared by the end of the 1800s.[53]

The wrestler's motto[edit]

Gwari hweg yw gwari teg[54][55][56][57]

English Translation: Fair play is sweet play.[58][57][59]

The wrestler's oath[edit]

War ow enor ha war enor ow bro, my a de omdewlel heb traytouri na garowder, hag avel ol ow lelder my a ystyn ow leuv dhe’m kontrari. Gans geryow ow hendasow: “gwari hweg yw gwari teg”.[60]

English Translation: On my honour and the honour of my country, I swear to wrestle without treachery or brutality and in token of my sincerity I offer my hand to my opponent. In the words of my forefathers: “gwari hweg yw gwari teg”.[58][59][61]

Governing bodies[edit]

There has been significant disagreement, over time, as to which were the ruling governing bodies in the sport and also differences in the precise nature of the rules. This has resulted in simultaneous claimants for world, national and regional titles.[62]

Governing bodies outside Cornwall[edit]

The Devon and Cornish wrestling Society was formed in 1849.[63]

The Western Counties Wrestling Association was formed in 1877[64]

Worldwide, various regional bodies have governed local Cornish wrestling tournaments or matches. Examples include:

  • The Royal Marine Light Infantry for a tournament in Japan (1872);[65]
  • The Ivey Athletic Club for tournaments in Michigan, United States;[66]
  • The Brotton wrestling committee for Cornish wrestling in Yorkshire;[67]
  • The Bendigo Amateur Wrestling Association in Bendigo, Australia;[68]
  • The Cornish Association of South Africa;[69]
  • Taunton Athletic club in Somerset;[70]
  • St Budeaux and District Wrestling Committee for local tournaments in Devon;[71]
  • The Duke of Cornwall's Light Infantry in India;[72]
  • The Cornish Porcupine wrestling club in Canada;[73]
  • Pachuca Athletic Club in Mexico.[74]
  • Morro Velho mines in Brazil.[75]

Cornwall and Devon wrestling Society[edit]

Cornish wrestling in London 1866[76]

The Cornwall and Devon wrestling Society (also known as the Devon and Cornwall wrestling Society[77][78]) was formed in 1752, running tournaments and matches in London, often at Hackney Wick. Open competitions were held, awarding significant belts and prizes funded by the patrons. However, only natives of Cornwall were permitted to compete for the Great Duke of Cornwall cup.[79]

Patrons of the Cornwall and Devon wrestling Society[edit]

Governing bodies inside Cornwall[edit]

The different regional associations within Cornwall merged into the Cornwall County Wrestling Association ("CCWA") in September 1923, under the presidency of Lord St Levan,[83] to help standardize the rules, facilitate the competing of Duchy championships, mitigate the risk of clashing tournaments and promote Cornish Wrestling throughout Cornwall and indeed Worldwide.[9] When the CCWA was formed there were only 9 affiliated local associations, but by 1925 there were over 50.[84][83] Note that the Newquay and Port Isaac associations initially indicated that they wanted nothing to do with the CCWA.[85]

In 1928, William Tregonning Hooper initiated inter-Celtic tournaments between the CCWA and its counterpart in Brittany, as the similarities of Breton and Cornish wrestling are sufficient for successful competitions to be held between the two.[86]

In 1930, the CCWA had financial difficulties resulting in suspension of activities and the belts and cups being seized by the bank. As a result, belts and cups were not awarded.[87][88]

In 1932, the CCWA was refinanced, with help from the London Cornish Association,[89] Federation of Old Cornwall Societies,[90][89] Viscount Clifden,[91] the Western Morning News[91] and the Duke of Cornwall,[89][91][90] and the belts and cups were retrieved from the bank.[12][9][92] In 1933 the CCWA changed its name to the Cornish Wrestling Association ("CWA")[92] and adopted a rule to limit rounds to 15 minutes.[48][93]

In 1933 various local wrestling associations had competitions unaffiliated to the CWA, culminating with St Mawgan holding a championship of Cornwall, "under the old Cornish wrestling rules".[94]

The East Cornwall Wrestling Federation ("ECWF") was formed in 1934, at least in part to hold competitions under more traditional rules (the time limit being a key issue).[9][95][96][97] The ECWF also complained that the CWA had preferred placing championship tournaments in West Cornwall and had preferred selecting wrestlers from West Cornwall to represent Cornwall in the inter-Celtic competition.[98] The ECWF held rival championship titles of heavyweight, middleweight and lightweight champion in the "Old Cornish Style".[12][9] In 1934, the CWA initially suspended wrestlers involved with ECWF competitions.[62] This rule was suspended in 1936, but re-instigated in 1938.[99][100]

In 1936 the CWA removed the time limit to matches.[101]

In 1946, the ECWF was absorbed by the CWA, who have overseen almost all tournaments since.[102][103][104] A current example of an exception to this is the annual St Mawgan tournament.

In 1994 the CWA opened competitions to women.[105]

In 2004 the CWA became affiliated with the British Wrestling Association.[106]

Patrons of the CCWA/CWA[edit]

Notable people who were also Cornish wrestlers[edit]

Tom Molineaux
  • Tom Molineaux, the famous bare knuckle boxer, entered Cornish wrestling tournaments in England when touring in the early 1800s.[121]
  • Billy Bray, the famous unconventional Cornish preacher, was a Cornish wrestler.[122]
  • Abraham Lincoln, the president of the United States, was a Cornish wrestler and would practice Cornish wrestling during his work outs in the White House.[123][124]
  • The US president, statesman and soldier Theodore Roosevelt, started training in Cornish wrestling when he was New York governor, where he was taught three times a week by Professor Mike J Dwyer.[125][126][127]
  • John Lillywhite, the famous cricketer who was in the first England team, competed in Cornish wrestling tournaments in the mid-1800s.[28][29][128]
  • US Senator, Thomas Kearns, when he moved from Kansas to Utah, went around Cornish mining camps challenging the strongest miners to Cornish wrestling matches for side bets.[129]
  • Robert James Fitzsimmons, better known as Bob Fitzsimmons was a Cornish professional boxer who was the sport's first three-division world champion between 1894 and 1903. He knew Cornish wrestling from when he was a boy and used Cornish wrestling tricks in his early finish fights. He usually had a wrestler in his camp while training for a fight.[130][131][132]
  • Roy Jennings was a rugby player that played for Redruth and the British Lions (touring Australia and New Zealand in 1930), who regularly competed in Cornish wrestling tournaments in the 1930s. He also represented Cornwall in the 1933 inter-Celtic wrestling tournament.[133][134]
  • The actors, Paul Dupuis and Ralph Michael, studied Cornish wrestling under middleweight champion Tom Cundry, for their roles in the film - Johnny Frenchman.[135] Later, Dupuis and Michael were invited to enter the Cornish wrestling festival at Helston.[136]

Notable Cornish wrestlers[edit]

Historically, there were simultaneous claimants to world, national and regional titles in Cornish wrestling. This was driven, at least in part, by there not being agreement concerning the definitive governing bodies in the sport until the 1920s.

Some of these wrestlers also competed in other wrestling styles, or in matches where multiple styles were used.


  • Mourzouk had a famous Cornish wrestling match with Jack Carkeek in Australia in 1904. He was a champion in Greco-Roman wrestling.[137]


  • Jesse Liddicoat was a very strong immigrant Cornish wrestler.[138]
  • Nicholas was Cornish wrestling champion of South Australia in 1842.[139]
  • James Chipman was Cornish wrestling champion of South Australia in 1851.[140]
  • William Hodge (1815[141]-?), originally from Sithney,[142] and won many tournaments in the UK before emigrating, including beating Gundry in Penzance in 1843.[143] He was an Australian Cornish wrestling champion in the late 1840s and early 1850s, winning over 80 prizes.[144][145] He was 5 feet 10 inches high and weighed 174 lbs.[142] He was champion of Australia in 1851, beating James Chipman for the title.[146] He was champion of Australasia in 1851.[147] He was owner of the Brecknock Arms in Adelaide which was the venue for many tournaments and challenge matches.[147]
  • William Kneebone (1829-1906), was recognised Australian Cornish wrestling champion in the 1850s.[148][149] He once came home and caught a burglar. He explained the battered state of the burglar to the bench by saying he had given him a Flying Mare.[150]
  • John Charles Corse (1825-1872), originally from St Neot, Cornwall, was about 6 feet and 15 stone and was a champion Cornish wrestler. In newspaper articles his surname was also spelt 'Caurse', 'Cors', 'Coss',[151] 'Cause', 'Cawse', 'Cawrce' and 'Cawrse'. He was a blacksmith and claimed to have thrown Gundry before emigrating. He was champion of Victoria[152] and was Cornish wrestling champion of Australia in 1857.[151] In 1852 he was champion of New South Wales[153] and was known as the "Sydney Champion"[154] and beat Hodge in a high-profile challenge match taking the Australian title.[142] He successfully defended the title in 1856 against Burns.[155] He was murdered by being shot in the back of the head.[156][157]
  • Captain James Williams White (1826-1903), born on St Mary's, Isles of Scilly and lived in Burra, South Australia since 1856, was a champion wrestler in the Cornish style.[158][159]
  • Dick Bray, known as "Curley" and weighing about 11 stone, was a champion Australian Cornish wrestler of the 1860s.[160]
  • John H Bray, known as Dancing Bray", was a champion wrestler, winning an important competition in 1868.[161]
  • Joe Williams, originally from Crowan emigrated to mine in Australia in the mid-1800s. He won the Cornish wrestling championship of Australia, gaining the championship belt and a large gold cup.[162]
  • G Philips (1846-1922), was a noted Cornish wrestler in his youth.[163]
  • John Thomas (1844-?),[164] known as "Jack" and from Eaglehawk, was heavyweight champion of Australia for many years. His wrestling career spanned from 1871 to 1899.[12][165] He won over 100 first prizes in England, Victoria, New South Wales, South Australia, Queensland and New Zealand in many wrestling styles.[166][167] He was champion of Victoria in 1879.[168]
  • Stephens was the lightweight Cornish wrestling champion of Australia in 1879.[165]
  • Jack Tamblyn (1849-?), was a champion Cornish wrestler.[169]
  • John Walker (1857-1913), known as " Wrastling Jack", was Cornish wrestling champion of the Barrier towards the end of the 1800s. In later life he suffered from lead poisoning.[170][171][172]
  • Thomas was champion Cornish wrestler of Australia in 1884. He was previously Cumberland and Westmorland wrestling champion.[173]
  • Connors claimed to be world Cornish wrestling champion in 1886.[174]
  • Jacob Burrows was an Australian Cornish wrestling champion in 1887.[144]
  • W Williams was Australian Cornish wrestling champion in 1889.[175]
  • Charles Colwell was Australian Cornish wrestling champion in the late 1800s who was especially notable for having only one arm.[176]
  • Henry Randall Neilson (1867-1925),[177] known as "Delhi Neilson" and the "Bendigo Boy", was Australian Cornish wrestling champion between 1889 and 1907,[178][179] weighing 10 st 7 lbs, who was said to have defeated over 400 opponents.[180] He was an Australian rules footballer. In 1908, 1909 and 1910 he was middleweight Cornish wrestling champion of South Africa.[181][182][183] He was the Cornish wrestling champion of the Barrier in 1890[184] and 1891.[180]
  • Mons Victor was an Australian champion Cornish wrestler in 1898.[185][186]
  • Harry Pearce, was Australian champion Cornish wrestler from 1897[187] to 1904.[137]
  • Dick Porter became middleweight wrestling champion of Australia, beating Delhi Neilson in 1906.[188]
  • Rundle was the 1907 champion of Australia, who also fought in South Africa.[189]
  • George Dinnie was the 1907 Cornish wrestling champion of Western Australia.[190]
  • Colin Roberts was Australian national Cornish wrestling champion in 2000.[191][192]
  • Gavin Dickson from Sydney won the Australian Cornish wrestling championship in 2001 in front of 30,000 people at the Cornish festival in Moonta.[193]


  • Fred Oberlander (1911-1996), was born in Vienna and fought successfully in various wrestling styles in Austria, Britain and Canada. He fought in Cornish wrestling tournaments in the 1940s.[194]


  • Roeder had a famous wrestling match with Schiller Williams in the 1890s, which he lost.[195]



Jack King 1891[196]
  • Captain Jack King (1867[196]-?) was born in Bruce Mines, Canada,[197] moved to the USA and eventually lived in Houghton County.[198] He held the world championship from 1895 to 1898 and was known as the Iron Mountain Butcher.[199][200] He was arrested for robbing a train in 1893 and served 5 years.[201][202] He was champion of America before going to jail.[203][204]
  • Quinn was Cornish wrestling champion of the Pacific coast in 1892.[205]
  • Ole Marsh had a well known match in 1899 with John Sugget for a purse of $2k.[206][207]
  • John Sugget had a well known match in 1899 with Ole Marsh for a purse of $2k.[206][207]
  • Joseph Martin, originally from Castle Gate, Cornwall, was Cornish wrestling champion of Toronto in 1906.[208]
  • W Sampson, originally from Penzance, was Cornish wrestling champion of Toronto in 1907.[209]


