|Red osier dogwood bearing fruit|
|Subgenus:||Cornus subg. Kraniopsis|
|Natural range of subsp. sericea|
|Natural range of subsp. occidentalis|
C. stolonifera, Swida sericea
Cornus sericea, the red osier or red-osier dogwood, is a species of flowering plant in the family Cornaceae, native to much of North America. It has sometimes been considered a synonym of the Asian species Cornus alba. Other names include red brush, red willow, redstem dogwood, redtwig dogwood, red-rood, American dogwood, creek dogwood, and western dogwood.
In the wild, it most commonly grows in areas of rich, poorly drained soils, such as riparian zones and wetlands, or in upland areas which receive more than 20 inches of precipitation annually. More uncommonly, it may be found in drier zones albeit at lesser abundance. Red osier dogwood is tolerant of flooding and has been known to survive up to seven years of water above root crown level. It occurs from sea level to 10,000 feet (3,000m), but in many areas is most common above 1,500 feet.
It is a medium to tall deciduous shrub, growing 1.5–4 m tall and 3–5 m wide, spreading readily by underground stolons to form dense thickets. The branches and twigs are dark red, although wild plants may lack this coloration in shaded areas.
The leaves are opposite, 5–12 cm long and 2.5–6 cm broad, with an ovate to oblong shape and an entire margin; they are dark green above and glaucous below; fall color is commonly bright red to purple. Like all dogwoods, they have characteristic stringy white piths within the leaf stalks, which can be used for identification.
The flowers are small (5–10 mm diameter), flat, umbella-like and dull white, in clusters 3–6 cm diameter.
Red osier dogwood provides food and cover for many species of mammals and birds. The stems and especially new shoots are browsed by moose, elk, bighorn sheep, mountain goats, beavers, and rabbits, while the fruits are an important autumn food source for bears, small mammals, and 47 different bird species. In winter, red osier dogwood is heavily browsed by ungulates; in some areas use exceeds availability and individuals which have not been browsed are rare. The shrub is also important for nesting habitat and cover for a great variety of animals.
Cornus sericea is shade tolerant but prefers intermediate to high light levels. It tolerates disturbance well, and appears early in both primary and secondary succession throughout its native range, but especially in floodplains and riparian zones. It thrives in fire-disturbed sites, sprouting from seeds or damaged shrubs.
Cornus sericea is a popular ornamental shrub that is often planted for the red coloring of its twigs in the dormant season. The cultivars 'Bud's Yellow', 'Flaviramea' with lime green stems, and 'Hedgerows Gold' (variegated foliage) have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit (confirmed 2017).
Like most dogwood species native to North America, C. sericea can be parasitized by the dogwood sawfly, possibly leaving much of the plant devoid of leaves. A variety of pesticides are effective; however, hand-picking the larvae is also an option.
Cornus sericea is frequently used for waterway bank erosion protection and restoration in the United States and Canada. Its root system provides excellent soil retention, it is hardy and provides an attractive shrub even when bare in winter, and its ability to be reproduced by cuttings makes it a low-cost solution for large-scale plantings.
Known as cansasa in Lakota, the inner bark was also used by the Lakota and other Native Americans as "traditional tobacco", either by itself or in a mixture with other plant materials. Among the Algonquian peoples such as the Ojibwe, the smoking mixtures, known as kinnikinnick, blended the inner bark with tobacco, while more western tribes added it to the bearberry leaf to improve the taste.
The Ojibwe used red-osier dogwood bark as a dye by taking the inner bark and mixing it with other plants or minerals.
The withies, or osiers, are used in basketry.
It is a variable species, with two subspecies commonly accepted:
- Cornus sericea subsp. sericea – throughout the range of the species. Shoots and leaves hairless or finely pubescent; flower petals 2–3 mm.
- Cornus sericea subsp. occidentalis (Torr. & A.Gray) Fosberg – western North America. Shoots and leaves densely pubescent; flower petals 3–4.5 mm.
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It is native throughout boreal and temperate zones in northern and western North America from Alaska east to Newfoundland, south to Durango and Nuevo León in the west, and Illinois and Virginia in the east.
- "Cornus sericea". NatureServe Explorer. NatureServe. Retrieved 2021-05-11.
- BSBI List 2007 (xls). Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Archived from the original (xls) on 2015-06-26. Retrieved 2014-10-17.
- USDA NRCS Plant Guide: REDOSIER DOGWOOD. May, 2006
- Hilger, Inez (1951, repr. 1992) Chippewa Child Life and Its Cultural Background, page 63
- Hart, Jeff, and Jacqueline Moore (1992). Montana—native plants and early peoples, pages 38–39. Montana Historical Society. ISBN 0-917298-29-2
- Corey, Gucker. "Fire Effects Information System". Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory. U.S. Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 5 May 2021.
- Fertig, Walter. "Plant of the Week- Red Osier Dogwood". USDA Forest Service. Retrieved 5 May 2021.
- Harrison, Lorraine (2012). RHS Latin for gardeners. United Kingdom: Mitchell Beazley. p. 224. ISBN 9781845337315.
- "RHS Plantfinder – Cornus sericea 'Bud's Yellow'". Retrieved 30 January 2018.
- "RHS Plant Selector – Cornus sericea 'Flaviramea'". Retrieved 1 May 2020.
- "RHS Plantfinder – Cornus sericea 'Hedgerows Gold'". Retrieved 30 January 2018.
- "AGM Plants – Ornamental" (PDF). Royal Horticultural Society. July 2017. p. 16. Retrieved 24 January 2018.
- Moerman, Daniel E. (1998) "Cornus sericea ssp. occidentallis" Native American ethnobotany Timber Press, Portland, Oregon, page 178, ISBN 0-88192-453-9
- Hunn, Eugene S. (1990). Nch'i-Wana, "The Big River": Mid-Columbia Indians and Their Land. University of Washington Press. p. 353. ISBN 0-295-97119-3.
- "Herbal lore: Red Osier Dogwood". Archived from the original on 2012-05-11. Retrieved 2011-04-29.
- Cutler, Charles L. (2002) Tracks that speak: the legacy of Native American words in North American culture, page 176. ISBN 0-618-06510-5
- Staff (2009) "Bearberry" Archived 2010-12-18 at the Wayback Machine Discovering Lewis and Clark The Lewis and Clark Fort Mandan Foundation
- Hackney, P. 1992. "Stewart & Corry's Flora of the North-east of Ireland." Third edition. Institute of Irish Studies, The Queen's University of Belfast. ISBN 0-85389-446-9 (HB)
Media related to Cornus sericea at Wikimedia Commons
- "Cornus sericea". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA).
- NRCS: USDA Plants Profile: Cornus sericea
- Jepson Flora of California: Cornus sericea; subsp. sericea, subsp. occidentalis.
- Cornus sericea ssp. sericea images at bioimages.vanderbilt.edu