Cornus amomum

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Cornus amomum
Cornus amomum form 01.JPG
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Cornales
Family: Cornaceae
Genus: Cornus
Subgenus: Cornus subg. Kraniopsis
Species:
C. amomum
Binomial name
Cornus amomum

Introduction[edit]

Cornus amomum, the silky dogwood or kinnikinnik, is a species of dogwood native to eastern North America, from Ontario and Quebec south to Arkansas and Georgia.[1] It is also found in other parts of North America. Other names for this dogwood include red willow, silky cornel, squawbush, and indigo dogwood.

It is a deciduous shrub growing to 5 m tall. The leaves are opposite, up to 10 cm (4 in) long and 7 cm (2 34 in) broad, oval with an acute apex. The flowers are produced in cymes. The fruit is a small blue drupe.[2]

Classification[edit]

Silky dogwood is usually included in the dogwood genus Cornus as Cornus amomum Mill., although it is sometimes segregated in a separate genus as Swida amomum (Mill.) Small.

Depending on the author, two subspecies or species are generally recognized:

  • Cornus amomum Mill. subsp. amomum, or Cornus amomum Mill. - eastern + south-eastern United States.
  • Cornus amomum subsp. obliqua (Raf.) J.S. Wilson, or Cornus obliqua Raf. - eastern Canada, eastern + south-eastern United States.

Description[edit]

Cornus amomum is a shrub in the dogwood family, which grows in eastern North America. The plant is a shrub growing from roughly 6 ft to 12 ft in height and 6 ft to 12 ft in width. Cornus amomum usually blooms between May and June, producing 4 showy yellowish white flowers.[3]Cornus amomum leaves are rusty brown and pubescent,[4] occurring opposite from one another and usually having between 4 and 5 veins per leaf side.[5] If Cornus amomum is left unattended it will grow to create thickets and thick vegetative areas.

Taxonomy[edit]

Cornus amomum is categorized as an angiosperm eudicot, falling in the order of Cornales, the family of Cornaceae and finally the genus Cornus.

Distribution and Habitat[edit]

Cornus amomum is a native eastern North American shrub, finding suitable habitat in wetland areas like swamps, marshes and bogs.[3] The distribution of the shrub also extends west past the Mississippi river to the eastern borders of Kansas, Nebraska, and parts of northern Oklahoma. Cornus amomum is only found within the U.S. while other species such as the Cornus oblique can be found in Canada.[6]Cornus amomum prefers partial shade but can tolerate full sun.[7] When planted, the use of organic materials to maintain a wet environment will help the shrub when insufficient water is present. Cornus amomum is grows near or around creeks or water systems.[4] Cornus amomum can be found in the following states: West Virginia, Virginia, Vermont, South Carolina, Maine, Kentucky, Iowa, Indiana, Illinois, Georgia, Florida, District of Columbia, Delaware, Connecticut, Alabama, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania and Rhode Island. Cornus amomum has been found at elevations from 0 feet to 1500 feet of elevation.[8]

Conservation[edit]

Based on the IUCN Red List classification, The conservation status of Cornus amomum is a Least Concern plant.[8] While Cornus amomum is recognized as Least Concern across the eastern parts of North America, Indiana has Cornus amomum ranked as an endangered plant throughout the state.[9]

Uses[edit]

The dogwood family is desired for ornamental uses in landscapes across the United States. Dogwoods are valued by gardeners for their spring flowers, summer foliage, fruit and leaf color.[5] Each species of dogwood has their own unique look, Cornus amomum is a shrub which can be used in places of excess runoff or areas of water collection in a landscape as it thrives in moist to wet soil conditions. The shrub provides beautiful colors throughout the spring, summer and fall. Cornus amomum has also been used in the outdoors to help with erosion control along slopes and steep inclines, it can be planted by farmers and landowners to provide a windbreaks for homes and agriculture fields, its uses can include building natural borders between land and for wildlife conservation, and it can be used to provide habitat for many types of wildlife.[10] Finally, Cornus amomum can minimize stream bank erosion and add stabilization along bank when coupled together with other well rooted trees and shrubs like willows. Some problems can arise from the use of Cornus amomum as a natural border, mostly as a border for wildlife and livestock. While the shrubs create a useful barrier, grazing wildlife and livestock tend to damage much of the shrub when the fruit are ripe. Other than that, there are no impending diseases or pest which would pose any sort of problem for the shrub.[3]

Etymology[edit]

Cornus in Latin means horn, this is describing the dogwoods hard wood. Amomum in Latin means eastern spice.[11]

Wildlife[edit]

Cornus amomum is primarily used by song birds, insects and rodents for its fruits which are produced in summer. Other animals such as White-tailed deer, Elk, and other land dwelling mammals feast on the fruit as well. Cornus amomum uses the animals as a method of seed dispersal. As Cornus amomum fruit decay fruitivores tend to pick only the ripe fruit and seeds, which destroy good seeds that would otherwise be dropped and grow.[12]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Cornus amomum". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 29 December 2017.
  2. ^ "Wetland Shrubs". North Carolina State. Archived from the original on 2007-09-17.
  3. ^ a b c plants.usda.gov (PDF) https://plants.usda.gov/factsheet/pdf/fs_coam2.pdf. Retrieved 2018-12-07. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  4. ^ a b "Cornus amomum - Plant Finder". www.missouribotanicalgarden.org. Retrieved 2018-12-07.
  5. ^ a b Paul., Cappiello, (2005). Dogwoods : the genus Cornus. Shadow, Don. Portland, Or.: Timber Press. ISBN 0881926795. OCLC 56334031.
  6. ^ "Plants Profile for Cornus amomum (silky dogwood)". plants.sc.egov.usda.gov. Retrieved 2018-12-07.
  7. ^ "Cornus amomum Mill. — The Plant List". www.theplantlist.org. Retrieved 2018-12-07.
  8. ^ a b "The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 2018-12-07.
  9. ^ "DNR: Endangered Plant and Wildlife Species". www.in.gov. Retrieved 2018-12-07.
  10. ^ "ePIC - Detailed results from IPNI for Cornus amomum". epic.kew.org. Retrieved 2018-12-07.
  11. ^ "Latin Definition for: amomum, amomi (ID: 3144) - Latin Dictionary and Grammar Resources - Latdict". www.latin-dictionary.net. Retrieved 2018-12-07.
  12. ^ Borowicz, Victoria A. (1988-07). "Do Vertebrates Reject Decaying Fruit? An Experimental Test with Cornus amomum Fruits". Oikos. 53 (1): 74. doi:10.2307/3565665. ISSN 0030-1299. Check date values in: |date= (help)