  • Stanton became the Cornish wrestling champion of Cornwall at a tournament in Penzance, in the fifteenth century.[210] It is said that the wrestler was named this after chants at the tournament of "Stand-to-un, boy!"[211]
  • John Goit was a friend of Richard Carew who states that during the reign of Elizabeth I, he had a claim to be the best wrestler in Cornwall.[212][213]
  • The Vicar of Lanteglos-by-Fowey was described in 1586 as "the best wrastler in Cornwall."[214][25]
  • Lyttelton Weynorth wrestled several times before Charles II, being introduced by the Earl of Radnor.[83][25][215] He was the champion wrestler of all England.[216][213]
  • Thomas Hosken of Cubert defeated Lyttelton Weynorth and was described as "the strongest man in the county."[83][25][215][213]
  • James Harris, of St Agnes, was commonly called "Skinner" and "beat all and sundry" and was the court wrestler of Charles II.[217] He "shortened his days by the sport".[215][213]
  • William Nott from St Gorran was a farmer who had much competition success at the end of the 1600s and was known as the "philosopher".[215][213]
  • Charles Dawe from St Gorran was referred to by Thomas Tonkin (1678–1742) as being without equal in the early 1700s.[9][218][215][213]
  • William Pascoe (1722-1808), the parish clark of Sithney for 60 years, was the champion of Cornwall for many years.[83][219][220]
  • Thomas Pearce, wrestled throughout Britain in the mid-1700s.[221]
  • Abel Werry (?-1824), from Liskeard was for many years the champion wrestler of Cornwall.[222]
  • Absalom Bennetts from Probus is described as having won well over 42 gold laced hats during the 18th century.[9][83][25] He won the Probus tournament seven years running.[223]
  • John Truscott (1766-1848), from Roche, was a champion Cornish wrestler, competing with an 'East Cornwall' style. He won a famous match with the Giant Jordan in 1813. His brothers, George (known as the 'Big Truscott')[224] and Diggory (known as 'Young Truscott'),[53] were also well known wrestlers.[53][225]
  • Richard Jolly (1782-1848) from Penscawen, St Enoder, was a successful wrestler between 1808 and 1816.[226][227]
Richard Parkyn
  • Richard Parkyn (1772-1855), weighing 16 and a half stone, was a champion wrestler from St Columb Major and was known as The Great Parkyn. He was champion of Cornwall in 1806 and it was said that he was undefeated 20 years thereafter.[228][106] He was dominant from 1795 through to 1811.[229]
  • Jacob Halls (1782-1876), born on the Biscovallick estate, St Austell was a very powerful farmer who won many gold laced hats in his youth.[230]
  • John Collings (1783-1869) from St Minver was a celebrated wrestler in his early life.[231][232] He also had a famous wrestling brother called Thomas.[233]
James Polkinghorne
  • James Polkinghorne (1788–1851)[234] born at St Keverne[37] was a champion wrestler who had a number of famous contests against Devon fighters, including Flower, Jackman (1816)[120] and Abraham Cann (1826), which drew very large crowds of spectators (c17,000).[9][235]
  • Simon Searle Lanyon was a member of the Cornish Yeomanry Cavalry and was famed for his athleticism. It was said that Polkinghorne could not stand up to him.[236]
  • Abraham Bastard (1789-1868), born in St Teath, beat Polkinghorne in a famous match at St Kew in the 1820s.[237] He later became a preacher.[238][239]
  • Francis Olver had much success in the early 1800s, including at least once beating Abraham Cann, James Cann and Finney.[43][240] HIs brother also wrestled.[240]
  • James Warren (1786[241]-?) from St Just was a famed Cornish wrestler, who became champion of Cornwall. He was known as 'Little Jem Warren' or 'Little Hercules' due to being 5 feet 7.5 inches high or 'Great Jem'[242] from having prodigious strength.[243][244] He distinguished himself in the rescue of survivors when the East Indiaman ship, "Kent" caught fire.[238]
  • Henry Cuttance (1807-?), from St Keverne, was a champion Cornish wrestler who the initiator in rallying the local people to assist in the rescue of the crew of the Norwegian schooner, the Elizabeth of Bergen, when it ran aground in 1846.[245]
  • Proctor Grose from St Kew was considered the strongest man in Cornwall and won many wrestling prize in Devon and Cornwall in the early 1800s.[246]
  • Thomas Nicholas (1816[247]-?) was 3 feet eight inches high and weighed about fifteen stone and was considered champion of the West of Cornwall and perhaps of all of Cornwall between 1835 and 1838.[248] He trained Gundry and was known as "Tom Pike".[249][247]
  • Tom Magor from Breage was for some time All England Champion in the early 1800s.[249] He trained Gundry and was a miner at Wheal Vor.[249]
  • Captain Thomas Gundry (1816[249]-1888[250]), of Wendron, was 5 feet 9 inches high, weighed 178 lbs and was a very famous champion wrestler in the 1830s and 1840s. His father was "Boxer" Gundry and his mother was from the Giddles wrestling family. He was trained by Tom Magor and Tom Nicholas.[249] His wrestling record comprised at least 25 tournament wins and 5 second placements from tournaments in Cornwall, Devon and London.[9] He was 7 times Cornish champion.[251] He was the champion wrestler of all England.[252] He was called champion wrestler of the world in 1847.[253] He was married four times.[254][255] In 1870, along with a wrestler called White, Tom rescued six or seven lives from a raging sea.[256]
  • James Dyer was champion of Devon and Cornwall in 1843.[257]
  • John Roberts (1820-1892)[258] known as "Johnnah" or "John-a" and born at Newtown, Ludgvan, was as famous champion heavyweight wrestler in the 1840s and 1850s, that more than once beat Gundry.[258][259][260] After one such occasion, at the Penzance tournament, he was marched from one end of the town to the other accompanied by the mayor, several dignitaries and a band. He was subsequently the "quiet and unobtrusive" landlord of the "Old Inn" at Gulval for 30 years.[249][261]
  • Charles Bowden was lightweight champion of Cornwall in 1851.[262]
  • William Delbridge (1823-1886) was originally from St Agnes and was lightweight champion of Cornwall in 1857.[263] He then emigrated to Australia, where he was a respected stickler at many tournaments.[264] He became the owner of a well known vineyard.[264]
  • Captain Joseph Hodge (1824-1909) was champion of Cornwall in 1839[265][266] and London champion in 1848.[267][268]
  • William Couch Jeffery (1826-1899),[269] from Long Rock was champion middleweight[260] of Cornwall for a quarter of a century including the 1840s and 1850s.[270][271][272] He won many prizes in Cornwall as well as London.[272] He was initially a miner and then a market gardener and fisherman.[269] He spent some time in Australia and it was said that he had beaten the Australian champion wrestler, who was an Irishman after walking 160 miles to the match.[273][272]
  • James Bullocke (1834[274]-?), from St Austell, was 6 feet tall and weighed 220 lbs and a champion wrestler who was champion of Cornwall in 1860 having defeated Treglown.[275][274]
  • William Treglown (1827-1864) from Ludgvan, weighed between 200 lbs and 220 lbs,[249] was about 5 ft 6in high[274] and was the champion of Cornwall in 1853,[276] 1854,[277] 1856,[278] 1858,[279][280] 1861[281] and 1862.[282] He won the London title in 1854[283] and 1859.[284] He won the West of England title in 1853.[285] He was the American champion in 1856.[278] He died of consumption in St Mewan.[286] He also wrestled in Europe.[287][288]
  • John Murton was lightweight champion in the mid-1800s.[289]
  • Polmear was a champion Cornish wrestler in the 1860s.[290]
Joseph Menear 1864[291]
  • Joseph Menear (1838-?) was born in St Austell[292] and won the London Cornish wrestling title for over 10 years in a row[293] and won over 100 prizes, cups, belts and medals.[294] He had a brother John who had some wrestling success.[295][296]
  • William Pollard from Linkinhorne won many tournaments from the mid to late 1800s. He became champion of England. He was 6 feet 2 inches high and weighed 220 pounds.[297] He was champion of Cornwall for seven years to 1869.[298]
  • Samuel Rundle (1847[299]-?), of St Austell,[300] weighing 7 st 10 lbs and known as "Sammy Short",[301] was all England Cornish wrestling champion in 1874, retaining the title for 20 years.[302][303] He was champion of England in 1876[304] and in 1883 and in 1898 had been champion of England for "many years".[305][306] In 1884 he had been champion of Devon and Cornwall for 12 years.[307] Sam also wrestled successfully in the United States.[308][309][310]
  • Philip Hancock (1846-1927) of St Austell was the World Cornish Wrestling champion in 1884, winning the "open to the world" belt in Penzance. He was known as "Phep", "Phip" or the "fat'un".[311][312] He was 5 ft 9in and won the champion belt of Devon and Cornwall, wrestling in front of the Prince of Wales. He claimed that he was never thrown or beaten in 28 years in competitions across the UK.[313] He helped build the Eddystone Lighthouse and the Wolf Rock Lighthouse.[314]
  • Captain Samuel Coombe (1849-?), from Bugle, known as "Sammy", was a very strong wrestler who had some famous bouts with Hancock, who said he was as good a wrestler as he ever faced.[315] He was heavyweight Cornish wrestling champion of Cornwall.[316][317][318] When Sammy ceased wrestling he became a renowned Methodist preacher after teaching himself to read and write from reading the bible.[319][320][318][317]
  • William Lucking was lightweight champion of Cornwall in 1887.[321]
  • Richard Williams (1851-1892), born in Chacewater, 5 feet 6 inches high and weighing 144 lbs,[322] was known as 'Schiller Williams' after surviving the wreck of the Schiller and helping save some of the other few survivors. He was a well known, champion wrestler in Cornwall, the US, England, Northern Ireland, Bolivia and Mexico.[195][323] He was Western states champion in the US and was lightweight champion of Cornwall.[324] He died in Mexico.[195] He became lightweight champion of Cornwall in 1887 after beating William Lucking in Wales.[321]
Thomas Stone 1899[325]
  • Thomas Stone (1852-1937) of St Austell, was a well known wrestler, who won over 20 tournaments in the mid to late 1800s.[326] He was wrestling champion of Cornwall in 1896[327] and 1899.[325] He wrestled in front of King Edward VII, who gave him a sovereign that he kept as a keepsake.[325] His brother Henry was also an accomplished wrestler and was champion of Cornwall in 1891 after Tom had been disqualified.[328][329] He was a worker in the china clay industry.[330]
  • Thomas Bragg (1852-1924)[331] was born in Foxhole[331][332] and was champion of America in 1866,[333][304] 1876,[334] 1879,[335][336] 1880,[337] 1882,[338][339] and 1883.[340] He was champion of Cornwall in 1882.[341] He was champion of England in 1887.[342][343] He also fought under the name, "Dan Lewis, the Strangler", in other wrestling styles, both in the UK and in Europe.[344]
  • John Pearce (1859[345]-1896), from Wendron and known as "Jack", was the champion of Cornwall in 1887 and held the title for 6 years. He won over 24 tournaments in England and the United States.[346][347] John also claimed to be world Cornish wrestling champion in 1884,[348] 1886,[349] 1887,[350][349][351] 1888,[350][352] 1889,[353] 1893[354] and in 1894.[355][356] He had brothers Nicholas[357] and Walter[358][359] who had some wrestling success.[357]
  • John Capell (1859-1932),[360] from Talskiddy, St Columb, was heavyweight champion of Cornwall in 1890[361] and 1898[362][363] and Champion of the West of England in 1890.[364][360]
  • Alfred Ernest Trenoweth (1868-1942) from Falmouth was well known as light weight champion wrestler of Cornwall. He was a carpenter and joiner and was also lightweight boxing champion of Kent.[365]
  • James Matthews, from Chapel Street, St Day,[366] was a champion wrestler, who is especially notable, since he only had one arm![367][368][369]
  • Pellew, from Falmouth was a champion wrestler, who is especially notable, since he also only had one arm![370][371]
  • Jeffries from St Mewan was Cornish wrestling champion of America.[372]
  • Earnest Small, from Penzance, was West of England champion in 1906.[373][374] He was Cornish champion in 1906 defeating Sidney and Reuben Chapman.[375][376] He defeated Ahmed Madrali.[374]
  • Reuben Chaman (1881[377]-1930), known as "Reub", from the famous Chapman family of St Wenn that has won many titles throughout the last century, was champion of Cornwall from 1903 to 1910[378] and in 1914.[379][380] He was a rabbit trapper as a young man.[381][382] He also fought and won matches in the US.[383]
  • Sidney Chapman (1889[377]-?), from the famous Chapman family of St Wenn that has won many titles throughout the last century, won the championship of Cornwall in 1903,[384] 1907,[385] 1912,[385][386][387] 1913,[385][388][387] 1919[389][390] and 1920.[391][392] He beat Tim Harrington in 1909[393] and was the middleweight champion of the US in 1910. He was awarded a medal by the Transvaal wrestling association in 1911 for his wrestling in South Africa[385] and was the champion of South Africa in 1911[394] and 1912.[395][396] He also fought in Australia.[394]
  • Francis Gregory (1904-?), from Roche, was a champion Cornish wrestler in the 1920s and 1930s who won the heavyweight title 9 times in a row and the interceltic title 7 times in a row. He was champion of Britain in 1934.[397] He was a famous sportsman, being a professional wrestler and boxer, who played league and union rugby (including for England).[398] He participated in the first televised wrestling match and wrestled Billy Holland in a scene for the film Breakers Ahead.[397]


  • John Ridd, from Devon, held the championship belt for Devon and Cornwall in about 1685.[399]
  • John Coppe, known as "Little Cock", came from near Great Torrington, was about 5 feet 5 inches high and bow-legged and in the middle of the 18th century was champion throughout Devon, Somerset and Cornwall, for about 20 years.[400][401][402][215]
  • William Wreyford (1755-1838) from Cheriton Bishop was one of the best wrestlers in the Western counties if not in all England at the end of the eighteenth century.[403][404][405]
  • William Ford (1784-1874), from Zeal Monachorum, was a wrestler of great reputation in North Devon.[406][407]
  • John Jordan (1787-?), from Grantham[408] near Hatherleigh and known as "Giant Jordan"[409] or the "Devonshire Giant", was a famously massive champion wrestler from Devon who was 6 feet 4 inches tall. He fought in the early 1800s and had a series of famous matches with Cann.[235] He was champion of Devon in 1811[410] and 1812.[411][412] He also had famous matches with the Great Parkyn (1811) and John Truscott (1813), both of which he lost.[413][414][53]
  • William Wreford (1793[415]-1835[416]), who lived at Cheriton Cross between Okehampton and Exeter, was 5 feet 10 inches tall and was a sightless champion in the early 1800s. He was known as 'Blind Bill'.[402] He was always allowed a grip on his opponent's collar at the start of a hitch.[400][215]
  • John Bolt (1793-1875), from Cheriton Bishop, was a farmer and a champion wrestler throughout Britain and was Cann's second in his fight with Polkinhorne.[417][418][419]
  • Charles Cleeve of Kenton[420] was champion of England in 1827.[420]
  • William Wreford (1793[415]-1866)[421] was born at Morchard Bishop[421] was a champion Devonian wrestler of whom Abraham Cann said he was the "best best man he ever took by the collar".[422] He came to fame after throwing Giant Jordan at the Crediton competition in 1812.[423][424][425]
Abraham Cann 1864[426]
  • Abraham Cann (1794[53]-1864) was born in Crediton[427] and was a famous wrestler who had an infamous wrestling match with James Polkinghorne.[9] He was the champion wrestler of England.[428] It was claimed that he became champion of the world.[429][244] His father, Robert, and brothers: James (?-1849[430]), Robert, George and William (1793-1872[431]) were also successful wrestlers.[432][43][429]
  • James Truscott (1804-1891),[433] born on West Street, Tavistock[434] and often called 'Jemmy',[435] weighing 10st (63 kg),[435] claimed to be the English lightweight champion in 1845.[436] He later managed many wrestling matches and tournaments in London and tended to open the events with a shout of "A hat! A hat!".[437] He was also a boxer[433] and was one of the founders of the Patriotic Club at Clerkenwell Green.[434]
  • William Chapple from Bishop's Nympton,[438] was champion of Devon in 1841,[439] 1844,[440] 1845[441] and 1847.[442][443] He was champion of England in 1842[444][445] and 1847.[253]
  • William Davy May (1817-1842) was champion of England in 1841.[439][446] During his career, he threw the best men of Devon and Cornwall, including the Gundrys, Ellicombe, Matthews, Chapple and Upton.[447][448]
John Slade 1866[449]
  • John Slade, known as 'Jack Slade', held the Devon title for many years in the mid 19th century. He won the Prince of Wales Cup and the Duke of Cornwall Cup and a large number of tournaments and matches.[450] He was all weights champion of England in 1860.[451]
  • Thomas Cooper (1823-1875), born at Sampford Courtenay,[415] won many tournaments and was the four Western counties champion in the 1860s through to 1870.[415][452] He was champion of West of England in 1859,[453] 1869[454][455] and 1870.[452] and reported to be champion of England in 1869.[454][455] He was champion of Devon in 1852,[456] 1858,[279] 1870,[457] 1871,[458] 1873[459] and 1874.[460] He had a brother John, 3 years his senior, who had some tournament success and who lived on the farm where Abraham Cann was born.[415]
  • Frank Hutchings from Moreton[332] was Cornish wrestling champion of England in 1877, beating Phil Hancock.[461][462][463]
  • Robert Baker (1847[464]-?) of Bow[465] was champion of England in 1879, throwing Pike in the 10th round of the second day.[464][466] He was also Devon champion in 1879.[335] He had a brother Thomas who also had some success.[467]
  • Richard Pike (1850[464]-1909) of Bow[465] was a champion wrestler in the 1880s and 1890s and was referred to as the "great Pike",[313] sometimes fighting under the name of "Shepherd".[465] He was about 6 feet 2 inches high and weighed 244 lbs.[464][465] He was champion of Devon in between 1878 and 1881.[468][469][470] He was champion of England in 1882.[471][339] He was world champion in 1894.[472][473] He was West of England champion for 17 years.[474]
  • Samuel Battershill (1855-1902) of Bow[465] was champion of Devon from 1885 through to 1887.[475][476][463]
  • John Stentiford (1862[345]-?) from Drewsteignton[477] was in the Royal Marine Light Infantry, weighed 14 stone 4 lbs and was 5 feet 9 inches high. He won many first prizes in tournaments towards the end of the 1800s in Devon and Cornwall, including beating John Capell. He lost a title match for the world championship in 1888 against Jack Pearce after wrestling over two days.[350]


