Coronation Mass (Mozart)
The Krönungsmesse (German for Coronation Mass) (Mass No. 15 in C major, K. 317; sometimes Mass No. 16), composed in 1779, is one of the most popular of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's 17 extant settings of the Ordinary of the Mass. This setting, like the majority of Mozart's mass settings, is a Missa brevis, or short mass (as opposed to the more formal Solemn Masses or High Masses, known as Missae solemnes).
The Mass in C Major was completed on March 23, 1779 in Salzburg. Mozart had just returned to the city after 18 months of fruitless job hunting in Paris and Mannheim, and his father Leopold promptly got him a job as court organist and composer at Salzburg Cathedral. The mass was almost certainly premiered there on Easter Sunday April 4, 1779. Contrary to a popular misconception, it was not intended for the church of Maria Plain near Salzburg.
The KV 317 mass appears to have acquired the nickname "Coronation" at the Imperial court in Vienna in the early nineteenth century, after becoming the preferred music for royal and imperial coronations as well as services of Thanksgiving. Whether it was performed at the coronations of Leopold II in 1790 and Francis II in 1792, as some sources assume, is unlikely.
It was famously performed in St. Peter's Basilica in the Vatican City on 29 June 1985, with Pope John Paul II leading the proceedings, and Herbert von Karajan conducting the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra.
The work is scored for SATB soloists and chorus, 2 violins, "Bassi", 2 oboes, 2 horns, 2 trumpets, timpani, 3 trombones (which reinforce the alto, tenor and bass) and organ. Notable is the lack of violas, typical of music written for Salzburg, and the vague name "basses" for the stave shared by organ, bassoon (specified only in the Credo), Cello and Double bass. Among the original parts is one for "Violone", a slippery term sometimes implying a 16' bass but also used for the 8' Bass violin.
The Kyrie, Gloria and Credo all begin emphatically in C-major with an engaging rhythm. The soloists contrast with the larger forces of the choir, often as a quartet. Of note in this regard are the central Adagio section of the Credo at Et incarnatus est, and the surprise of the Benedictus after the chorus has already declaimed the Hosanna. These musical breaks mimic what is occurring in the Mass at these points, and serve to link the music to the proper forum for which it was intended: The Traditional Roman Catholic Mass. Rubrics require the congregation to change from a standing position to a kneeling position at the 'incarnatus' out of respect for the Incarnation of Christ: hence the musical break. Similarly, only the first verse of the 'Sanctus' is sung before the Consecration, the 'Benedictus' verse is required to be sung afterward, according to the rubrics of the Mass. This required rubrical division often results in the verses appearing in music as two separate movements, although they are thematically joined. In the Credo, Mozart introduces the trombones for the Crucifixus and using a chromatic fourth in the bass. The soprano solo of the Agnus Dei exhibits melodic similarities to and may foreshadow "Dove sono", the Countess' main aria from Le nozze di Figaro.
- Karl Pfannhauser, "Mozarts ‘Krönungsmesse’." Mitteilungen der Internationalen Stiftung Mozarteum 11, no. 3-4 (1963): 3-11
- Black 2007, pp. 198-243.
- Heartz 2009, p. 662
- Koo, Samuel (June 26, 1985). "Von Karajan, Vienna Philharmonic To Join Pope in Musical Mass". Associated Press. Retrieved October 2014.
- Jasmin Melissa Cameron (2006). The Crucifixion in Music: An Analytical Survey of the Crucifixus between 1680 and 1800 Contextual Bach Studies No. 1, The Scarecrow Press, Inc. p. 193
- Daniel Heartz (2009). Mozart, Haydn and Early Beethoven: 1781 — 1802 New York: W. W. Norton & Co.
- David Ian Black (2007). Mozart and the Practice of Sacred Music, 1781-91 (Ph. D. thesis). Harvard University.
- Missa in C KV 317: Score and critical report (German) in the Neue Mozart-Ausgabe
- Free scores of the Coronation Mass, KV 317 in the Choral Public Domain Library (ChoralWiki)
- Mass in C major, K.317: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project
- Download in OGG format (Creative Commons Licence)