  • Mustapha Hambdi was an Egyptian wrestler who competed in Cornish wrestling competitions in Britain in the 1920s.[478][479] He was middleweight champion of the world in catch as catch can wrestling.[480]

England (excluding Devon)[edit]

Sir Thomas Parkyns 1713[196]
  • Sir Thomas Parkyns (1664-1741), the "Wrestling Baronet",[481] was a student of Isaac Newton before he learnt his Cornish wrestling in Gray's Inn in London. He wrote one of the first books giving detailed instructions on hand-to-hand combat using Cornish wrestling techniques called The Inn-play or Cornish Hugg Wrestler, published in 1713.[482] In 1712 he set up an annual Cornish wrestling tournament at his estate in Bunny which continued until 1810.[483]
  • Richard Rowe, originally from Cornwall, took up his residence at Cambridge University in 1740. Both he and his son were famous wrestlers and botanists.[484]
  • Isaac Newton, from Rempstone, was one of England's best wrestlers in the mid 1700s. He won the Bunny tournament 5 times and it was said that he only lost one wrestling match.[483]
  • Richard Thurlby, from Nailstone, was one of England's best wrestlers in the mid 1700s. He won the Bunny tournament in 1762 after beating Isaac Newton.[483]
  • George Nailor, from Beeston, won the Bunny tournament 5 times in the early 1800s.[483]
  • Charles Layton was the Norfolk champion from 1817 to 1827.[485][486]
  • Clargo (also spelt Claggo in the newspapers)[487] claimed to be the Berkshire Cornish wrestling champion in 1828.[488]
  • William Matthews was champion of Dorset in 1841[439] and in 1842.[489]
  • John Goodman of the Blues was the London champion in 1845.[490][491]
  • Joe Milton was the champion Somerset wrestler in 1869.[492]
Tom Cannon 1885[493]
  • Tom Cannon (1852[494]-?) wrestled in Cornish wrestling matches in the late 19th and early 20th centuries,[495] including winning a tournament, beating 22 other competitors.[494] He wrestled in the UK, the US, France and Australia in many wrestling styles, including becoming world Greco-Roman wrestling champion in 1886 and 1894.[494]
  • Tom Waters claimed to be the Cornish wrestling champion of the North of England in 1884.[496]
  • Jack Wannop (1854–1923) was champion of London in 1892. He wrestled in other styles in the UK and United States. He was also a boxer.[347][497]
  • Joe Faulkner was 12 stone champion of the world in 1895.[498]
  • Charles Cawkell was a member of Britain's first international judo team who, along with Tani, competed in Cornish wrestling tournaments in the late 1920s, but with limited success.[480][499]


Georg Karl Julius Hackenschmidt 1905
  • Georg Karl Julius Hackenschmidt (the "Russian lion" weighing over 25 st, or about 160 kg) defeated the Australian Cornish wrestling champion, Delhi Nelson (three times)[500][501] and the South African Cornish wrestling champion Grotz, in 1905.[502] Hackenschmidt was a champion of many wrestling styles.[500]


Karl Lehto 1910[503]
  • Karl Lehto, from Finland, competed in Cornish wrestling matches and tournaments in America in the early 1900s.[504]


  • Fleure was a champion French wrestler who competed in Cornish wrestling competitions in Britain at the highest level in the early to mid 1800s.[505]
  • Henri was a noted French wrestler in the mid-1800s.[506]
  • Piere Maison fought in Cornish wrestling matches in London in the mid-1800s.[507][508]
  • M Bazar lost to Sam Rundle, in Paris, in a Cornish wrestling match in 1876. He was wrestling champion of France at the time and weighed 300 lbs.[509][510]
  • Delmas Pierre was a Frenchman that fought in Cornish wrestling tournaments in America in the 1890s.[511]
  • Dubois was a French wrestler who weighed nearly 22 stone, who was beaten by Sam Rundle.[512]


  • Herman was a German who competed in Cornish wrestling matches in Australia in the 1870s with some success.[513]
  • Carl Moth from Germany competed in mixed style wrestling matches in the US involving Cornish wrestling in the 1880s.[514][515]
  • Carl Schmidt, known as the "Germany Hercules", competed in mixed style wrestling matches in the US involving Cornish wrestling in the 1890s.[516]
  • Fisher was a German who competed in challenge matches in America involving Cornish wrestling. For example, he beat M J Dwyer in 1898, but lost the return match in the same year.[517]
  • Hillebrand, the "German Samson", was a strongman who toured America at the start of the 1900s and participated in some high-profile Cornish wrestling matches with the likes of Sid Varney.[518][519]
Joseph Ziehr 1902[66]
  • Frank Gehle, also known as the "German Hercules", fought in mixed style wrestling matches including Cornish wrestling, in the United States in the early 1900s.[520]
  • Joe Ziehr, from Germany,[521] fought mostly in the United States and held the world Cornish wrestling heavyweight title between 1906[522] and 1919.[523][524] In 1902 he was the heavyweight champion of the United States.[66] Prior to this he had been a professional ice hockey player and played for the Calumet Miners.[525][526]


  • Dr John Theodore Hatzopulos, known as "Greek George", was a champion wrestler of many styles including Cornish wrestling. He was 6 ft 2 inches high and weighed 188 lbs when in condition.[527] He wrestled throughout the world.[528][529]
  • Bill Demetral was Greek, who fought in Cornish wrestling tournaments in Michigan in the early 1900s.[530][531]


  • Dutcher was a wrestler of "some importance" from Holland that wrestled in Cornwall in the 1890s.[532]


  • Saffney was champion of Ireland in 1826 and fought with Cann in 1826.[533][534]
  • Philip Gaffney, the "Irish giant",[12] was an Irish champion in the early 1800s.[535] He was champion of Ireland in 1827.[536][537] He was London champion in 1828.[538]
  • Finney was a tall Irish champion in the early 1800s who at least once defeated Abraham Cann.[43]
  • Larkins was the Irish champion in 1827.[539]
  • Moorish of the 4th Royal Irish Dragoon Guards was 5 ft 5in high and competed at the highest level in the early 1800s.[540]
  • Simon Finn (1812[63] won the all-weights championship belt at the first annual meeting of the Devon and Cornish wrestling Society at Lambeth in 1849.[541] He was the Irish champion in 1847[542] and in 1849.[543]
  • Flyn was a highly regarded Irishman that wrestled in Cornish wrestling tournaments in London in the mid-1800s.[544]
  • McMahon was the Irish champion who fought in America in the 1870s.[195]
Tim Harrington 1907[545]
  • Timothy Corby Harrington (1873-1925),[546] was born in the Beara Peninsula in Ireland and emigrated to the US in about 1875. He claimed the world Cornish wrestling middleweight title in 1903 and retained it until his death.[547][548][549][550][551] In 1902, Tim was arrested on the charge of insanity. It took 5 policemen to subdue him.[552][553] He had a brother Peter, who also has some wrestling success.[554][545] Tim beat Frank Gotch in a Cornish wrestling match.[555]
  • Molly Russell, was Lady Cornish wrestling champion of the world in 1904.[556][557] She was a crack shot, fencer and fought in other wrestling styles.[558]
  • Pat Connolly was an Irish champion that fought successfully in Cornish wrestling tournaments in Michigan in the early 1900s.[530][531]


  • Charles Salotti was an Italian Cornish wrestler that fought in America in the early 1900s and won various tournaments.[559][560]


Matsuda Sorakichi


  • Don Pardo, originally from France[566] and known as the "great Pardo", was a noted Mexican Cornish wrestler in the late 1800s. He was a world famed bicyclist[195][567][568][569]
  • Professor Willie, originally from San Francisco - 6 feet high and weighing 176 pounds,[566] was a noted Mexican Cornish wrestler in the late 1800s.[195][568]

New Caledonia[edit]

  • Philip Trenberth was the Cornish wrestling champion of New Caledonia in 1878.[570]

New Zealand[edit]

  • Richard Cox was the Westland Cornish wrestling champion in 1868.[571][572]
  • Francis Griffiths (1844-1910) was the Cornish wrestling champion of the West coast of New Zealand for several years.[573][574]
  • Edward Blackburn (1844-?), born in Cumberland, 5 feet 7 inches high and weighing 182 lbs, had much success in New Zealand Cornish wrestling tournaments. He also competed successfully in Australia.[575] He was originally a catch as catch can wrestling champion in England before emigrating. He drew a Cornish wrestling match with Sam Rundle in 1874.[576]
  • Thornton was the Cornish wrestling champion of New Zealand in 1882.[577][578]
  • Ben Orr was champion Cornish wrestler of New Zealand in 1887.[579]
  • Coghlan was champion wrestler of New Zealand in 1887.[580]
  • Robert James Scott, Cornish wrestling champion of New Zealand defeated Australian champion Delhi Nelson in 1905 to become the Cornish wrestling champion of Australasia. Note that he was arrested after this match for deserting his wife.[581] He was 6 ft 3 inches and weighed over 14 stone.[582][583]
  • Harry Pearce was Cornish wrestling champion of Australasia in 1908.[584]


  • J Rogers of Polish extraction fought in Cornish wrestling competitions in Australia in the 1890s.[585]


Duncan C Ross 1888
  • Donald Dinnie (1837-1916) was a famous Scotch athlete who competed in challenge mixed wrestling matches, which included Cornish wrestling, in the 1880s and 1890s in New Zealand[586] and Australia.[587]
  • Duncan C Ross (1856-1919) was another famous Scotch athlete who was the Cornish wrestling champion of New Zealand in 1891.[588] He also fought in mixed style challenge matches including Cornish wrestling in the US in the 1890s.[589] He also claimed the all round championship at wrestling and weight throwing.[589]

South Africa[edit]

  • Bill Irwin (1855-?)[590] was heavyweight champion of South Africa from 1897[591] before losing the title to Phil Mitchell in 1905.[592] He also fought in Britain, for example losing a match to Jack Pearce.[593][594]
  • Phil Mitchell, born at East End, Redruth[590] and weighing 197 lbs,[595] was a famous heavyweight Cornish wrestling champion of South Africa.[596][597] He was the heavyweight Cornish Wrestling champion of South Africa in 1904[590] and 1905.[12][595][592][598]
  • William Prynne (?-1931), Originally from St Stephen-in-Brannel and known as "Bill", was the Cornish wrestling champion of South Africa.[599][600][595][597] He won 4 silver cups, a silver rose bowl and 2 cases of cutlery amongst other smaller prizes in South African tournaments.[601]
  • "Nick" Hocking, weighing 147 lbs,[595] was the lightweight Cornish wrestling champion of South Africa in 1905.[597][602]
  • Grotz was Cornish wrestling champion of South Africa in 1905.[502]
  • Tit Wills, originally from Lanner[603] and weighing 140 lbs,[595] was the middleweight Cornish wrestling champion of South Africa in 1906.[603][604][605]
  • James Henry Triggs (1873[12]-1949), weighing 220 lbs,[595] born at Four Lanes and known as "Jim",[606] was the heavyweight Cornish wrestling champion of South Africa in 1905[592][607] and 1906.[608][609] He was champion of Australia in 1905 and won many matches in the US.[607] He held the heavyweight title for Cornwall in 1904[12][595][607] and was instrumental in setting up the CWA. He was also a regular manager and stickler for the Cornish contingent in Brittany.[610] He also wrestled in Norway.[12]
  • Almond Giles (1870-1912), weighing 125 lbs, was trained by Jack King[611] and was the lightweight Cornish wrestling champion of South Africa, England and America in 1907.[612][603] He was 1905 lightweight champion of South Africa.[613] He was born in St Dennis, Cornwall.[614] He won many tournaments in England and America.[603] He was champion lightweight wrestler of Montana.[608]
  • Jack Rudd, weighing 152 lbs,[615] was the middleweight Cornish wrestling champion of South Africa in 1905[603] and 1907.[614][189] He was one of the best Cumberland wrestlers.[615]
  • Sam Ham (1880-1946),[616] weighing 165 lbs,[595] who was born in Condurrow near Camborne, was the 1910 middleweight Cornish wrestling champion of South Africa.[617][618]
  • W Littlejohn, originally from Gunnislake[608] and weighing 220 lbs,[619] known as 'tiny', was heavyweight champion of the Transvaal in 1910.[617]
  • Prynne Stevens, was the 1916 Cornish wrestling champion of South Africa.[599]
  • B Gregor was the heavyweight champion of South Africa in 1926.[620][621][622]
  • Cecil Coombes, originally from Redruth and weighing 197 lbs, regained the heavyweight title of South Africa in 1927, winning it for the fourth time.[620][621][622]
  • J Ocliffe was the lightweight champion of South Africa in 1927.[620][621]
  • T H Gregor (1894-1964)[623] originally from Highway, Redruth arrived in South Africa in 1913 and won many Cornish wrestling trophies in South Africa. In 1953 he was still the undefeated heavyweight Cornish wrestling champion of South Africa.[624]

Sri Lanka[edit]

  • The Imajah was middleweight champion of Ceylon in 1894 and also competed in Cornwall.[532]


Hjalmar Lundin
Charles Dufstrom 1912[625]
  • Hjalmar Emanuel Lundin (1870–1941) fought in mixed style challenge matches in the United States, in the late 1890s, including Cornish wrestling.[626]
  • Emil Anderson, known as the "terrible Swede", Sweden fought in the United States at the turn of the 20th century. He had a famous match, for the world title, with Rowett in 1899.[627][628]
  • Karl Johnson (1883-1952), born in Grästorp and also known as the "Terrible Swede", fought in the United States, based in Chicago, in challenge matches, including Cornish wrestling.[629][630]
  • Ole Olson from Sweden, was one of the best Cornish wrestlers in the US.[631] He beat John Tippett in a well known match in 1904.[632]
  • Chris Person, known as the "Big Swede", competed in Cornish wrestling tournaments in the US, in the early 1900s.[633]
  • Charles Dufstrom, also known as the "terrible Swede", fought in the United States and claimed the world Cornish wrestling title in 1912.[634][635]


Hali Adali 1899[636]
Ahmed Madrali 1904
  • Hali Adali, the great Turkish wrestler weighing 263 lbs and with a 56 inch chest,[636] had some success in Cornish wrestling at the turn of the 20th century including defeating Tom Harrington, Joe Ziehr and Jack O 'Neill in 1899.[637] However, he was defeated in a Cornish wrestling match by Jack O'Neill during a visit to the United States in 1903.[638]
  • Mourad Alat, known as the "Terrible Turk No II", fought in challenge matches in multiple styles, including Cornish wrestling, in Canada in the early 1900s.[639]
  • Ahmed Madrali, the famous Greco-Roman wrestler known as the "Terrible Turk", tried his hand at Cornish wrestling and was defeated by Earnest Small.[374]

United States[edit]

  • Joseph Taylor Williams (1830-?) was born in St Erth and fought in tournaments in Cornwall, Devon and California during the 1850s and 1860s.[640][641] "He had not an equal in his day at anywhere near his weight."[144] He was champion of the Pacific coast. He was known as "little" Joe Williams or "Shiers" Williams. He was also lightweight champion of Cornwall in 1873.[642][643][644] He repeatedly beat Sam Rundle in the 1870s.[645]
  • Thomas Eudy (born in St Austell) was the California State Cornish wrestling champion in 1861.[144][646][647]
  • Joseph Lawrence came second in the Grass valley tournament in 1866.[648] He was convicted of second degree murder in 1868.[649]
  • Bill Pellew (1838-1908), from Virginia City, Nevada was a miner and known as the "Pride of Comstock". He was Cornish wrestling champion of America in the 1870s.[650]
  • George Harvey (1843-?) was the Michigan Cornish wrestling champion in the 1870s. He was 5 feet 11 inches high and weighed 195 lbs.[297]
  • Colonel J H McLaughlin (1844-1905), participated in mixed style wrestling matches, including Cornish wrestling, at the end of the 1800s.[651][652]
  • James H Williams (1845-1906) from Walkerville, Michigan and better known as "Belmont", was famous as a Cornish wrestler.[653][654]
  • William Alfred Williams (1850-1903) from Centreville, Michigan held the middleweight Cornish wrestling champion of the Pacific coast for years.[655]
  • Fred Beecham was champion of Michigan in 1870.[656]
  • James Delbridge (1851-?) was the Michigan lightweight Cornish wrestling champion in the 1870s. He was 5 feet 7 inches high and weighed 145 lbs.[297]
  • Tom Carkeek, born in Plain-an-Gwarry, Redruth[657] was said to weigh 17 stone,[658] was a champion of Cornish wrestling in the 1860s[659] and was the world Cornish wrestling champion in 1875.[660] It was said that he won 528 consecutive wrestling matches without defeat and won 88 prizes.[661][657] He was champion of the Lakes in 1878.[661][662] He worked as a miner in Montana.[663]
  • John Blydh (1854-?) born in Linkinhorne and weighing 186 lbs, beat Tom Carkeek in a celebrated match in 1878.[664]
  • James Gerry (1858-?) born in Linkinhorne, weighing 180 lbs and being 5 feet 11 inches high, beat the best men of America including Tom Carkeek. He also had some success in Cornwall, drawing a match with Sam Rundle.[665]
  • Ben Knight, from Darlington, held the Cornish wrestling championship belts for Wisconsin, Northern Michigan and Colorado during the 1880s.[666]
  • Johnny Smith, from Virginia City, claimed to be the Pacific coast Cornish Wrestling champion in 1884.[496]
  • James Pascoe (1852[667]-?) claimed to be the Pacific coast Cornish Wrestling champion in 1884[668][669] and 1890.[670] In 1990 he claimed the title of champion of America in the Cornish style.[671] He was 5 styles wrestling champion of the world.[611]
  • Peter Carlyon (1846-1926),[672] from Breage,[673] was the world lightweight Cornish wrestling champion in 1876, having defeated Tom Carkeek.[660] In 1886[674][673] and 1887[675][676][677] he was the lightweight champion of America. He also came to compete in the UK.[674]
  • Durham Ivey (1854-1894) was the Colorado Cornish wrestling champion in 1886.[678][679] He died in a mine accident and was also a catch-as-catch-can wrestler.[679]
  • Richard Varcoe (1855-1910) was a Cornish wrestler with some success, that wat was murdered by James Scopacesa in Ishpeming, Michigan. His son John was also a "clever wrestler".[680][681]
  • Andrew Bearle was the Cornish wrestling champion of America in 1887.[682]
  • Captain James M Wilcox from Ontonagon, Michigan was the middle weight Cornish wrestling champion and was one of the world's authorities on Cornish wrestling. He was a wealthy mine owner who became the elected representative for the district of Gogebic County, Michigan.[683] He stated that he would introduce a bill to make the teaching of Cornish wrestling compulsory in Michigan schools.[684]
  • Gus Stohl was champion of Montana and won a $5k prize to become champion of the West in 1890.[685]
  • Frank Joslin was the Pacific coast Cornish Wrestling champion in 1894.[686]
  • Joseph Jefford was the Pacific coast Cornish Wrestling champion in 1895.[687]
  • J W Jefford of Sonoma was the Pacific coast Cornish Wrestling champion in 1898.[688]
  • Louis Morgan was the champion Cornish wrestler of the North West in 1898.[689] In 1899 he was champion lightweight Cornish wrestler of the world.[690]
  • "Jim" Jeffords of Grass valley was the Cornish wrestling champion of America in 1899.[691]
Jack Carkeek 1900[692]
  • John Carkeek (1861-1924), known as "Jack", was the World Cornish Wrestling champion in 1886 (after beating Jack Pearce in a bout lasting over 5 hours), in 1887 (he separately fought Pearce where the outcome was contested and Pearce claimed that Carkeek bit off a portion of his ear,[693] Bragg[694] but drew with Hancock in a title match)[695] and again in 1889 (beating Hancock and Pearce)[696][697][698] through to 1901,[699] 1904 (beating Tom Bragg)[179] and 1905.[699][700][701] He regularly wrestled in Britain and the USA. He also wrestled in Australia. He was born in Rockland, Michigan, died in Havana and was buried in New York. He also won the Pacific coast championship.[702][703][346] He officially retired from wrestling in 1891,[704] however was involved in competitions after this date.[705] He was the son of Tom Carkeek[706] and his mother was first cousin to the actor Sir Henry Irving.[706] He was the champion of America in 1887,[707][708][709] 1888[347] and 1900.[710] In the US, he was originally trained by Thomas White from St Just.[695] In 1888 he was arrested in Chicago for two counts of swindling by means of a fake contests.[711][712][713] In 1910, while using the name of Jack Fletcher, he was arrested in San Francisco as part of the Maybray gang involved with match fixing.[714][715] In 1913 he pleaded guilty to attempted swindling[716] and was sentenced to 6 months.[717] He also fought under the name Jack O'Brien.[718]
  • Robert Gilbert, from Anaconda, Montana was a heavyweight champion Cornish wrestler. In 1891 he was heavyweight Cornish wrestling champion of both Colorado and Montana.[719]
Jack Rowett 1909[720]
  • John Ryan (1868-1937), born in Wabasha, Minnesota held the World's middleweight championship in Cornish wrestling. He was deputy sheriff of Gogebic county and then managed a bar before joining the Oliver Iron police force.[721]
  • John H Rowett (1873[722]-1958),[723] born in St Austell, was known as Jack and the "Bessemer Giant"[523] and gained the lightweight championship of the United States at the age of 16. He won the world championship in 1896 from Jack King and defended the title until his retirement in 1911.[724][199][725][726] Rowett regained his title in 1914[727][726] and 1915.[559] He was champion of America in 1897,[728] 1898,[657][729][203] 1899[519] and 1909.[730] He was a game warden and then was elected one of Gogebic county's early sheriffs.[722][731]
  • William Jones, from Butte, Montana, beat Jack Rowett twice in large stand alone matches in 1899,[732][733] thereby claiming the championship of the world.[734] Note that he had lost to Rowett in 1897.[735]
Tony Harris 1902[736]
James Rodda wrestling Haskins in San Francisco 1898[737]
  • James Rodda was champion of California in the Cornish style from 1889 through to 1902.[738][739][740] He was arrested on a charge of attempted murder after a gunfight with Robert Chase in 1902.[740]
  • Tony Harris was a USA Cornish wrestling Champion in the 1900s (coming from Butte, Montana), of which it was claimed that he was "the best man to ever wear a [wrestling] jacket".[144] He was champion of the North West in 1896,[741] 1902[742] and 1903.[549]
  • Prof Mike J Dwyer, from Hancock, Michigan[743] and known as "Sonny" Dwyer,[744] claimed the world Cornish wrestling title in 1898[745] and 1902.[746] He had the distinction of teaching Cornish wrestling to the US president, Theodore Roosevelt.[125][126][127] He also fought in Canada.[744]
Martin Burns (left) and Frank Gotch (right)
  • Martin Burns (1861-1937), born in Cedar County and known as "Farmer" Burns, beat Rowett in 1899[735] and lost to M J Dwyer in 1905 in Cornish wrestling matches.[747] He was a famous catch wrestler.[127]
  • Frank Gotch (1877 - 1917) beat Jack Carkeek in a Cornish wrestling match, while Jack claimed to have the world Cornish wrestling title.[748] Gotch was a champion of many wrestling styles.[749]
  • Jack O'Neill, beat Jack Carkeek and Hali Adali in the very early 1900s.[638]
  • Husson, was the Cornish wrestling champion of Arizona in 1904.[750]
  • Coon, was the Cornish wrestling champion of Arizona in 1904, after beating Husson in their return match.[750]
  • Fred Roeber was champion of America in 1907.[751][752]
  • John Tippett (1876-1910),[753] known as Jack, lived in Butte, Montana, but was originally from St Austell[753] and weighed 186 lbs. He was champion of Canada and Michigan.[754] He claimed to be Cornish wrestling champion of America in 1908.[751][752] He also had some wrestling success in Cornwall.[753][755] He died in a cabin fire in Park City.[753][756]
William Martin 1902[66]
  • William Martin (1875-1910[757]), 'Billy' weighing 140 lbs,[758] from Calumet, Michigan, was the lightweight world Cornish wrestling champion from 1898[759] until he died of pneumonia[760] in 1910.[761] In 1902 he was the middleweight champion of the United States.[66][522] He also wrestled in Norway.[762] In 1905 he was champion lightweight Cornish wrestler of Michigan.[758]
  • Mike Dooley claimed the title of champion lightweight Cornish wrestler of the world in 1909.[763][764] He was the welter weight Cornish style wrestling champion of the Northwest in 1910.[765]
  • K A Wirtenan won the world's championship in Cornsih wrestling in 1910.[766]
  • John Rowe was Sheriff of Gogebic County, City Marshal of Bessemer and in 1910 was the undefeated world champion of Cornish-style wrestling.[201][767]
  • Thomas Young was the 1911 Cornish wrestling champion of Arizona.[768]
  • Chief War Eagle was of Native American extraction and competed in mixed wrestling challenge matches, involving Cornish wrestling, in the US in the early 1900s. In such a match he beat Tim Harrington in 1911.[769]
  • Sid R Varney, born in Cleveland, claimed the world Cornish wrestling title in 1921. He fought Ahmed Madrali in 1898 and 1899. He was a blacksmith and a champion in other wrestling styles.[770][519]
  • Richard Johns, known as "Dick", from Gwinn was the lightweight Cornish wrestling champion of the world in 1921.[771][772] He was lightweight champion of the US in 1921[773] and in 1923.[774]
  • Tom Richards, originally from Old Pound, Nanpean, was the 1926 middleweight champion of America.[775]
Evan Lewis 1919


  • John Rowe was a Welsh champion Cornish wrestler during the 1870s.[776]
  • Evan Lewis (1860-1919), known as the "strangler" and from Welsh descent, was a champion wrestler in the US, in various styles. In the early 1880s he competed in Cornish wrestling tournaments[777] and challenge matches with various opponents including Jack Carkeek,[778] with whom he lost a series of matches.[779] In the 1890s he competed in mixed style challenge matches, which included Cornish wrestling,[780] including beating Jack King a couple of times.[781][782][783] Note that his brother Rees Lewis also fought in Cornish wrestling challenge matches in the 1880s.[784]
  • Richard Pike from Barry was West of England champion in 1895.[785]
  • Jack Lamnea, known as "Swansea Jack" and "Lemm" became all England Cornish style wrestling champion in 1903.[786]
  • Nancy Jones, was Lady Cornish wrestling champion of Wales in 1904.[556][557]

Cornish wrestling throws[edit]

There are a number of Cornish wrestling throws that are taught in training classes, but each has many variants.

In Play
Back Heave
Cornish Hug
Fore Heave
Flying Mare
Half Heave
Scat un Back
Teddy Bag Heave
Under Heave
Back Crook
Fore Crook
Slip Crook
Back Sprag
Double Sprag
Single Sprag
Hip Throws
Fore Hip
Pull Over Hip
Out Play
Back Step
Lock Arm
Pull Under
Foul Throws
Foul Moves
Cross Collar
Crowbar Hitch


The following Senior Championships are fought annually in competitions across the Duchy, overseen by the CWA:

Championship Current Weight limit (lbs) 1963 Weight limit (lbs) 1938 Weight limit (lbs) 1936 Weight limit (lbs) 1924 Weight Limit (lbs)
Heavyweight Open Open Open Open Open[787][788]
Light Heavyweight 210 180[789] N/A N/A N/A
Middleweight 182 160 160 160 160[790][788]
Lightweight 168 145[791] 145 145 145[787][788]
Featherweight 154 130[792] 130[793] 140[794][795] 130[796][788]
Ladies Open N/A N/A N/A N/A

Note that women have held some of the weight based championships.

The following Junior Championships are fought annually in competitions across the Duchy:

  • Under 18s Belt
  • Under 16s Trophy
  • Under 14s Trophy
  • Under 12s Trophy
  • Under 10s Trophy

Cornish Wrestling at the Royal Cornwall Show[edit]

The Cornish Wrestling Association (CWA) still features annually at the Royal Cornwall Agricultural Show. The Cornish wrestling tent can be found in the Countryside area very near to the west entrance. In the Cornish wrestling tent you will find an impressive display of Cornish wrestling trophies, belts, history, photos, books and DVDs. The wrestlers perform demonstrations of their style in the Countryside ring, usually twice a day for each of the three days of the show. The demonstrations feature most of the throws and moves of the Cornish style and also feature demonstration bouts usually with a variety of wrestlers from youngsters, girls, lightweights and heavyweights.

Outside Cornwall[edit]

Cornish wrestling is Cornwall's oldest sport and as Cornwall's native tradition it has travelled the world to places like Victoria, Australia and Grass Valley, California following the miners and gold rushes. In the city of Grass Valley, the tradition of singing Cornish carols lives on and St Piran's Day celebrations are held every year, which along with carol singing, includes a flag raising ceremony, games involving the Cornish pasty, and Cornish wrestling competitions.[797]

See also[edit]


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  175. ^ Wrestling, Coolgardie Miner (WA), 20 December 1894, p3.
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  190. ^ Wrestling in Perth, Western Australia, Cornishman, 22 August 1907, p6.
  191. ^ Town crier attacked in front of his wife by gang of teenagers, The Western Morning News, 22 October 2009, p5.
  192. ^ Shocking attack leaves town crier with three broken ribs, Cornish Guardian, 21 October 2009, p3.
  193. ^ Festival finale, The Advertiser; Adelaide, 22 May 2001.
  194. ^ Cornish young wrestlers, Cornish Guardian, 5 September 1946, p5.
  195. ^ a b c d e f Death of Richard (Schiller) Williams, Cornish Post and Mining News, 27 August 1892, p7.
  196. ^ a b c The Iron Mountain Galdiator, Oswego Daily Palladium, 21 April 1891, p13.
  197. ^ The wrestlers, Anaconda Standard, 31 October 1892, p4.
  198. ^ Michigan: Jack King to wrestle, Cornubian and Redruth Times, 21 April 1906, p3.
  199. ^ a b Jack Rowett is still champion, Camulet News, 10 January 1911, p7.
  200. ^ Over the Northwest, Camulet News, 30 July 1898, p8.
  201. ^ a b Dr Todd, Arthur Cecil : The Cornish Miner in America, D Bradford Barton Ltd (Truro), 1967, p139-141.
  202. ^ The robbery of 70,000 dollars from a train, Cornishman, 19 October 1893, p7.
  203. ^ a b Peninsula News, The L'Anse sentinel, 29 January 1898, p1.
  204. ^ The Michigan train robbery cleared of all mystery, The Iola register (Iola, Kan.), 29 September 1893, p6.
  205. ^ Notes and Comments, Cornubian and Redruth Times, 1 April 1892, p5.
  206. ^ a b Dawson Canada, Cornish Post and Mining News, 17 August 1899, p3.
  207. ^ a b Klondike, Cornish Post and Mining News, 31 August 1899, p4.
  208. ^ Wrestling in Americal - Gulval man wins silver cup, Cornishman, 4 October 1906, p6.
  209. ^ Penzance Notes News, Cornishman, 8 August 1907, p5.
  210. ^ Stanton, Western Daily Press, 19 February 1875, p1.
  211. ^ Stanton for Stroud, Western Daily Press, 16 February 1875, p1.
  212. ^ Richard Carew (antiquary): The Survey of Cornwall, 1602, p76.
  213. ^ a b c d e f Dr Whetter, James: Cornish People in the 18th Century, Lyfrow Trelyspen, The Roseland Institute, Gorran 2000, p50-56.
  214. ^ Coate, Mary: Puritan Survey of 160 parishes in Cornwall, 1586
  215. ^ a b c d e f g Rev Polwhele, R: History of Cornwall, Michell & Co (Truro) 1816, p67-68.
  216. ^ Hamilton Jenkin, A K: The Story of Cornwall, Thomas Nelsom and Sons Ltd 1934, p119-121.
  217. ^ Cornish wrestling revival, Western Morning News, 20 September 1923, p2.
  218. ^ Cornish folk in times past, West Briton and Cornwall Advertiser, 12 January 1959, p2.
  219. ^ Matthew's great day, West Briton and Cornwall Advertiser, 25 August 1994, p77.
  220. ^ One hundred years ago, Royal Cornwall Gazette, 26 March 1908, p6.
  221. ^ Wrestling match, Derby Mercury, 14 October 1757, p4.
  222. ^ Lamentable occurrence, Taunton Courier, and Western Advertiser, 30 June 1824, p5.
  223. ^ Gymnastics, Saint James's Chronicle, 16 June 1808, p1.
  224. ^ Wrestling, Star (London), 5 August 1826, p4.
  225. ^ Cornish Wrestlers, Western Morning News, 22 August 1944, p6.
  226. ^ Lover of Cornish wrestling, Late Rev L V Jolly, West Briton and Cornwall Advertiser , 30 May 1963, p6.
  227. ^ Western Morning News,7 September 1944
  228. ^ Mawgan wrestling - champions present and past, Cornish Guardian, 28 July 1927, p13.
  229. ^ Cornish Wrestling, Cornishman, 9 March 1927, p2.
  230. ^ Death of an old farmer, West Briton and Cornwall Advertiser, 30 March 1876, p5.
  231. ^ Death of a Cornish wrestler, Cornubian and Redruth Times, 17 December 1869, p4.
  232. ^ Death of a wrestler, Western Times - Tuesday 21 December 1869, p6.
  233. ^ Death of a Cornish wrestler, Royal Cornwall Gazette, 18 December 1869, p5.
  234. ^ Deaths, Royal Cornwall Gazette - Friday 19 September 1851, p5.
  235. ^ a b The great wrestling match, Globe, 26 October 1826, p3.
  236. ^ The Lanyon Family, The West Briton, 2 January 1890, p10.
  237. ^ Historic venue for wrestling in St Kew, Cornish Guardian, 16 August 1956, p9.
  238. ^ a b c Cornish Wrestling down the ages, West Briton and Cornwall Advertiser, 4 January 1954, p1.
  239. ^ Samuel Ley Thorne,The Converted Wrestler; or the Life of Abraham Bastard, 1877
  240. ^ a b Wrestling: James Cann and Olver, Bell's Life in London and Sporting Chronicle, 22 June 1828, p3.
  241. ^ Warren a St Just Hero, West Briton and Cornwall Advertiser, 28 October 1943, p4.
  242. ^ James Warren, Cornish Times - Saturday 16 May 1857, p1.
  243. ^ Mining Intelligence, Cornish Times, 16 May 1857, p1.
  244. ^ a b 'Howitt, William: Rural Life of England, Longman (london), 1840, p536-538.
  245. ^ Heroic collection under the hammer, The West Briton, 23 February 2017, p54.
  246. ^ The late Mr W Grose of St Kew, The West Briton and Cornwall Advertiser, 1 February 1877, p4.
  247. ^ a b Wrestling match, Weekly Dispatch (London), 18 March 1838, p12.
  248. ^ Cornish Wrestling Match, Bell's Life in London and Sporting Chronicle, 11 October 1835.
  249. ^ a b c d e f g Tom Gundry, Cornishman, 1 November 1888, p3.
  250. ^ Gleanings, Birmingham Daily Post, 25 October 1888, p7.
  251. ^ Cornish Wrestling returns to Sithney, West Briton and Cornwall Advertiser, 03 June 1982, p41.
  252. ^ Wrestling Matches at Redruth, Cornishman, 28 August 1884, p6.
  253. ^ a b Cornwall and Devon Wrestling, Bell's Life in London and Sporting Chronicle, 6 June 1847, p3.
  254. ^ Fish, Tin and Copper, Cornish Echo and Falmouth & Penryn Times, 22 May 1880, p4.
  255. ^ West of England gleanings, Weston Mercury, 27 October 1888, p2.
  256. ^ Wrestliana, Royal Cornwall Gazette, 12 February 1870, p4.
  257. ^ Wrestling, The Era, 17 September 1843, p11.
  258. ^ a b Death of a Cornish wrestler, Cornishman, 17 March 1892, p4.
  259. ^ A reminiscence of Johnna Roberts and Harry Williams, Cornishman, 31 March 1892, p7.
  260. ^ a b Wrestlers of the past, Cornishman - Thursday 28 January 1904, p5.
  261. ^ Death of a famous Cornish wrestler, Cornish Post and Mining News, 19 March 1892, p6.
  262. ^ The wrestling at Copenhagen House, The Observer, 21 April 1851, p8.
  263. ^ Morning Advertiser, 6 June 1857.
  264. ^ a b Death of Mr W Delbridge, Cornishman, 4 March 1886, p7.
  265. ^ Bell's Life in London and Sporting Chronicle, 26 May 1839
  266. ^ Morning Advertiser, 21 May 1839
  267. ^ The Era, 25 June 1848
  268. ^ The late capt. Joseph Hodge, a striking career, The Cornish Telegraph, 21 October 1909, p7.
  269. ^ a b Death of a Cornish wrestler, Cornubian and Redruth Times, 3 November 1899, p5.
  270. ^ Wrestling at Redruth, The Cornish Telegraph, 15 May 1884, p8.
  271. ^ Wrestling at Redruth, Cornishman - Thursday 15 May 1884, p5.
  272. ^ a b c Death of a manly wrestler, Cornishman, 9 November 1899, p2.
  273. ^ Death of a Cornish wrestler, and respected man, Cornishman - Thursday 02 November 1899, p5.
  274. ^ a b c Wrestling, Royal Cornwall Gazette, 2 November 1860, p4.
  275. ^ The Cornish Telegraph, 31 October 1860
  276. ^ The Cornish Telegraph, 28 September 1853
  277. ^ The Cornish Telegraph, 12 April 1854
  278. ^ a b The Wrestling, The Cornish Telegraph, 30 July 1856, p3.
  279. ^ a b Royal Cornwall Gazette, 11 June 1858
  280. ^ Royal Cornwall Gazette, 17 September 1858
  281. ^ Lake's Falmouth Packet and Cornwall Advertiser, 1 June 1861
  282. ^ Morning Advertiser, 10 June 1862
  283. ^ Royal Cornwall Gazette, 23 June 1854
  284. ^ Bell's Life in London and Sporting Chronicle, 19 June 1859
  285. ^ Royal Cornwall Gazette, 14 April 1854
  286. ^ Treglown, Royal Cornwall Gazette, 25 March 1864, p8.
  287. ^ Wrestling, The Cornish Telegraph, 22 February 1854, p3.
  288. ^ Barton RM, Life in Cornwall in the mid 19th Century, D Bradford Barton Ltd (Truro) 1971, p233.
  289. ^ The challenge wrestling match, Western Morning News, 14 September 1860, p2.
  290. ^ Penzance, Cornubian and Redruth Times, 1 May 1868, p2.
  291. ^ Illustrated Sporting News and Theatrical and Musical Review, 2 April 1864, p1.
  292. ^ Joseph Menear, Illustrated Sporting News and Theatrical and Musical Review, 2 April 1864, p1.
  293. ^ Wrestling, Illustrated Sporting News and Theatrical and Musical Review, 12 June 1869, p3.
  294. ^ Who is Joe Menear, Cornishman, 25 October 1894, p3.
  295. ^ Hackney Wick, Sporting Life, 30 March 1864, p3.
  296. ^ Wrestling Notes, The Western Times, 14 November 1879, p2.
  297. ^ a b c Delbridge, James: Delbridge's guide on grab hold, or Cornish style of wrestling, (Michigan), 1879, p1-28.
  298. ^ Notes on the Exeter wrestling, Western Morning News, 8 June 1869, p3.
  299. ^ Exciting wrestling match, Royal Cornwall Gazette, 12 December 1874, p5.
  300. ^ A wrestling match, Western Times, 25 September 1873, p1.
  301. ^ Cornish wrestling at St Blazey, Cornish Guardian, 5 September 1902, p8.
  302. ^ Wrestling, The Australian Star (Sydney, NSW),20 June 1883, p2.
  303. ^ The Cornish Champion Vanquished, Cornishman, 11 July 1895, p7.
  304. ^ a b Wrestling match at Plymouth, The Cornish Telegraph, 4 April 1876, p7.
  305. ^ Butte City Montana, Cornish Post and Mining News, 24 March 1898, p6.
  306. ^ Scene at the Helton wrestling matches, The Cornish Telegraph, 20 October 1883, p5.
  307. ^ Jack Wannop as boxer and wrestler, Boxing World and Mirror of Life, 19 January 1907, p12.
  308. ^ Cornishmen abroad: Wrestling, Cornishman, 7 June 1894, p2.
  309. ^ The canvas jacket, The Anaconda standard, 15 June 1895, p4.
  310. ^ The wrestling tournament, Cornishman, 5 July 1894, p4.
  311. ^ Wrestling for £100, East & South Devon Advertiser, 5 November 1887, p7.
  312. ^ Wrestling Champion - Death of Philip Hancock, Western Morning News - Tuesday 26 April 1927, p12.
  313. ^ a b Phip Hancock's ring days, Western Morning News, 29 September 1921, p2.
  314. ^ Wrestling, Cornish Post and Mining News, 21 August 1926, p3.
  315. ^ Phil Hancock, Tom Gundry and Jack Pearce, Cornishman, 5 October 1921, p3.
  316. ^ Bugle Native's long service, Cornish Guardian, 31 October 1929, p13.
  317. ^ a b Obituary, Cornish Guardian, 6 March 1969, p16.
  318. ^ a b Converted wrestling champion, Cornish Guardian, 14 January 1965, p9.
  319. ^ Cornish wrestler and local preacher, Cornubian and Redruth Times, 1 June 1922, p3.
  320. ^ Cornish wrestling, Western Morning News, 12 July 1922, p2.
  321. ^ a b Wrestling Match, The Central Glamorgan Gazette, and General, Commercial, and Agricultural Advertiser, 27 May 1887, p6.
  322. ^ A Cornish wrestler in Mexico, Cornish Echo and Falmouth & Penryn Times, 16 July 1892, p4.
  323. ^ Death of Schiller Williams, Cornishman 25 August 1892, p6.
  324. ^ Letter from the Transvaal, Cornishman, 13 May 1948, p4.
  325. ^ a b c Death of Mr Tom Stone, Cornish Guardian, 18 March 1937, p10.
  326. ^ Lanivet: wrestling, Royal Cornwall Gazette, 10 May 1878, p5.
  327. ^ Truro Wrestling, Cornubian and Redruth Times, 11 September 1896, p5.
  328. ^ County wrestling at Truro , Cornishman, 24 September 1891, p7.
  329. ^ The county wrestling matches , Cornish Echo and Falmouth & Penryn Times, 19 September 1891, p4.
  330. ^ 1891 UK Census, Transcript of Piece RG12/1822 (Part 1), Folio 7 Page 7.
  331. ^ a b Death of a famous Cornish wrestler, Cornish Guardian, 4 April 1924, p7.
  332. ^ a b Thomas Bragg, Western Times - Monday 24 November 1879, p3.
  333. ^ Wrestling, Cornubian and Redruth Times, 22 July 1887, p7.
  334. ^ Wrestling in Devon, Bell's Life in London and Sporting Chronicle, 30 September 1876, p5.
  335. ^ a b Wrestling in Devonshire, Sporting Life, 3 September 1879, p4.
  336. ^ A Wrestling Match, Western Times, 2 September 1879, p2.
  337. ^ Wrestling at Dartmouth, Western Times, 28 August 1880, p3.
  338. ^ Wrestling, Exeter and Plymouth Gazette, 1 September 1882, p7.
  339. ^ a b Grand Wrestling Tournament, Bristol Mercury, 29 May 1882, p4.
  340. ^ Wrestling match at Cardiff, South Wales Daily News, 10 September 1883, p3.
  341. ^ Wrestling, Cornishman, 8 June 1882, p6.
  342. ^ Carkeek vs Bragg, Cornish & Devon Post, 27 August 1887, p2.
  343. ^ Wrestling, Cornishman, 30 June 1904, p6.
  344. ^ Wrestling, Tom Bragg and the "Terrible Turk", Cornishman, 11 February 1904, p7.
  345. ^ a b Wrestling, The championship of the world, The Devon Evening Express, 19 May 1888, p4.
  346. ^ a b Corvion, Tom: Pioneers of Professional Wrestling: 1860–1899, Archway Publishing (Bloomington) 2014, p37-38.
  347. ^ a b c Wrestling for the championship, Cornishman, 27 October 1892, p7.
  348. ^ Grandson of wrestling champ met wife at Helston flora day, West Briton and Cornwall Advertiser, 5 February 1998, p7.
  349. ^ a b The wrestling championship of Cornwall, Cornish & Devon Post, 8 January 1887, p2.
  350. ^ a b c Wrestling match for the championship of the world, Western Morning News, 16 May 1888, p4.
  351. ^ County Wrestling matches at Truro, Royal Cornwall Gazette, 23 September 1887, p8.
  352. ^ Wrestling at Plymouth, Cornishman, 24 May 1888, p5.
  353. ^ Prize wrestling, Cornishman, 16 May 1889, p6.
  354. ^ On Wednesday afternoon wrestling, Lake's Falmouth Packet and Cornwall Advertiser, 19 August 1893, p5.
  355. ^ Yesterday's Cornwall, West Briton and Cornwall Advertiser, 20 October 1994, p14.
  356. ^ The Cornish championship, Sporting Life, 23 October 1894, p4.
  357. ^ a b Trewennack wrestling matches, Cornishman, 1 November 1883, p5.
  358. ^ Helston Notes, Royal Cornwall Gazette, 14 August 1885, p5.
  359. ^ Wrestling at Porkellis, Cornishman - Thursday 20 August 1885, p3.
  360. ^ a b Passing of Mr J Capell, St Columb, Cornish Guardian - Thursday 11 February 1932, p2.
  361. ^ Wrestling at Redruth, Cornish Post and Mining News, 26 September 1890, p8.
  362. ^ Lake's Falmouth Packet and Cornwall Advertiser, 23 July 1898.
  363. ^ Royal Cornwall Gazette, 21 July 1898.
  364. ^ Cornubian and Redruth Times, 26 September 1890.
  365. ^ Former wrestling champion, West Briton and Cornwall Advertiser, 26 October 1942, p2.
  366. ^ Correspondence, Cornubian and Redruth Times, 10 January 1902, p5.
  367. ^ Redruth Wrestling matches, Cornishman, 25 September 1890, p8.
  368. ^ Wrestling matches at Helston, Cornishman, 10 July 1884, p5.
  369. ^ Redruth wrestling matches, Cornubian and Redruth Times, 21 September 1888, p2.
  370. ^ Truro wrestling match, The West Briton and Cornwall Advertiser, 18 July 1878, p5.
  371. ^ Wrestling Match, The West Briton and Cornwall Advertiser, 13 Jul 1885, p2.
  372. ^ Fine exposition of Cornish wrestling, Cornishman, 23 June 1904, p5.
  373. ^ Cornish wrestling revived, The Sportsman, 20 August 1906, p8.
  374. ^ a b c Links with sport, Cornishman, 4 October 1922, p4.
  375. ^ Cornish wrestling revived, Cornishman, 23 August 1906, p8.
  376. ^ Royal Cornwall Gazette, 23 August 1906
  377. ^ a b 1891 Census, Enumeration District 10, Folio 154 Page 3.
  378. ^ Cornish wrestling champion of yesteryear, Cornish Guardian, 4 August 1966, p7.
  379. ^ Boxing World and Mirror of Life, 1 August 1914
  380. ^ Passing of "Reub" Chapman: A former champion, Cornish Guardian, 3 July 1930, p9.
  381. ^ Charge against a wrestler, Cornish Echo and Falmouth & Penryn Times, 15 February 1901, p7.
  382. ^ Alleged arson in Cornwall, The Cornish Telegraph, 13 February 1901, p2.
  383. ^ Michigan, Cornishman, 18 July 1907, p3.
  384. ^ Cornubian and Redruth Times, 23 July 1925
  385. ^ a b c d Bodmin wrestler wins a second Cornish title, Cornish Guardian, 18 July 1963, p14.
  386. ^ West Briton and Cornwall Advertiser, 9 September 1912
  387. ^ a b Boxing World and Mirror of Life ,16 August 1913
  388. ^ Boxing World and Mirror of Life, 23 August 1913
  389. ^ Cornish Guardian, 20 June 1919
  390. ^ West Briton and Cornwall Advertiser, 23 August 1920
  391. ^ Western Morning News, 23 August 1921
  392. ^ Cornishman, 25 August 1920
  393. ^ Michigan, The Cornish Telegraph, 16 December 1909, p6.
  394. ^ a b Chapman wins honors, The Calumet News, 10 July 1911, p8.
  395. ^ Wrestling at St Columb, West Briton and Cornwall Advertiser, 12 September 1912, p3.
  396. ^ Wrestling at St Columb, Cornish Guardian, 13 September 1912, p6.
  397. ^ a b Cornish wrestling in Lady of Pendower, Kinematograph Weekly, 28 June 1934, p37-38.
  398. ^ Tripp, Michael: PERSISTENCE OF DIFFERENCE: A HISTORY OF CORNISH WRESTLING, University of Exeter as a thesis for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy 2009, p127-175.
  399. ^ Some old-time champions, Cornish Guardian, 19 September 1919, p3.
  400. ^ a b Wrestlers, North Devon Journal, 26 January 1871, p5.
  401. ^ Whispers and echoes, Cornish Guardian, 1 October 1926, p7.
  402. ^ a b Two celebrated wrestlers, Little Cock and Blind Bill, Hereford Times, 21 November 1846, p9.
  403. ^ Died, Western Times, 16 June 1838, p2.
  404. ^ Died, Dorset County Chronicle, 21 June 1838, p4.
  405. ^ An Extraordinary Wrestler, Wiltshire Independent, 28 June 1838, p4.
  406. ^ Death of a noted wrestler, Royal Cornwall Gazette, 16 May 1874, p37.
  407. ^ Death of a noted wrestler, Western Morning News 8 May 1874, p3.
  408. ^ Torpoint diversions, Hampshire Chronicle, 29 July 1811, p72.
  409. ^ Tavistock Wrestling match, North Devon Journal, 18 May 1827, p3.
  410. ^ Globe, 17 July 1811
  411. ^ Saint James's Chronicle, 26 May 1812
  412. ^ Star (London), 15 August 1812
  413. ^ Cornish wrestling at the Eagle tavern, Bell's Life in London and Sporting Chronicle, 14 August 1831, p3.
  414. ^ Wrestling at Saltash, Pilot (London), 6 August 1811, p3.
  415. ^ a b c d e Wrestling Notes: Thomas Cooper, Western Times, 3 February 1880, p7.
  416. ^ Death of an old wrestler, Express and Echo, 23 March 1875, p2.
  417. ^ Death of an old wrestler, Royal Cornwall Gazette - Saturday 27 March 1875, p4.
  418. ^ Death of an old wrestler, The Exeter Flying Post or, Trewman's Plymouth and Cornish Advertiser, 24 March 1875, p5.
  419. ^ Death of an old wrestler, The West Briton and Cornwall Advertiser, 1 April 1875, p11.
  420. ^ a b Wrestling, Weekly Dispatch (London), 22 July 1827, p5.
  421. ^ a b Death of a renowned Devonshire wrestler, South Australian Weekly Chronicle (Adelaide, SA), 23 February 1867, p3.
  422. ^ An old wrestler, Western Times, 4 December 1866, p3.
  423. ^ Crediton, Western Times, 27 February 1866, p7.
  424. ^ Death of a renowned Devonshire wrestler, The Exeter and Plymouth Gazette, 7 December 1866, p6.
  425. ^ An old wrestler, The Western Times, 7 December 1866, p6.
  426. ^ Illustrated Sporting News and Theatrical and Musical Review, 7 May 1864, p4.
  427. ^ Wrestling Notes, Western Times, 21 February 1880, p3.
  428. ^ A champion of other days, Western Times, 12 May 1860, p6.
  429. ^ a b Old Abraham Cann, the Champion Wrestler, The Cornish Telegraph - Wednesday 25 July 1860, p2.
  430. ^ Weekly Calendar, Sherborne Mercury, 20 August 1850, p4.
  431. ^ "Wrestlers", The West Briton and Cornwall Advertiser, 13 February 1872, p2.
  432. ^ Abe Cann's bout with the Cornish champion, Exeter and Plymouth Gazette, 14 December 1927, p3.
  433. ^ a b Death of Jemmy Truscott, Sporting Life, 15 January 1891, p4.
  434. ^ a b Funeral of Jemmy Truscott, Sporting Life, 23 January 1891, p4.
  435. ^ a b Wrestling: Benefit of Jemmy Truscott, Sporting Life, 14 November 1883, p1.
  436. ^ Wrestling, Bell's Life in London and Sporting Chronicle, 1 June 1845, p4.
  437. ^ Cornwall and Devon wrestling society: the championship, Royal Cornwall Gazette, 16 April 1868, p4.
  438. ^ Attempted murder in Devonshire, Sun (London), 16 November 1841, p3.
  439. ^ a b c Wrestling,Exeter and Plymouth Gazette, 18 September 1841, p3.
  440. ^ The Era, 13 October 1844
  441. ^ Grand Wrestling Match,Exeter and Plymouth Gazette, 16 August 1845, p3.
  442. ^ Morning Herald (London), 25 May 1847
  443. ^ Bell's Life in London and Sporting Chronicle, 23 May 1847
  444. ^ Bell's Life in London and Sporting Chronicle, 10 April 1842
  445. ^ Exeter and Plymouth Gazette, 2 April 1842
  446. ^ Death of May, the wrestler, North Devon Journal, 25 June 1829, p3.
  447. ^ North Devon, Exeter and Plymouth Gazette, 19 February 1842, p3.
  448. ^ Devonshire, Bristol Mirror, 26 February 1842, p6.
  449. ^ Illustrated Sporting News and Theatrical and Musical Review, 7 April 1866, p9.
  450. ^ Jack Slade's wrestling and boxing competitions, Sporting Life, 7 February 1887, p3.
  451. ^ Wrestling, The Sportsman, 17 February 1885, p4.
  452. ^ a b Champion Wrestler's Belt, Exeter and Plymouth Gazette, 12 August 1870, p6.
  453. ^ The Cornish Telegraph, 23 June 1858
  454. ^ a b Wrestling at Exeter, Cornubian and Redruth Times, 13 August 1869, p4.
  455. ^ a b Western Morning News, 11 August 1869
  456. ^ Bell's Life in London and Sporting Chronicle, 8 August 1852
  457. ^ Western Times, 9 May 1870
  458. ^ Wrestling match, The Western Times, 20 September 1871, p3.
  459. ^ Western Times, 15 August 1873
  460. ^ Western Times, 30 July 1874
  461. ^ Items of News, The Cornish Telegraph, 12 June 1877, p4.
  462. ^ Western Morning News, 5 June 1877
  463. ^ a b Devon Wrestling, Hutchings and Tapper, Battishill, The Western Times, 20 May 1879, p3.
  464. ^ a b c d The great Cornwall and Devon wrestling match between Baker and Pike for the championship, Bell's Life in London and Sporting Chronicle, 13 September 1879, p9.
  465. ^ a b c d e Devon wrestling, Western Times, 7 February 1879, p3.
  466. ^ Champion wrestling match, Cornish & Devon Post, 13 September 1879, p2.
  467. ^ Wrestling notes: Thomas Baker, Western Times, 13 January 1880, p2.
  468. ^ Devon Wrestling, Western Times, 6 February 1879, p6.
  469. ^ The Sportsman, 22 July 1880
  470. ^ Western Times, 1 November 1887
  471. ^ Grand wrestling tournament, Western Daily Press, 29 May 1882, p8.
  472. ^ Wrestling, Cornubian and Redruth Times, 16 November 1894, p2.
  473. ^ Champion wrestling at Plymouth, Royal Cornwall Gazette, 15 November 1894, p4.
  474. ^ Champion wrestler at Cardiff, Star of Gwent, 20 September 1895, p9.
  475. ^ Cornish wrestling, Morning Post, 12 April 1887, p3.
  476. ^ Carkeek, Cornishman, 31 March 1887, p4.
  477. ^ Local News, Western Times, 24 May 1888, p2.
  478. ^ a b Cornish Wrestling, Western Morning News, 11 August 1927, p3.
  479. ^ Wrestling at Camborne, Cornish Post and Mining News, 20 August 1927, p2.
  480. ^ a b Cornish wrestlers challenged, Cornish Guardian, 18 August 1927, p4.
  481. ^ The Wrestling Baronet of Bunny, Manchester Courier and Lancashire General Advertiser, 14 October 1882, p9.
  482. ^ Sir Thomas Parkyns: The Inn-play or Cornish Hugg Wrestler, J Bailey (London) 1713, p18-19.
  483. ^ a b c d Green, Timothy: Nottingham in the olden time, William Draper printer, 1859, p98-99.
  484. ^ Tregoning Hooper, Cornish Wrestling, Royal Institution of Cornwall, Vol II, Part 2, 1954, p88-97.
  485. ^ Wrestling, Morning Chronicle, 17 April 1827, p4.
  486. ^ Devonshire Wrestling, Morning Advertiser, 17 April 1827, p3.
  487. ^ Cornish Wrestling Match, Globe, 7 June 1827, p3.
  488. ^ Cornish Wrestling, Morning Advertiser, 2 July 1828, p2.
  489. ^ Wrestling at Tiverton,Bell's Life in London and Sporting Chronicle, 10 April 1842, p4.
  490. ^ Devon and Cornwall Wrestling Matches, Sun (London), 16 May 1845, p2.
  491. ^ Devon and Cornwall Wrestling Matches, Morning Advertiser, 15 May 1845, p3.
  492. ^ Presentation to a champion wrestler, The Evening Express of The Devon Weekly Times, 23 July 1869, p6.
  493. ^ The Moth-Cannon Wrestling Match, The Saint Paul Globe,5 December 1885, p4.
  494. ^ a b c Local Sport, Western Mail, 19 September 1895, p7.
  495. ^ Wrestling at Cardiff: Cannon vs. Pike, South Wales Daily News, 27 September 1895, p6.
  496. ^ a b Boxing and wrestling, Daily Alta California, 9 August 1884, p1.
  497. ^ Boston Daily Globe, 18 June 1889, p10.
  498. ^ Wrestling, South Wales Daily News, 15 October 1895, p6.
  499. ^ Ju Jitsu exponent beaten, Cornish Guardian, 13 October 1927, p9.
  500. ^ a b Cornish Wrestling, The Bendigo Independent (Vic), 6 February 1905, p3.
  501. ^ Cornish Wrestling, The Age (Melbourne, Vic.), 3 February 1905, p6.
  502. ^ a b Wrestling, Sporting Life, 17 June 1905, p1.
  503. ^ The Calumet News, 7 February 1910, p7.
  504. ^ Finnish wrestlers expect to make good showing against Chris Person, The Calumet news, 21 January 1910, p3.
  505. ^ Wrestling, The Era, 30 June 1844, p12.
  506. ^ Wrestling, The Cornish Telegraph, 21 June 1854, p3.
  507. ^ Wrestling, Bell's Life in London and Sporting Chronicle, 5 February 1854, p7.
  508. ^ Wrestling, New York Clipper, 4 March 1854, p1.
  509. ^ England vs France, New York Clipper, 13 May 1876, p53.
  510. ^ Devon Wrestling, Rundle, The Western Times, 14 February 1879, p7.
  511. ^ The Cornish wrestling tournament calls out some good talent, Anaconda Standard, 7 July 1893, p4.
  512. ^ Sam Rundle, Boxing World and Mirror of Life, 6 July 1904, p6.
  513. ^ The wrestling match, Ovens and Murray Advertiser (Beechworth, Vic.), 28 December 1875, p2.
  514. ^ McMillan wins, Salt Lake City Herald, 3 August 1886, p16.
  515. ^ New York Sun, 1 March 1886, p1.
  516. ^ Helena Athletic Club, Helena Independent, 2 January 1893, p8.
  517. ^ Dwyer beats Fischer, The Saint Paul globe, 9 April 1898, p5.
  518. ^ Challenge is accepted, Bisbee daily review, 7 July 1904, p5.
  519. ^ a b c Big wrestling match Friday eve, Bisbee daily review, 29 June 1904, p8.
  520. ^ Wrestling Match, Waterbury Democrat, 15 February 1902, p5.
  521. ^ Michigan, Cornishman, 3 September 1908, p3.
  522. ^ a b Strong boys contesting in a series of bouts for the championship, The Minneapolis journal, 22 July 1906, p3.
  523. ^ a b Cornish wrestling in America, The Cornish Telegraph, 14 October 1909, p7.
  524. ^ Champ in Calumet, Escanaba Daily Press, 3 July 1941, p6.
  525. ^ Ziehr defeats Ed. Tremberth, Camulet News, 03 January 1911, p7.
  526. ^ Wrestling in the limelight, just now, The Minneapolis Journal, 19 August 1906, p28.
  527. ^ Athletics, Sportsman (Melbourne, Vic), 17 November 1896, p2.
  528. ^ Land and water, Otago Witness, 6 July 1899, p36.
  529. ^ GREEK GEORGE" AGAIN, Referee (Sydney, NSW), 25 April 1900, p7.
  530. ^ a b The wrestlers, Cornishman, 28 October 1915, p3.
  531. ^ a b Butte city, Montana, Cornishman, 18 November 1915, p3.
  532. ^ a b Wrestling at Callington, Royal Cornwall Gazette, 26 July 1894, p7.
  533. ^ Wrestling, Trades' Free Press, 24 September 1826, p6.
  534. ^ Wrestling, Globe, 25 September 1826, p3.
  535. ^ Wrestling at Haigh Park, Globe, 11 April 1828, p3.
  536. ^ Wrestling, Exeter and Plymouth Gazette, 29 September 1827, p3.
  537. ^ Wrestling, West Briton and Cornwall Advertiser, 28 September 1827, p2.
  538. ^ Wrestling, Weekly Dispatch (London), 23 November 1828, p5.
  539. ^ Wrestling, Bell's Life in London and Sporting Chronicle, 1 April 1827, p3.
  540. ^ wrestling, Royal Cornwall Gazette, 12 July 1828, p4.
  541. ^ Wrestling, Sporting Life, 29 April 1887, p3.
  542. ^ Wrestling near Bristol, Bell's Life in London and Sporting Chronicle, 1 August 1847, p3.
  543. ^ Wrestling, Morning Advertiser, 30 May 1849, p3.
  544. ^ Cornwall and Devonshire wrestling, West Briton and Cornwall Advertiser - Friday 11 June 1847, p2.
  545. ^ a b Wrestling match, Dillon Tribune, 14 June 1907, p1.
  546. ^ Cornish wrestling champ is dying in Montana, Daily Kennebec journal, 14 August 1908, p4.
  547. ^ Sporting Gossip Today, The Butte inter mountain, 22 January 1903, p8.
  548. ^ Gotch Wins Handily, The Morning Astorian, 12 April 1904, p1.
  549. ^ a b Cornishmen Abroad, Cornishman, 2 July 1903, p3.
  550. ^ Harrington the Champion, The Cornish Telegraph, 29 July 1903, p3.
  551. ^ Michigan, Cornishman, 6 August 1903, p2.
  552. ^ Famous Cornish wrestler crazy, The Butte inter mountain, 28 October 1902, p1.
  553. ^ Wrestler goes insane, Salt Lake Tribune, 26 October 1902, p35.
  554. ^ Tim Harrington wins first prize, The Butte inter mountain, 6 July 1903, p8.
  555. ^ Jap throws all white opponents, The Ogden standard, 8 April 1910, p8.
  556. ^ a b Female Wrestlers, Cornubian and Redruth Times, 14 May 1904, p8.
  557. ^ a b Wrestling at the Winter gardens, Plymouth, Cornishman, 12 May 1904, p7.
  558. ^ Dublin born girl's versatility, Dublin Daily Express, 21 July 1915, p5.
  559. ^ a b Michigan - Cornish wrestling plans, Cornishman, 12 August 1915, p3.
  560. ^ Ahmeek wrestling tournament big sucess, Cornishman, 7 October 1915, p3.
  561. ^ "Evan Lewis' Cousin", Wisconsin State Journal, 10 August 1886, p4.
  562. ^ Cornish Wrestling, Western Morning News, 8 December 1926, p12.
  563. ^ "Cornish wrestling: Fred Richard's feat against Tani", Cornish Guardian, 26 November 1926, p4.
  564. ^ "Wrestling: Effect of feats by Cornishmen", Western Morning News, 23 December 1926, p10.
  565. ^ "Wrestling at Redruth", Cornish Guardian, 10 June 1927, p15.
  566. ^ a b A Cornish wrestler in Mexico, The Cornish Telegraph, 14 July 1892, p5.
  567. ^ Success of a Cornish wrestler in Mexico, Cornish Post and Mining News, 28 May 1892, p8.
  568. ^ a b Schiller Williams, Cornishman, 21 July 1892, p7.
  569. ^ Great Wrestling Match, Daily Anglo American, 14 April 1892, p2.
  570. ^ The Wallaroo Times and Mining Journal (Port Wallaroo, SA), 2 March 1878 .
  571. ^ Wrestling for the championship of Westland, WEST COAST TIMES, ISSUE 712, 4 JANUARY 1868, p2.
  572. ^ Champion wrestling match, The Wellington Independent, 18 January 1868, p5.
  573. ^ Once a champion, The Sun (Sydney, NSW), 22 October 1912, p10.
  574. ^ Death of Mr Frank Griffiths, Western Champion (Parkes, NSW), 24 October 1912, p20.
  575. ^ The Caledonian sports, Bendigo Advertiser (Vic), 27 December 1881, p2.
  576. ^ Wrestling, Sportsman (Melbourne, Vic), 20 June 1883, p2.
  577. ^ More Wrestling, WEST COAST TIMES, ISSUE 4120, 29 JUNE 1882, p2.
  578. ^ Wrestling, GREY RIVER ARGUS, VOLUME XXVI, ISSUE 4313, 29 JUNE 1882, p2.
  579. ^ Wrestling Match J Laurie V T Cantwell, The Inangahua Times, 18 May 1887, p2.
  580. ^ Black Point sports, NANGAHUA TIMES, 30 DECEMBER 1887, p2.
  581. ^ Wrestling, Bendigo Advertiser (Vic), 14 August 1905, p8.
  582. ^ CORNISH WRESTLING. Melbourne, Sunday, Zeehan and Dundas Herald (Tas) 14 August 1905, p3.
  583. ^ Wrestling, Leader (Melbourne, Vic), 29 July 1905, p17.
  584. ^ Wrestling, NEW ZEALAND HERALD, 16 September 1908, p5.
  585. ^ Mount Morgan, The Daily Northern Argus (Rockhampton, Qld), 7 February 1890, p3.
  586. ^ New Zealand Times, 9 June 1894 .
  587. ^ The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957), 2 July 1885.
  588. ^ Wrestling Championship, LYTTELTON TIMES, VOLUME LXXV, ISSUE 9310, 13 JANUARY 1891, p5.
  589. ^ a b Lewis and Ross matched, Cincinnati Tribune, 11 November 1893, p3.
  590. ^ a b c Wrestling in South Africa, Cornishman, 9 June 1904, p5.
  591. ^ Cornish Wrestlers un Johannesburg, West Briton and Cornwall Advertiser, 29 April 1897, p5.
  592. ^ a b c Cornish Wrestling in South Africa, The Cornish Telegraph, 11 May 1905, p6.
  593. ^ Sharpshooting around Camborne, Cornishman, 26 July 1894, p3.
  594. ^ Wrestling at Truro, Cornubian and Redruth Times, 20 July 1894, p5.
  595. ^ a b c d e f g h Wrestling in South Africa, The Cornish Telegraph, 2 February 1905, p8.
  596. ^ Cornish Wrestling in South Africa, Royal Cornwall Gazette, 04 January 1906, p4.
  597. ^ a b c Cornish Wrestling in South Africa, Cornishman, 9 February 1905, p4.
  598. ^ Wrestling tournament in Fordsburg S.A., Cornubian and Redruth Times - Saturday 11 February 1905, p10.
  599. ^ a b In South Africa, Amateur tournament in Johannesburg, Sporting Chronicle, 2 October 1916, p3.
  600. ^ Some Old Time Champions, Cornish Guardian, 19 September 1919, p3.
  601. ^ Mr W Prynne St Stephen-in-Brannel, Cornish Guardian, 29 October 1931, p10.
  602. ^ Lightweight champion of South Africa, The Cornish Telegraph, 12 January 1905, p8.
  603. ^ a b c d e Wrestling tournament in South Africa, Cornishman, 11 October 1906, p4.
  604. ^ Lanner, Royal Cornwall Gazette - Thursday 18 October 1906, p4.
  605. ^ Lanner wrestler in South Africa, Cornish Echo and Falmouth & Penryn Times, 12 October 1906, p8.
  606. ^ Cornish Wrestling, Cornish Post and Mining News, 15 June 1935, p8.
  607. ^ a b c Famous Cornish wrestler, Western Morning News, 10 April 1919, p7.
  608. ^ a b c Cornishmen in the Transvaal, Cornishman, 1 February 1906, p7.
  609. ^ The Cornish Sport, Cornubian and Redruth Times, 31 July 1924, p2.
  610. ^ Well known Cornish wrestler, Cornishman, 17 March 1949, p2.
  611. ^ a b A noted Cornish wrestler home from South Africa: The career of Almond Giles, Cornish Guardian, 12 July 1907, p3.
  612. ^ How Rand Cornishmen spent Christmas, Cornishman, 24 January 1907, p4.
  613. ^ St Dennis wrestlers in South Africa, Cornish Guardian 10 November 1905, p2.
  614. ^ a b Wrestling, Coolgardie Miner (WA), 12 March 1907, p4.
  615. ^ a b A St Dennis wrestler in South Africa, Cornish Guardian, 14 April 1905, p5.
  616. ^ Solved: mystery of a stolen wrestling trophy, The Western Morning News, 31 March 2010, p5.
  617. ^ a b Our South African Letter, Cornishman, 13 October 1910, p8.
  618. ^ Mr S Ham, Cornishman, 31 October 1946, p2.
  619. ^ Wrestling on the Rand, The Cornish Telegraph - Thursday 15 March 1906, p6.
  620. ^ a b c South Africa's new champion, Cornish Guardian, 14 January 1927, p3.
  621. ^ a b c Cornwall on the Reef a day with the wrestlers, Cornish Post and Mining News, 8 January 1927, p8.
  622. ^ a b Redruth mans success in South Africa, West Briton and Cornwall Advertiser, 6 January 1927, p7.
  623. ^ Wrestling champion of the Rand, West Briton and Cornwall Advertiser,5 November 1964, p16.
  624. ^ Home from South Africa, where her husband is wrestling champion, West Briton and Cornwall Advertiser, 1 October 1953, p12.
  625. ^ Cornish wrestling will be feature, Tacoma Times, 25 April 1912, p2.
  626. ^ Terse tales of the town, Ironwood News Record, 29 April, 1899, p15.
  627. ^ Rowett still champion, Cornish Post and Mining News, 30 March 1899, p5.
  628. ^ Wrestling Tournament to be hold inn Houghton, The Copper Country Evening News, 18 July 1898, p3.
  629. ^ The "Terrible Swede" defeated, Indianapolis Journal, 24 November 1899, p2.
  630. ^ Albany NY, Brooklyn Daily Eagle, 24 November 1899, p27.
  631. ^ Other Upper Peninsular sports, The Minneapolis journal, 4 February 1906, p5.
  632. ^ St Austell, Royal Cornwall Gazette, 28 January 1904, p5.
  633. ^ Person to wrestle Cornish style on fourth of July, The Calumet News, 24 June 1910, p2.
  634. ^ Cornish wrestling will be feature, The Tacoma Times, 25 April 1912, p2.
  635. ^ Wrestlers went draw at Bark River, Escanaba Daily Press, 26 June 1910, p1.
  636. ^ a b The stage, Montana Helena Independent, 11 December 1899, p2.
  637. ^ Threw four men, Cornish Post and Mining News, 8 June 1899, p7.
  638. ^ a b Wrestling, The Minneapolis journal, 11 June 1903, p8.
  639. ^ Wrestling, Winnipeg Tribune, 28 June 1901, p3.
  640. ^ Grass Valley, Cornishman, 25 July 1907, p3.
  641. ^ Daily Transcript, 3 July 1861.
  642. ^ Letters from the Transvaal, Cornishman, 13 May 1948, p4.
  643. ^ The annual wrestling, The Cornish Telegraph, 13 August 1873, p3.
  644. ^ Royal Cornwall Gazette, 9 August 1873.
  645. ^ Wrestling, The Cornish Telegraph, 14 July 1875, p4.
  646. ^ Wrestling in America, Western Morning News, 13 November 1861, p2.
  647. ^ Cornish Wrestlers in America, Royal Cornwall Gazette, 15 November 1861, p8.
  648. ^ Sacramento Daily Union, 14 June 1866.
  649. ^ Cornish Wrestlers in America, Sacramento Daily Union, 11 January 1868, p3.
  650. ^ Bill Pellew's Death, Cornubian and Redruth Times, 28 May 1908, p3.
  651. ^ Great mixed wrestling match, The Butte Daily Post, 1 July 1887, p2.
  652. ^ Salt Lake City Herald, 30 December 1912, p6.
  653. ^ Walkerville, James Williams dead, Cornubian and Redruth Times, 25 August 1906, p3.
  654. ^ A wrestling match, The Weekly Pioneer-Times, 9 June 1881, p3.
  655. ^ Grass Valley, Marysville Daily Appeal, 19 March 1903, p3.
  656. ^ The state wrestling tournament, Detroit Free Press, 27 November 1870, p1.
  657. ^ a b c Cornish wrestlers in America, Cornish Post and Mining News, 1 September 1898, p8.
  658. ^ Wrestling in California, Newcastle Guardian and Tyne Mercury, 8 December 1866, p8.
  659. ^ Jack Carkeek the Cornish wrestling wonder Cornubian and Redruth Times, 05 August 1905, p3.
  660. ^ a b Evening Star (Washington DC), 7 May 1926, p41.
  661. ^ a b Cornish wrestling in the United States Cornish & Devon Post, 5 October 1878, p8.
  662. ^ Wrestling in California, The Cornish Telegraph, 12 December 1866, p3.
  663. ^ The wrestling world, The Philadelphia Times, 13 October 1889, p10.
  664. ^ Wrestling in the United States, A Cornish champion, Cornishman, 3 October 1878, p6.
  665. ^ The wrestling championship of Cornwall, Cornishman, 21 June 1883, p6.
  666. ^ The wrestling match, Iowa County Democrat, 23 March 1883, p6.
  667. ^ Arrangement for a Great Wrestling Match wrestling, The Butte Weekly Miner, 25 July 1885, p2.
  668. ^ Wrestling, Cornubian and Redruth Times, 1 July 1888, p41.
  669. ^ Championship of the world wrestling match, Royal Cornwall Gazette, 24 June 1887, p6.
  670. ^ Gilbert won the match, The Anaconda standard, 25 May 1890, p5.
  671. ^ The field of sport, The Anaconda standard, 2 November 1890, p7.
  672. ^ Ishpeming, Waukesha Daily Freeman, 7 May 1926, p6.
  673. ^ a b Wrestling at Penzance, Royal Cornwall Gazette, 27 August 1886, p7.
  674. ^ a b Wrestling, Lake's Falmouth Packet and Cornwall Advertiser, 18 December 1886, p5.
  675. ^ Cornish wrestling matches, The Cornish Telegraph, 5 May 1887, p1.
  676. ^ Political matters, Cornubian and Redruth Times, 6 May 1887, p7.
  677. ^ Cornish wrestling matches, Cornish Echo and Falmouth & Penryn Times, 7 May 1887, p7.
  678. ^ Carkeek wins a match, Daily Alta California, 19 April 1886, p5.
  679. ^ a b Singular death of Durham Ivey, A Cornish wrestler, Cornishman, 20 December 1894, p6.
  680. ^ Cornish wrestler murdered, Cornishman, 17 February 1910, p8.
  681. ^ Richard Varcoe murdered, Cornubian and Redruth Times, 17 February 1910, p10.
  682. ^ Chasewater wrestling, Royal Cornwall Gazette, 2 September 1887, p5.
  683. ^ Would introduce boxing, The Clio Messenger,21 November 1912, p8.
  684. ^ Says he favors boxing, The Diamond Drill, 23 November 1912, p5.
  685. ^ The wrestling tournament, Gogebic Advocate, 26 July 1890, p6.
  686. ^ Wrestling in Michigan, Cornishman, 27 September 1894, p3.
  687. ^ A Gala Day, Reno Evening Gazette, 26 September 1895, p1.
  688. ^ Mining Fair, The record-union (California US), 25 February 1898, p41.
  689. ^ Tallywarren Notes, Cornish Post and Mining News, 22 September 1898, p7.
  690. ^ Wrestling match, The Aspen Tribune, 18 April 1899, p4.
  691. ^ Wants to fight Sharkey, The San Francisco call, 30 May 1899, p5.
  692. ^ Why wrestling has declined in America, Columbus Daily Herald, 7 July 1900, p3.
  693. ^ The Wrestling Championship of the world, Cornish & Devon Post, 09 July 1887, p3.
  694. ^ Wrestling match at Plymouth Carkeek vs Bragg, Cornishman, 25 August 1887, p5.
  695. ^ a b The Wrestling Championship, Cornish Echo and Falmouth & Penryn Times, 6 August 1887, p5.
  696. ^ The championship of the world, The Cornish Telegraph, 4 July 1889, p5.
  697. ^ Wrestling, The Sydney Mail and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW), 20 August 1887, p411.
  698. ^ The wrestling championship contests at Redruth, Royal Cornwall Gazette, 4 July 1889, p7.
  699. ^ a b Wrestling that disables, Boxing World and Mirror of Life, 5 June 1901, p14.
  700. ^ Great Wrestling match at Ishpenning Michigan, Cornishman, 2 October 1890, p3.
  701. ^ News from foreign mining camps, Cornishman, 16 November 1905, p3.
  702. ^ Wrestling Challenge - A wrestling challenge to whom it may concern, West Briton, 30 November 1886.
  703. ^ Wrestler Jack Carkeek, The Sunday Leader, Wilkes-Barre Pennsylvania, 21 December 1890, p7.
  704. ^ Sports of all sorts, The Anaconda Standard 29 March 1891, p9.
  705. ^ Jack Brady won, The Wheeling Register 22 December 1893, p1.
  706. ^ a b Jack Carkeek, the Cornish wrestling wonder, Cornubian and Redruth Times, 5 August 1905, p3.
  707. ^ Carkeek, Cornishman, 21 July 1887, p4.
  708. ^ Cornish wrestling, Cornishman, 21 April 1887, p4.
  709. ^ Cornwall, Royal Cornwall Gazette, 17 June 1887, p5.
  710. ^ Wrestling match at Southport, Apollo v Carkeek, Boxing World and Mirror of Life, 5 December 1900, p6.
  711. ^ Wrestler Carkeek in trouble, Daily Alta California, 5 November 1888, p8.
  712. ^ Jack Carkeek the Great (?) Cornish Wrestler, Turns Confidence Man and Robs His Best Friend, The Republican-Journal, 12 October 1888, p3.
  713. ^ Another charge against Carkeek, The Inter Ocean, 16 October 1888, p6.
  714. ^ Jack Carkeet arrested, Cornish Echo and Falmouth & Penryn Times, 23 September 1910, p8.
  715. ^ Serious charge against famous Cornish wrestler, Cornishman, 22 September 1910, p8.
  716. ^ Wrestler Carkeek in trouble, The Sun (Sydney, NSW), 11 March 1913, p9.
  717. ^ Carkeek in jail, Escanaba Daily Press, 2 February 1913, p1.
  718. ^ Dubuque Times 14, Sioux City Journal, 16 May 1884, p3.
  719. ^ The Montana man is Cornish champion of Colorado, The Anaconda Standard, 8 November 1891, p1.
  720. ^ Rowett-Harrington match will be hotly contested, The Calumet News, 5 October 1909, p6.
  721. ^ Carkeek in jail, Ironwood Times, 24 September 1937, p5.
  722. ^ a b Former Cornish champion still resides on Range, Ironwood Times, 3 June 1942, p22.
  723. ^ Name 3 area sports greats to Hall, Ironwood Daily Globe, 23 August 1990, p10.
  724. ^ Rowett still champion, Diamond Drill, 25 December 1909, p4.
  725. ^ Michigan, Cornishman, 14 April 1910, p6.
  726. ^ a b Michigan, Cornubian and Redruth Times, 23 June 1899, p8.
  727. ^ Can He Come Back, Iron Country news, 02 May 1914, p1.
  728. ^ Cornishmen will wrestle, The Madison daily leader, 20 July 1897, p1.
  729. ^ Champion Cornish wrestler of America: Jack Rowett won the title in Michigan, Cornish Post and Mining News, 17 February 1898, p5.
  730. ^ Butte city, Montanna, The Cornish Telegraph, 9 December 1909, p6.
  731. ^ Cornish wrestlers in America, The Cornish Telegraph, 25 November 1909, p3.
  732. ^ Jones was declared the victor over Rowett, The Anaconda standard, 10 December 1899, p8.
  733. ^ Cornish Wrestling, Cornish Post and Mining News, 12 October 1899, p6.
  734. ^ New World's Champion, The Anaconda standard, 21 September 1899, p10.
  735. ^ a b On Cornish Wrestling, Cornish Post and Mining News, 12 October 1899, p3.
  736. ^ The Butte Inter Mountain, 4 August 1902, p8.
  737. ^ San Francisco Call, 23 February 1898, p12.
  738. ^ Cornish wrestling notes, Cornish Post and Mining News, 20 July 1929, p7.
  739. ^ Celebrities I have seen, Cornish Post and Mining News, 17 August 1935, p7.
  740. ^ a b Cornish folk abroad, Cornishman, 10 July 1902, p3.
  741. ^ Cornish wrestling in Michigan, Cornish Post and Mining News, 30 July 1896, p6.
  742. ^ It is easy for Angove, Anaconda Standard, 11 May 1902, p11.
  743. ^ News from foreign mining camps, Cornish Post and Mining News, 11 August 1898, p6.
  744. ^ a b With the wrestlers, Waterbury Democrat, 16 August 1902, p7.
  745. ^ Interest in Wrestling Match, Cincinnati Commercial Tribune, 21 September 1898, p17.
  746. ^ With the wrestlers, the Cornish style will attract much attention, Waterbury Democrat, 14 February 1902, p7.
  747. ^ Boxing, Bryan morning eagle, 26 November 1905, Image 6, p6.
  748. ^ News from foreign mining camps, Cornishman, 5 October 1905, p2.
  749. ^ "Wrestling History: 1894". Pro Wrestling Illustrated. Retrieved 12 September 2016.
  750. ^ a b Arizona Weekly News, Arizona silver belt, 29 December 1904, p2.
  751. ^ a b Cornish Wrestling in America, Cornubian and Redruth Times, 12 March 1908, p10.
  752. ^ a b Grass Valley California, Cornishman, 19 March 1908, p3.
  753. ^ a b c d St Austell man's shocking death, Cornish Echo and Falmouth & Penryn Times, 28 January 1910, p6.
  754. ^ St Austell man's success in America, St. Austell Star, 13 April 1905, p4.
  755. ^ Burnt to a cinder, Lake's Falmouth Packet and Cornwall Advertiser, 28 January 1910, p2.
  756. ^ Cornishman burnt to death, Cornishman, 3 February 1910, p3.
  757. ^ Death levies toll in sport, The Daily Missoulian, 1 January 1911, p9.
  758. ^ a b Martin and Ziehr May wrestle on Good Friday, Cornubian and Redruth Times, 22 April 1905, p5.
  759. ^ The Calumet boy versus the champion, Cornish Post and Mining News, 29 September 1898, p6.
  760. ^ Michigan, Cornishman, 10 February 1910, p6.
  761. ^ B William versus Rowett, Camulet News, 21 February 1910, p8.
  762. ^ Michigan USA, Cornish Post and Mining News, 28 September 1899, p3.
  763. ^ Articles signed for bout here, Escanaba Morning Press, 13 August 1909, p3.
  764. ^ Benefit would be appreciated, Escanaba Morning Press, 7 December 1909, p1.
  765. ^ Eddie Blou is ready for bout with Mike Dooley, Escanaba Morning Press, 20 January 1910, p4.
  766. ^ Lehto wins in tough contest, Sault Ste Marie Evening, 24 May 1913, p5.
  767. ^ Johns, Christopher, Cheer like mad for Cornwall, the story of Cornish wrestling, Map X Visuals, 1995, p18-19.
  768. ^ Splendid program at Lowell club, Bisbee daily review, 9 April 1911, p10.
  769. ^ War Eagle winner of a mixed bout, Anaconda Standard, 5 September 1911, p2.
  770. ^ Sid Varney was good wrestling coach, Oredigger (US)— 4 April 1921 p3.
  771. ^ Rydholm, Fred: Harlow’s Wooden Man, Winter 1984.
  772. ^ Cornish wrestling a popular pursuit, The Mining Journal, 5 May 2021.
  773. ^ Rowett to handle bouts at Chicago, Ironwood Times, 1 October 1921, p1.
  774. ^ This U P Rassler floored first time when he meets Doc, Bessemer Herald, 31 August 1923, p42.
  775. ^ Cornish wrestlers at Honiton, Cornish Guardian, 3 September 1926, p6.
  776. ^ Crediton Wrestling Contest, Western Times, 22 April 1872, p3.
  777. ^ Wrestling and running, The Butte Miner, 7 July 1882, p3.
  778. ^ Butte Daily Miner, 7 January 1885, p4.
  779. ^ Wisconsin Eau Claire Daily Leader, 2 October 1883, p35.
  780. ^ New York Sun, 8 March 1886, p1.
  781. ^ The wrestling match, New York Clipper, 2 April 1892 , p57.
  782. ^ Wrestling, The Wichita daily eagle, 22 March 1892 , p2.
  783. ^ The Saint Paul globe, 26 February 1898.
  784. ^ Granite news notes, The Philipsburg Mail, 20 December 1888, p3.
  785. ^ Wrestling at Cardiff, South Wales Daily News, 27 September 1895, p6.
  786. ^ Swansea Jack, Liverpool Echo, 6 July 1985, p7.
  787. ^ a b The old Cornish pastime, Cornish Guardian, 27 June 1924, p7.
  788. ^ a b c d Cornish wrestling A magnificent gift, Cornish Post and Mining News, 27 September 1924, p4.
  789. ^ New enthusiasm for Cornish wrestling, Cornish Guardian, 21 March 1963, p8.
  790. ^ Another belt presented, Cornish Guardian, 17 October 1924, p6.
  791. ^ Retained county's lightweight wrestling championship, Cornish Guardian, 11 July 1963, p14.
  792. ^ Wadebridge wrestler wins featherweight title, Cornish Guardian, 1 August 1963, p11.
  793. ^ Cornish wrestling championship tournament, Cornish Guardian, 18 August 1938, p14.
  794. ^ Wrestling at Helston, Cornish Guardian, 10 September 1936, p14.
  795. ^ Wrestling, Cornish Post and Mining News, 12 September 1936, p3.
  796. ^ Wrestling finale, Cornish Guardian, 3 October 1924, p3.
  797. ^ "Grass Valley's St Pirans Day Celebration". Archived from the original on 16 February 2009. Retrieved 2011-08-19.

External links[edit]

article by Michael Tresillian